We report a case series of neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis and describe the serologic verification for Bartonella henselae. This is a retrospective interventional case series of four patients who presented in the ophthalmology clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from June 2012 to March 2013. All four patients had a history of contact with cats and had fever prior to ocular symptoms. Each patient presented with neuroretinitis characterized by optic disc swelling with macular star. Serology analysis showed strongly positive for B. henselae in all of the patients. All patients were treated with oral azithromycin (except case 4, who was treated with oral doxycycline), and two patients (case 1 and case 3) had poor vision at initial presentation that warranted the use of oral prednisolone. All patients showed a good visual outcome except case 3. Vision-threatening ocular manifestation of cat scratch disease can be improved with systemic antibiotics and steroids.
Study site: Ophthalmology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the QTc interval between low and high dose methadone groups and evaluate the pattern of QTc variation.
METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from December 2010 till August 2011 at Malaysian University of Science's Hospital. Forty six subjects, grouped in high dose (>80mg) and low dose (<80mg) oral methadone, were followed-up at 4-weekly for QTc measurements. Relevant demographic and biochemical profiles were taken at intervals with concurrent QTc measurements.
RESULTS: No significant QTc differences between methadone dosage groups were found at Week 0 (434ms vs 444ms, p = 0.166) and week 8 (446.5ms vs 459ms, p = 0.076), but not at week 4(435ms vs 450ms, p = 0.029). However, there were significant associations between the groups with QTc prolongation at week 0 and 4 (OR 4.29(95% CI 1.01, 18.72) p=0.044 and OR 5.18 (95% CI 1.34, 20.06) p =0.013, respectively) but not at week 8 (OR 2.44 (95% CI 0.74, 8.01) p=0.139). On multivariate analysis, dose group was the sole significant factor for QTc prolongation for week 0 and 4 (p values 0.047 and 0.017, respectively), but not at week 8.
CONCLUSION: High-dose methadone group is more likely to develop prolonged QTc than low-dose group. However, such effects were inconsistent and occurred even during chronic methadone therapy, mandating judicious QTc and serum methadone monitoring.
KEYWORDS: High Dose; Low Dose; Methadone; QTc
Objectives: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody has recently been used in the classification
of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This antibody is more specific than rheumatoid factor (RF) for the diagnosis of RA. The study objectives were to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of anti-CCP in RA diagnosis.
Methodology: Eighty RA patients and 80 non-RA individuals were included in the study. Blood was collected from both arms of study subjects and tested for anti-CCP and RF antibodies. Relevant clinical information and laboratory profiles of the RA patients were evaluated using patients’ medical records and Integrated Laboratory Management System (ILMS), respectively.
Results: The sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP were 35% and 100% respectively. The positive and
negative predictive values were 100% and 61%, respectively. Positive anti-CCP was found significantly
associated with multiple joint pain (p < 0.001) and hand’s joints pain (p=0.01), symmetrical joints
involvement (p=0.015) and high CRP value (p < 0.001). Anti-CCP was also found to have positive association with RF (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Anti-CCP is highly specific for the diagnosis of RA. High positive predictive value should be taken into consideration for effective treatment.
KEY WORD: Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-CCP, Rheumatoid factor, Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value.
Study site: Rheumatology Unit, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Aspirin use is known to reduce the recurrence of stroke. However, the clinical response to aspirin has been mixed. The rate of stroke recurrence whilst on aspirin treatment is still unacceptably high. A plausible explanation for this may be resistance to the effects of aspirin. The causes of aspirin resistance are manifold and multi-factorial. We conducted a study to investigate the prevalence rate of biochemical aspirin resistance in a cohort of aspirin-naïve stroke patients. We also sought to determine the inherent factors that may predispose towards the development of aspirin resistance.
METHOD: This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted on patients admitted to our centre with an acute stroke who were aspirin-naïve. The diagnosis of an acute stroke was confirmed by clinical history and brain imaging. Fifty consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled. Socio-demographic data were collected and baseline blood investigations were performed. Patients were tested for biochemical aspirin resistance using Multiplate platelet analyser (Dynabyte, Munich, Germany) after 5 doses of aspirin, corresponding to a total dose of 900 mg.
RESULTS: The median age of patients was 65.5 years and 54 % of patients were female. There were 11 smokers; of these 10 were male. Twenty-six (52 %) patients were Chinese, 21 (41 %) were Malay and 3 (6.0 %) were Indian. Aspirin resistance was present in 14 % of our patients. There was an inverse relationship between the presence of aspirin resistance and plasma HDL levels (r = -0.394; p = 0.005). There was no relationship observed between aspirin resistance and total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HbA1c, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine levels. There were no significant differences in demographic profiles or smoking status between the aspirin resistant and non-aspirin resistant groups. We did not find any link between ethnicity and aspirin resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a lower HDL level is associated with biochemical aspirin resistance. This may increase platelet aggregation and consequently increase the risk of a recurrent stroke. The clinical implications for aspirin resistance are far reaching. Any evidence that correctable factors may negatively influence the action of aspirin warrants further investigation. The prevalence rate of biochemical aspirin resistance in our study is comparable to the findings in other studies performed in an Asian population. Further research is required to determine how our findings translate into clinical aspirin resistance and stroke recurrence.
KEYWORDS: Asia; antiplatelet therapy; aspirin; aspirin resistance; developing countries; ischaemic stroke; risk factors
A review of rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood reveals that the pattern and results of treatment have changed with the introduction of multimodal therapy. Outcome in our series have been poor due to advanced disease, poor compliance to follow up resulting from poor socio-economics and educational levels of our patients and their faith in traditional medicine. Improvement in the prognosis can only be anticipated with earlier diagnosis and reduction in defaulter rate.
Despite evidence showing that structured rehabilitation after stroke improves functional outcomes, providing seamless rehabilitation from hospital to community has been elusive. The service provided should be able to accommodate variable degree of impairments and needs of the stroke survivors. This study aimed to assess the outcome of a multidisciplinary-based outpatient rehabilitation service for stroke patients living in the community. Patients who were discharged from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre after an acute stroke were referred to the Combined Stroke Rehabilitation Clinic (CSRC). Post stroke patients were assigned individually designed programs which were problem based and used task specific activities to achieve desired goals. Patients were reviewed on a regular basis either up to completion of the 2 year program, or are able to be discharged to the community, whichever is earlier. Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and Berg Balance Scores (BBS) were used for monitoring. A total of 68 patients were managed in CSRC for two years since its initiation, with mean age of 62.4 years (SD 12.4) with the mean duration of stroke when first reviewed in CSRC was 11.5 months (SD 11.9). Majority of patients (64.7%) received either two or three types of intervention. Both MBI and BBS demonstrated significant improvement over 12-months period (p value of 0.006 and 0.017 respectively). CSRC proved that structured rehabilitation intervention was beneficial in terms of functional status and improvement in balance to post-stroke patients.
Study site: Combined Stroke Rehabiltation clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
31 cases of ocular toxoplasmosis were seen at the Ophthalmology Clinic, Uniuersiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur during a one-and-a-half year period. All these cases were diagnosed as congenital ocular toxoplasmosis. As this condition appears not to be uncommon in. Malaysia, greater effort should be made towards its prevention especially among pregnant women.
Study site: Ophthalmology Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
INTRODUCTION: Although the Feldenkrais method of rehabilitating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been suggested, its use among practitioners is not widespread owing to preference of the more familiar standard program presently available. Several advantageous of the Feldenkrais Method have been suggested which includes improving the efficiency of movement, posture and, breathing. However how this compares to the standard rehabilitation protocol or pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) have not been previously demonstrated. The present study was thus conducted to compare the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method to the standard PRP using Borg score and 6 minute walked distance (6MWD) as outcome measurement tools.
RESULTS: There were 17 subjects in the Feldenkrais group (FG) and 19 subjects in the pulmonary group (PG), both of which received therapy for 8 weeks and assessed before and after receiving therapy. There were no improvements observed in the Borg score for the FG (after and before; 6.06+ 1.09 vs. 6.00+0.94). However, improvements in the PG group could be seen (after and before; 3.58+ 1.17 vs. 5.84 +1.01). Improvements in the 6MWD was observed in both groups with no significance differences noted (FG vs. PG; 379+129m vs. 374+80m).
CONCLUSION: The Feldenkrais method does not offer any advantage over the present PRP and in fact the latter offers better improvement in terms of the Borg score. However in view of the small study sample, further study would be needed before a final conclusion can be made.
Study site: Respiratory clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Stroke is among the main cause of death and loss of work capability in Malaysia. Government hospitals statistic shows drastic increase of stroke cases and deaths resulting from it. Hospital Kuala Lumpur's statistic recorded about 30% to 35% fatality in cases of stroke. The study was carried out to identify the level of stroke recovery and its associated factors. The study was carried out at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) and National Stroke Association of Malaysia (NASAM). The sampling method was universal sampling and respondents were interviewed using guided questionnaire. The stroke recovery was studied to identify the relationshiP with social support, age, coping, stroke severity and lifestyle. The response rate of this study was 50.3%. A total of 47.0% ofstroke patient received high stroke recovery. Among five factors studied, three factors have shown the significant relationship with stroke recovery; coping style OR 0.293 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.129·0.668, P "0.004); lifestyle, OR 0.347 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.154· 0.782, p" 0.01) dan social support OR 0.291 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.128· 0.664, P"0.004), Establish significant relationshiP of stroke recovery with three studied factors which were social support, coping style and lifestyle. Most of the stroke patients in this study are retirees and housewives. These three factors are required further attention to ensure stroke patients recover.
Key words: Recovery, stroke, social support, coping, lifestyle
A medical audit is defined as a systematic and critical analysis carried out by doctors looking at the things that doctors do. The concept of auditing is relatively new to the medical profession. It is indeed an excellent instrument to institute change to medical practices which have been "institutionalized". A properly carried out audit can provide highly revealing data that can often sway an administrator to institute change. At the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur we chose to audit the paediatric attendances at high risk deliveries. High risk deliveries were defined as any delivery to which the obstetrician requested a paediatric attendance prior to delivery. A paediatrician must be on hand at all high risk deliveries to ensure proper resuscitation of the new born. The aim of the audit was to determine if paediatric attendance at high risk deliveries were optimal at the University Hospital. (Copied from article).
A prospective study of 92 children with poisoning admitted to University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur is reported. Majority of the affected children were below 3 years of age and belonged to low income families. Household items, especially kerosene, and medications were most often implicated. All children recovered completely. Preventive strategies are discussed.
At the University Hospital only 24.3% of Malays, 3.8% Chinese and 5.9% Indians are fully breast fed at 6-8 weeks postnatally. The majority of Chinese infants are exclusively on infant formula (68.6%) and this holds true for the Indians (52.9 %).These figures were obtained 3-4 months after the introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital. Comparing our data with previous studies we believe that there has been a decline in breast feeding in urban Kuala Lumpur, especially amongst the Indians and Chinese.
Background: A randomised clinical trial was carried out to study the cost-effectiveness of continuous venovenous hemofiltration using high volume and standard volume.
Methods: Study was done through interviews involving patients or their relatives and document review on patients’ treatment and progress note during the hemofiltration therapy in the Intensive Care Unit, Hospital University Kebangsaan Malaysia. Study also involved secondary data analysis and a structured questionnaire survey to assess the treatment and medical cost incurred by the hospital during the continuous venovenous hemofiltration therapy.
Results: The result of this study showed that the continuous venovenous hemofiltration given at high volume 4-6 litres/hour is more cost effective than standard volume of 2 litres/hour. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score reduction in the high volume hemofiltration is 3.0 units over 24 hours. This reduction is higher than the standard volume hemofiltration which is only 0.5 unit over 24 hours.
Conclusions: High volume hemofiltration is more cost effective than standard volume therapy, where only RM 5,552 compared to RM 23,512 is needed for every one unit of SOFA score reduction respectively.
Detection of neuraxial abnormality in neurologically asymptomatic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is crucial prior to surgery. It can only be detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was not routinely done in this group of patient. On the other hand, whole spine radiographs for measurement of Cobb angle have been routinely included during clinic follow-up. This study aimed to determine the correlation between Cobb angle progression and neuraxial abnormality finding on MRI in asymptomatic AIS.
AIM: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a recognised cause of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and identifying which infants are at risk could optimise care and resources. In this study, we determined if G6PD enzyme activity (EA) and certain gene variants were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy during the first week after birth.
METHODS: Newborn infants with G6PD deficiency and a group with normal results obtained by the fluorescent spot test were selected for analyses of G6PD EA and the 10 commonly encountered G6PD mutations in this region, relating these with whether the infants required phototherapy before discharge from the hospital in the first week.
RESULTS: A total of 222 infants with mean gestation and birth weight of 38.3 ± 1.8 weeks and 3.02 ± 0.48 kg, respectively, were enrolled. Of these, n = 121 were deficient with EA ≤6.76 U/g Hb, and approximately half (43%) received phototherapy in the first week after birth. The mean EA level was 3.7 U/g Hb. The EA had good accuracy in predicting phototherapy use, with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.81 ± 0.05. Infants on phototherapy more commonly displayed World Health Organization Class II mutations (<10% residual EA). Logistic regression analysis showed that deficiency in EA and mutation at c.1388G>A (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5 and 5.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-1.76 and 1.30-25.0, respectively) were independent risk factors for phototherapy.
CONCLUSION: Low G6PD EA (<6.76 U/g Hb) and the G6PD gene variant, c.1388G>A, are risk factors for the need of phototherapy in newborn infants during the first week after birth.
Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is highly toxic and poisoning can result in high mortality rates. A 26-year-old female who allegedly ingested a toxic dose of ALP presented with vomiting and diarrhoea. She developed cardiac arrest with refractory pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Despite aggressive resuscitation, she succumbed to death seven hours following ingestion. In cases like this, a better outcome can be achieved with early arrival, prompt diagnosis, aggressive resuscitation and intensive monitoring.
"Cauliflower Ears" describes the appearance of swelling of the auricular cartilage resulting in gross distortion of the auricle. The underlying pathology is inflammation of the auricular cartilage. We report a case of a patient who presented to the ophthalmology clinic with an ocular inflammation, whose subsequent diagnosis of replapsing polychondritis was clinched with the finding of "Cauliflower Ears". This case emphasizes the importance of an appropriate general examination of ophthalmic patients for early diagnosis and prompt institution of medical treatment, which may prevent life-threatening complications to the patient.
Study site: Eye clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
OBJECTIVE: To look for any possible coexistence of CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and KCNN3 gene mutations in migraine patients who had human platelet HPA-1a/1b polymorphism, which is also known as PlA1/A2 polymorphism.
METHODS: The study was carried out at the Neurology Clinic, Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between April 2004 and March 2005. The DNA from 4 patients who had migraine with the HPA1a/1b polymorphism were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using the allele specific oligonucleotide technique to detect the presence of CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and KCNN3 genotypes.
RESULTS: We found that the CACNA1A gene mutation alone was present in only one patient who presented with classical migraine with aura. The gene mutations on ATP1A2 and KCNN3 were seen in none of our 4 cases with migraine.
CONCLUSION: There is no coexistence between the platelet HPA-1a/1b polymorphism and the ATP1A2 and KCNN3 gene mutations, though one classical migraine patient with HPA-1a/1b polymorphism had the CACNA1A gene mutation. Larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Study site: Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring in hypotensive shock patients presenting to the ED.
METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in a tertiary ED. One hundred three adults in shock with hypotension presenting to the ED were recruited into the study. They were grouped according to different types of shock, hypovolemic, cardiogenic, septic and others. Vital signs and ETCO2 were measured on presentation and at 30-min intervals up to 120 min. Blood gases and serum lactate levels were obtained on arrival. All patients were managed according to standard protocols and treatment regimes. Patient survival up to hospital admission and at 30 days was recorded.
RESULTS: Mean ETCO2 for all patients on arrival was 29.07 ± 9.96 mmHg. Average ETCO2 for patients in hypovolemic, cardiogenic and septic shock was 29.64 ± 11.49, 28.60 ± 9.87 and 27.81 ± 7.39 mmHg, respectively. ETCO2 on arrival was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, MAP, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate when analyzed in all shock patients. Early ETCO2 measurements were found to be significantly lower in patients who did not survive to hospital admission (p = 0.005). All patients who had ETCO2 ≤ 12mmHg died in the ED. However, normal ETCO2 does not ensure patient survival.
CONCLUSION: The use of ETCO2 in the ED has great potential to be used as a method of non-invasive monitoring of patients in shock.
Study site: Emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia
An analysis of 524 unclaimed prescriptions (which contributed 0.9% of the total prescriptions) showed that 23.8% were for vitamins, 17.7% for anti-inflammatory drugs, 16.4% medications for skin and mucous membrane and 9.9% for antibiotics. The unclaimed prescription rates varied inversely to the staff-strength working in the dispensary. Sixty-eight point nine per cent of the unclaimed drugs could be purchased at the pharmacy shops without doctor's prescription.