Fifty-five core marine sediments from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea of coastal East Malaysia were analyzed for heavy metals by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The enrichment factor and the modified degree of contamination were used to calculate the anthropogenic and pollution status of the elements in the samples. The enrichment factor of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn varied from 0.42-4.26, 0.50-2.34, 0.31-0.82, 0.20-0.61, 0.91-1.92, 0.23-1.52, and 0.90-1.28, respectively, with the modified degree of contamination values below 0.6. Comparative data showed that coastal East Malaysia has low levels of contamination.
A pilot study on 250 foreign workers was undertaken during a 7-month period beginning December 1996. The sample of subjects mainly males (88.8%) was selected on a non-probability basis from two sources i.e. from University of Malaya (72.8%) and PEREMBA group (27.2%). The study was a clinic-based and a face-to-face interview was carried out to elicit information on social, demographic, environmental, medical and recent illness using a structured questionnaire. Physical examinations were also performed on the same day of the interview. Subjects were also required to give their stool, venous blood, and urine specimens for microbiological, parasitological and clinical laboratory investigations. Chest X-Rays was done on ail subjects. The other investigators had already reported findings on the various specific areas of the study. In this part of the report attempt was made to relate the infectious diseases to some of the socio-environtnental variables on the 112 Indonesian, 133 Bangladeshi workers. Some aspects of health seeking behaviour of these foreign workers were also presented. Most of the Indonesian workers (84%) were from Jawa Timua and Jambi, Sumatra, while majority of the Bangladeshis (67.7%) were from two neighboring administrative districts of Dhaka and Chittagong. Majorities of the Indonesians (50.0%) were working in service industry, while 53.5% Bangladeshis were in the manufacturing. One-fifth of the workers lived in squatter areas, and nearly half of them were working for the service industry. About 70% of the workers had at least one infection. The proportion was slightly higher among the Indonesians (72.3%) compared to the Bangladeshis (67.7%). It is of interest to point out that 40.0% had multiple infections. Thirteen had five or more infections (details for the two of the 13 cases are presented as case studies). However, the findings did not indicate any association between sanitation and infections. Risk for transmission was developed based on the number of infections in the person. The Indonesian workers carried a higher risk of transmitting the diseases (33.9%) compared to 19.5% among the Bangladeshi workers. Those working in the construction industry were at a higher risk of transmitting the diseases compared to other industries. Slightly more than half of the workers experienced some form of minor illness or injury during the two-week period preceding the interview. Majority sought private care (43.1%), while 42.3% either self-medicate or did nothing al all. Nearly two-thirds paid out of their own pocket. Among the employers, construction sector made negligible contribution (2.9%) to the payment. It is interesting to find that 41.0% of the workers took some form of health suppletnents, and majority (48.4%) got it from the phartnacy or traditional sources. Nearly all (88.5%) paid on their own for the health supplements. The findings from this pilot project need to be interpreted with solne caution. However, it appears that the foreign workers carry sizeable anlount of health problems. If these are not addressed quickly it may eudanger the health of a nation, while we readily acknowledge their contribution towards our national development.
Gempa bumi pada 30 September 2009, dengan kekuatan 7.6 MW yang melanda Bandar Padang, Padang Pariaman dan wilayah Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, telah mengorbankan lebih daripada 1200 orang. Ribuan buah rumah, bangunan dan infrastruktur lain telah mengalami kerosakan tahap ringan hingga teruk. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan kesan gempa bumi Padang terhadap kerosakan bangunan dan tanah runtuh yang berlaku pada kawasan Bandar Padang, Padang Pariaman, Pariaman dan Agam. Kesan gempa bumi ini dianalisis berdasarkan data geologi, geoteknik dan impak geo-bencana yang telah dikumpulkan daripada berbagai sumber dan hasil kajian lapangan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa kerosakan di kawasan bandar Padang dan Padang Pariaman lebih disebabkan oleh kualiti bangunan yang tidak memenuhi piawaian bangunan dan pengaruh geologi kawasan, iaitu berlakunya amplifikasi tanah disebabkan oleh endapan aluvium yang tebal. Kerosakan teruk pada bangunan antara lainnya dikaitkan dengan kehadiran jalur-jalur sesar kecil atau ketakselanjaran pada lapisan bawah tanah. Beberapa kejadian tanah runtuh besar yang berlaku di Pariaman dan Agam adalah disebabkan oleh geologi kawasan, geomorfologi dan morfologi cerun yang curam. Kajian lanjut diperlukan bagi mengenal pasti dan menilai risiko bencana untuk persediaan menghadapi bencana gempa bumi di masa hadapan.
The incidence of Plasmodium vivax infection has declined markedly in Malaysia over the past decade despite evidence of high-grade chloroquine resistance. Here we investigate the genetic changes in a P. vivax population approaching elimination in 51 isolates from Sabah, Malaysia and compare these with data from 104 isolates from Thailand and 104 isolates from Indonesia. Sabah displays extensive population structure, mirroring that previously seen with the emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum founder populations in Cambodia. Fifty-four percent of the Sabah isolates have identical genomes, consistent with a rapid clonal expansion. Across Sabah, there is a high prevalence of loci known to be associated with antimalarial drug resistance. Measures of differentiation between the three countries reveal several gene regions under putative selection in Sabah. Our findings highlight important factors pertinent to parasite resurgence and molecular cues that can be used to monitor low-endemic populations at the end stages of P. vivax elimination.
This study examines the impact of economic growth, corruption, health, and poverty on environmental degradation for three countries from ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand using annual data over the period of 1994-2014. The relationship between environmental degradation (pollution) by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic growth is examined along with some other variables, namely health expenditure, poverty, agriculture value added growth, industrial value added growth, and corruption. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is applied as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The empirical results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non-cointegration, indicating that all variables play an important role in affecting the environment across countries. Empirical results also indicate that economic growth has significant positive impact, while health expenditures show significantly negative impact on the environment. Corruption has significant positive effect on environment in the case of Malaysia; while in the case of Indonesia and Thailand, it has insignificant results. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the regression estimate suggests that economic growth has a significant positive relationship with environment for Indonesia, while it is found insignificantly negative and positive in the case of Malaysia and Thailand, respectively, during the period under the study. Empirical findings of the study suggest that policy-makers require to make technological-friendly environment sequentially to surmount unregulated pollution, steady population transfers from rural areas to urban areas are also important, and poverty alleviation and better health provision can also help to improve the environment.
For over 2 decades, until the economic crisis in mid-1997, Malaysia's rapid economic growth attracted an influx of foreign labor, mostly from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. In 1997 the number of registered workers was estimated at 1.2 million and undocumented ones at approximately 800,000. The influx created various problems, of which housing is one of the most serious, especially in the Kelang Valley. This paper examines the ways and means by which Indonesian workers, the largest group among foreigners, overcame their accommodation problem. Two types of settlements are identified, that is, illegal ones in the squatter areas and legal ones, which are largely in Malay Reservation Areas. The settlements, which signify Indonesians' success in finding a foothold in Malaysia, today have become a base for more in-migration.
To describe the incidence, mortality, cost, and length of stay (LOS) of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in three Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
A comparative study of five periodic human strains of Brugia malayi, originating from India, China, Korea, Malaysia and Indonesia, is given. This morphological analysis is based on males; the "standard" characters (oesophagus, papillae, spicules...) appear identical. On the contrary, the cuticular ornamentation of the posterior region--which is composed of the area rugosa and of a system of bosses and constitutes a secondary non-skid copulatory apparatus--differs following the geographical origin of the strain. A key is given, based on this character. 1(2) At 800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail, numerous cuticular bosses present on the right side of the body (fig. 2 and 8 B). 2(1) At 800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail, cuticular bosses absent or scarce on the right side of the body (fig. 8 D). 3(4) At 1,800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail (fig. 4), scarce and slightly projecting cuticular bosses on the dorsal side of the body contrasting with well projecting lateral cuticular bosses (fig. 9 E and F). Anterior extremity of the area rugosa made by a few stripes of tiny bosses linked transversally (fig. 9 A). 4(3) At 1,800-2,200 micron, numerous cuticular bosses on the dorsal side of the body (figs. 5, 6 and 7). Anterior extremity of the area rugosa made by the stripes of longitudinal rods (fig. 9C). 5(6) Oblong transversally stretched cuticular bosses on the dorsal and left sides of the body, anteriorly to the area rugosa (fig. 5); big oblong bosses on the left side (fig. 9 B). Transversal wrinkles and stripes of rods absent on the dorsal side of the body. 6(5) Round cuticular bosses on the dorsal and left sides of the body anteriorly to the area rugosa (figs. 6 and 7): no big oblong bosses on the left side. Transversal wrinkles or stripes of rods present on the dorsal side of the body (fig. 9 D). Nomenclaturally, such differences could be used in defining different taxa, but it could be useful to perform "blind determination" (material without labelling), to study conveniently the morphology of microfilariae (often an excellent indication for speciation in that group of Nematodes) and, evenly, to proceed to parallel studies on isoenzymes. However, whatever could be the taxonomical conclusion, the differences observed in Brugia malayi originating from different regions appear to the sufficient to consider the existence of four distinct diseases.
Histoplasmosis caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is often lethal in patients with AIDS. Urine antigen testing is highly sensitive and much quicker for diagnosis than culture. Histoplasmosis has a patchy and incompletely appreciated distribution around the world especially in South East Asia. We conducted a systematic literature review of cases of all disease forms of histoplasmosis in SE Asia, not including the Indian sub-continent. We also reviewed all histoplasmin skin test mapping studies to determine localities of exposure. We found a total of 407 cases contracted or likely to have been contracted in SE Asia. Numbers of cases by country varied: Thailand (233), Malaysia (76), Indonesia (48) and Singapore (21), with few or no cases reported in other countries. Most cases (255 (63%)) were disseminated histoplasmosis and 177 (43%) cases were HIV associated. Areas of high histoplasmin skin test sensitivity prevalence were found in Myanmar, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam - 86.4%, 26.0%, 63.6%, 36.0% and 33.7%, respectively. We have drawn maps of these data. Further study is required to ascertain the extent of histoplasmosis within SE Asia. Diagnostic capability for patients with HIV infection is urgently required in SE Asia, to reduce mortality and mis-diagnosis as tuberculosis.
The nature of culture-specific startles syndromes such as "Latah" in Indonesia and Malaysia is ill understood. Hypotheses concerning their origin include sociocultural behavior, psychiatric disorders, and neurological syndromes. The various disorders show striking similarities despite occurring in diverse cultural settings and genetically distant populations. They are characterized clinically by exaggerated startle responses and involuntary vocalizations, echolalia, and echopraxia. Quantifying startle reflexes may help define Latah within the 3 groups of startle syndromes: (1) hyperekplexia, (2) startle-induced disorders, and (3) neuropsychiatric startle syndromes. Twelve female Latah patients (mean age, 44.6 years; SD, 7.7 years) and 12 age-, sex- and socioeconomically matched controls (mean age, 42.3 year; SD, 8.0) were studied using structured history taking and neurological examination including provocation of vocalizations, echolalia, and echopraxia. We quantified auditory startle reflexes with electromyographic activity of 6 left-sided muscles following 104-dB tones. We defined 2 phases for the startle response: a short latency motor startle reflex initiated in the lower brain stem <100/120 ms) and a later, second phase more influenced by psychological factors (the "orienting reflex," 100/120-1000 ms after the stimulus). Early as well as late motor startle responses were significantly increased in patients compared with controls (P ≤ .05). Following their startle response, Latah patients showed stereotyped responses including vocalizations and echo phenomena. Startle responses were increased, but clinically these proved insignificant compared with the stereotyped behavioral responses following the startle response. This study supports the classification of Latah as a "neuropsychiatric startle syndrome."
A revision of the genus Leopoldamys is presented, and both the species composition and distribution in Indochina and Sundaic regions is reinvestigated. The phylogeny of the genus is recovered based on Cyt b, COI, and IRBP gene analyses. Five basal and 16 secondary monophyletic phylogenetic lineages were identified. A taxonomic reassessment of the continental and Sundaic populations is performed based on morphological verification of the genetically defined clades. Six clades were recovered in the phylogenetic analyses and correspond to morphologically defined species: L. revertens (distributed in lowlands of eastern and central Indochina), L. herberti (western and central Indochina, northward to northern Vietnam), L. edwardsi (China and northern Vietnam, northward of 21 degrees N), L. milleti (endemic of Dalat Plateau, southern Vietnam), L. sabanus (Borneo), and L. vociferans (lowlands of the Malacca Peninsula, northward to southwestern Thailand). The absence of proper L. sabanus in continental Indochina is revealed. The substitute name for the species known from the majority of Indochina under the name of L. sabanus should be L. revertens. The name L. neilli, which has been ascribed to populations from Thailand and Vietnam, is a junior synonym of L. herberti. Two related but rather divergent clades are found in Sumatra and the Malacca Peninsula. Based on their considerable genetic distances, these forms should be regarded as separate species from the L. sabanus type-bearing populations of Borneo, or as the members of L. sabanus polytypic superspecies. The substitute name for the lineage-bearing taxon from Malacca should be L. vociferans. The continental populations of Leopoldamys can be distinguished from each other by external and cranial characters and may be subdivided into four species. Two of these species (L. revertens and L. milleti) are well distinguished by external and cranial morphology, whereas the other two species (L. herberti and L. edwardsi) may be treated as sibling species that are difficult to distinguish based on morphological characters.
This revision completes a taxonomic survey of fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the area encompassed by Australia, the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (West Irian/Papua), Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji. It finalises the taxonomic issues arising from the 1969–70 voyage of the scientific vessel Alpha Helix to New Guinea. The firefly fauna of this area is exclusively Luciolinae. The scope of the revision was extended to include all known Luciolinae genera and certain species from SE Asia, and a phylogenetic analysis of 436 morphological characters of males, females, and associated larvae includes 142 Luciolinae species (Ballantyne & Lambkin 2009, and Fu et al. 2012a). The phylogenetic analyses infer four major groups within the Luciolinae. The monotypic Missimia Ballantyne is sister to all remaining Luciolinae and forms a grade to Aquatica Fu etBallantyne. The large clade of Curtos Motschulsky, Photuroluciola Pic, Colophotia Motschulsky, Poluninius gen. nov., Pyrophanes Olivier, Pteroptyx s. str. Olivier, Medeopteryx gen. nov., Trisinuata gen. nov., and Australoluciola gen. nov.forms a grade to the clade of Luciola s. str. Laporte (including Bourgeoisia Olivier). The monotypic Emeia Fu et al.forms a grade with a clade of Luciola and Pygoluciola Wittmer, sister to a large clade of Convexa Ballantyne, Pacifica gen. nov., Magnalata Ballantyne, Lloydiella Ballantyne, Asymmetricata Ballantyne, Pygatyphella s. str. Ballantyne, Atyphella Olliff, Aquilonia Ballantyne, and Gilvainsula Ballantyne. Luciola is paraphyletic, found in up to six clades across the tree. Together with Luciola, Magnalata, Aquilonia, and Gilvainsula render Atyphella paraphyletic. The new genera described here are all monophyletic and supported in the phylogenetic analyses that also provide evidence for the inclusion of taxa within them. Twenty-three genera including five new ones, and ten new species, are recognised and keys are presented for the males and females. Certain females are characterised by the nature of their bursa plates. Australoluciola gen. nov. is proposed for ten species from Australia and New Guinea, seven transferred from Luciola and three new, with species keyed from males, all of which have an entire light organ in ventrite 7. Aus. anthracina (Olivier), Aus. aspera (Olivier), Aus. australis (F.), Aus. flavicollis (MacLeay), Aus. foveicollis (Olivier), Aus. nigra (Olivier) and Aus. orapallida (Ballantyne) are transferred from Luciola with males assigned to Aus. aspera(Olivier), and a lectotype designated for Luciola foveicollis Olivier; Aus. baduria sp. nov., Aus. fuscamagna sp. nov.,Aus. fuscaparva sp. nov., Aus. japenensis sp. nov. and Aus. pharusaurea sp. nov. are described. Females of Aus. australis and Aus. flavicollis have two pairs of wide bursa plates. The bent-winged fireflies of New Guinea and Australia are removed from Pteroptyx Olivier and assigned to Medeopteryx gen. nov. and Trisinuata gen. nov. Medeopteryx gen. nov. is erected for 17 species including two new; all have ventrite 7 with an entire light organ, trisinuate posterior margin and short posterolateral projections; the following 14 species in which males have deflexed elytral apices are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier: M. amilae (Satô), M. antennata (Olivier), M. corusca (Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), M. elucens (Ballantyne), M. flagrans (Ballantyne), M. fulminea (Ballantyne), M. hanedai (Ballantyne), M. platygaster (Lea), M. similisantennata(Ballantyne), M. sublustris (Ballantyne), M. tarsalis (Olivier), and M. torricelliensis (Ballantyne). M. clipeata sp. nov. is described. Two species without deflexed elytral apices include M. pupilla (Olivier) which is transferred from Luciola, and M. similispupillae sp. nov. A Lectotype is designated for Luciola pupilla (Olivier). Females of M. corusca(Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), and M. similispupillae sp. nov. have two pairs of wide bursa plates. The second genus including species in which the males have deflexed elytral apices is Trisinuata gen. nov., where all males have light organ in ventrite 7 bipartite and posterolateral projections expanded; it is proposed for eight New Guinean species: T. microthorax (Olivier), T. minor (Ballantyne), T. papuae (McDermott) and T. similispapuae(Ballantyne) are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier, T. papuana (Olivier) previously known only from a female, has males associated and is transferred from Luciola, and T. caudabifurca sp. nov., T. dimidiata sp. nov. and T. apicula sp. nov. are described. Females of T. similispapuae (Ballantyne) have two pairs of wide bursa plates. Luciola s. str. is defined by scoring the type species L. italica (L), Bourgeoisia Olivier and Lampyroidea (based on its type species syriaca Costa) both of which are submerged into Luciola; Luciola s. str is addressed here from four Pacific Island species: L. hypocrita Olivier, L. antipodum Bourgeois both transferred from Bourgeoisia; L. aquilaclarasp. nov. and L. oculofissa sp. nov. are described. L. oculofissa sp. nov. is the only Luciolinae male known to lack light organs. Females of L. italica and L. hypocrita lack bursa plates.Pacifica gen. nov. is proposed for five species from the Solomon Islands transferred from Pygatyphella(Ballantyne), and which the phylogenetic analysis shows to be distinctive viz. P. limbatifusca (Ballantyne), P. limbatipennis (Pic), P. plagiata (Blanchard), P. russellia (Ballantyne), and P. salomonis (Olivier). A monotypic genus Poluninius gen. nov. is proposed for Pol. selangoriensis sp. nov. from Selangor, Malaysia. The genera Colophotia, Pteroptyx, Pyrophanes, and Pygoluciola are treated in an abbreviated fashion with generic diagnoses, lists of, and keys to, species. Pteroptyx bearni Olivier and P. tener Olivier are characterised from type specimens and female bursae and P. similis Ballantyne is synonymised with P. bearni. Luciola semilimbata Olivier is transferred to Pyrophanes, and Luciola cowleyi Blackburn to Pygoluciola. The following species are treated as species incertae sedis: L. melancholica Olivier, L. ruficollis Guérin-Ménéville. The New Guinean records of Luciola tenuicornis Olivier, L. timida Olivier and Photinus cinctellus Motschulsky are suspect. Fifteen of the species treated here are recognised by flashing patterns. The functions of the terminal abdominal modifications, origins of the Australopacific firefly fauna, and use of female and larval characters in interpretations of relationships are considered.
DDT indoor residual sprayings in the Province of Central Java, Indonesia, for the past 28 years are reoieuied in terms ofAnopheles aconitus resistance to DDT and incidences of malaria. DDT resistance by An. aconitus has continued to increase and spread since its first detection in Central Java in 1962. In most areas malaria transmission is perennial, which appears to be not interrupted by DDT residual spraying of inner walls because of DDT resistance. In searching for alternatives to DDT, fenitrothion was the most effective residual compound among five insecticides tested in village scale trials, giving control for about 13 weeks at 2 g/m2. Because the target species rests largely on the lower portions of walls, when applied at 2 g/m2 to only one horizontal swath between 10 and 85 cm from the ground, this compound was effective for over two months, about one-third less than that found in full coverage applications. For a single application this selective method reduced the amount of insecticide by 65 percent and manpower by 43 percent, and three applications, to compensate for less residual effectiveness, will reduce insecticide use by about 50 percent and manpower by 15 percent, compared to two applications with full coverage. Further field investigations on application of insecticides and the ecology of the DDT-resistant vector continue to be needed in Central Java to reduce further the cost of residual sprayings in malaria control programmes. This review also suggests the possibility of other selective spraying methods and anti-vector methods applicable at the village level by the community.
With the increasing ease of travel and the passage of peoples between counkies there is a need to ensure that the recipient country is not burdened by the need for care of ilniiiigrant with health problems as well as the increased risk posed to the local population froni exposure to conun~unicabled isease. To assess the chest radiographs of a selected group of inun~igrantsto ascertain the presence of abnormalities especially the presence of tuberculosis. A total of 250 imniigrants were prospectively evaluated by a PA chest radiograph. The chest radiograph was evaluated by two radiologists for the presence of abnormalities of the heart, lungs, mediastinum and bony rib cage. There were 112 Indonesians, 133 Bangladeshis, one Myanmar, three Pakistanis and one others. Males made-up 222 while there were 28 females. The chest radiograph was diagnostic in all cases. There were 13 cases with enlarged hearts but with no evidence of heart failure. There was only a single inlmigrant who had evidence of active TB though there were 6 others who had evidence of old disease. There was evidence of other infections in five. With regard to the mediastinuni there was a single case with enlarged hila probably secondary to increased cardiac output. There were 21 patients with scoliosis of the spine and two with abnormaIities of the ribs. Even though there was a single case with evidence of TB from this pilot study, from unreported data from the UMMC, there were 15,16 and 23 immigrants treated for TB for 1994,1995 and 1996 respectively. This was mainly seen in the Indonesians followed by the Bangladeshis and Myanmar. We attribute this discrepancy to the biased salnpie in this study where probably only the healthy were seen while those who were not well did not want to participate in this study. In addition, this may also be due to the small sample used in this study. We feel that screening of the immigrants out in the field may be able to detect cases of active TB. As for the large hearts we feel that in the absence of any cardiac symptoms and other radiological changes these are probably due to the increased workload on the heart from physical activities. This is a recognised presentation. The changes in the mediastinum and bony rib cage are probably not very significant.
Some diatoms of the genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Nitzschia produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), a compound that caused amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans just over 30 years ago (December 1987) in eastern Canada. This review covers new information since two previous reviews in 2012. Nitzschia bizertensis was subsequently discovered to be toxigenic in Tunisian waters. The known distribution of N. navis-varingica has expanded from Vietnam to Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Australia. Furthermore, 15 new species (and one new variety) of Pseudo-nitzschia have been discovered, bringing the total to 52. Seven new species were found to produce DA, bringing the total of toxigenic species to 26. We list all Pseudo-nitzschia species, their ability to produce DA, and show their global distribution. A consequence of the extended distribution and increased number of toxigenic species worldwide is that DA is now found more pervasively in the food web, contaminating new marine organisms (especially marine mammals), affecting their physiology and disrupting ecosystems. Recent findings highlight how zooplankton grazers can induce DA production in Pseudo-nitzschia and how bacteria interact with Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 2012, new discoveries have been reported on physiological controls of Pseudo-nitzschia growth and DA production, its sexual reproduction, and infection by an oomycete parasitoid. Many advances are the result of applying molecular approaches to discovering new species, and to understanding the population genetic structure of Pseudo-nitzschia and mechanisms used to cope with iron limitation. The availability of genomes from three Pseudo-nitzschia species, coupled with a comparative transcriptomic approach, has allowed advances in our understanding of the sexual reproduction of Pseudo-nitzschia, its signaling pathways, its interactions with bacteria, and genes involved in iron and vitamin B12 and B7 metabolism. Although there have been no new confirmed cases of ASP since 1987 because of monitoring efforts, new blooms have occurred. A massive toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom affected the entire west coast of North America during 2015-2016, and was linked to a 'warm blob' of ocean water. Other smaller toxic blooms occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and east coast of North America. Knowledge gaps remain, including how and why DA and its isomers are produced, the world distribution of potentially toxigenic Nitzschia species, the prevalence of DA isomers, and molecular markers to discriminate between toxigenic and non-toxigenic species and to discover sexually reproducing populations in the field.