Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 1753 in total

  1. Lavinya AA, Razali RA, Razak MA, Mohamed R, Moses EJ, Soundararajan M, et al.
    Haematologica, 2021 06 01;106(6):1758-1761.
    PMID: 33179475 DOI: 10.3324/haematol.2020.268581
    Not available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Yap PSX, Ahmad Kamar A, Chong CW, Yap IKS, Teh CSJ
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2020 06;21:246-251.
    PMID: 32304769 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2020.03.024
    BACKGROUND: Resistance to colistin, the last line therapy for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, represents a major public health threat. Citrobacter freundii B9-C2 which was isolated from the stool of preterm neonate on the first week of life, displayed resistance to almost all major antibiotics, including colistin. Through whole genome sequencing (WGS), we characterised the genome features that underline the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of this isolate.

    METHODS: Genome of C. freundii B9-C2 was sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. The assembled genome was annotated and deposited into GenBank under the accession number CP027849.

    RESULTS: Multiple antimicrobial resistance genes including blaCMY-66 were identified. Further, the presence of 15 antibiotic efflux pump-encoding resistance genes, including crp, baeR, hns, patA, emrB, msbA, acrA, acrB, emrR, mdtC, mdtB, mdtG, kdpE, mdfA and msrB, were detected and likely to account for the observed cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and monobactams resistance in C. freundii B9-C2. The isolate also presented unique virulence genes related to biofilm formation, motility and iron uptake. The genome was compared to publicly available genomes and it was closely related to strains with environmental origins.

    CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal carriage of colistin-resistant C. freundii from the stool of a neonate in Malaysia. Using genomic analysis, we have contributed to the understanding of the potential mechanism of resistance and the phylogenetic relationship of the isolates with draft genomes available in the public domain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Lai NM, Lee SWH, Wai SX, Teh ZW, Chan MY, Lim YS, et al.
    Neonatology, 2020;117(6):687-693.
    PMID: 33264799 DOI: 10.1159/000511656
    BACKGROUND: Neonates with jaundice are usually managed according to their serum bilirubin despite an unclear overall correlation between bilirubin levels and patient-important outcomes (PIOs) such as kernicterus spectrum disorder (KSD).

    OBJECTIVES: We examined data from Cochrane Neonatal reviews to assess whether conditions that constituted KSD were included as key outcomes and how commonly they occurred in the population studied.

    METHODS: We identified Cochrane reviews, published till November 2017 that evaluated interventions for neonatal jaundice (NNJ). We extracted the following information at the review and study levels: included population, outcomes assessed (in particular, whether PIOs such as KSD were listed as the primary outcomes), as well as their cumulative incidence in the reviews.

    RESULTS: Out of 311 reviews, 11 evaluated interventions for NNJ with 78 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included. Among the reviews, a total number of 148 outcomes were predefined and 30 (20.3%) were PIOs related to KSD, with 11 (36.7%) listed as primary outcomes. Among the 78 included RCTs (total participants = 8,232), 38 (48.7%) enrolled predominantly high-risk and 40 (51.3%) enrolled predominantly low-risk population. A total number of 431 outcomes were reported, and 40 (9.2%) were PIOs related to KSD (of which 37 were from studies with high-risk infants), with 13 (32.5%) listed as primary outcome. Cumulatively, no infant developed KSD across all studies.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is suboptimal representation of PIOs such as KSD in neonatal trials and Cochrane reviews on NNJ. Over half of the trials included populations with very low risk of KSD, which does not represent judicious use of resources. Amidst our continued search for a more reliable surrogate marker for NNJ, studies should evaluate the whole spectrum KSD alongside serum bilirubin in high-risk populations with sufficiently significant event rates, as this will make the trial methodologically feasible, with findings that will impact the population concerned.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Sinniah D, Sandiford BR, Dugdale AE
    Clin Pediatr (Phila), 1972 Dec;11(12):690-2.
    PMID: 4639314
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases/etiology; Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology*
  5. Smith G
    Family Practitioner, 1978;3:10-12.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Arifin A, Thambiah SC, Abdullah H, Samsudin IN
    Clin Chem, 2021 06 01;67(6):823-826.
    PMID: 34059896 DOI: 10.1093/clinchem/hvab031
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Thambusamy E, Thambidorai CR, Nah SA, Gan CS, Wang J, Singaravel S, et al.
    J Pediatr Surg, 2022 Feb;57(2):199-202.
    PMID: 34857376 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.10.029
    BACKGROUND: Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is seen in patients after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) repair owing to reduction of thoracic contents into the relatively smaller abdominal cavity. In infants, IAP ≥11 mmHg is considered intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). We aim to determine the incidence of IAH and its relationship with duration of ventilatory support, and gastrointestinal function post CDH repair.

    METHODS: We prospectively recruited all neonates who had CDH repair in four hospitals in Malaysia from June 2018 to October 2020. Intra vesical pressure was used as a proxy for IAP and was measured for 5 consecutive days post surgery. The daily median value was used for analysis. We categorized IAP as <11 mmHg (no IAH), 11-15 mmHg (IAH), and >15 mmHg (severe IAH). Incidence of IAH, its effects on the duration of ventilatory support, and gastrointestinal function were studied.

    RESULTS: There were 24 neonates included in this study. They were operated between day 1 and 6 of life (median: 4 days old). IAH was detected within the first 3 days post surgery, with 83% occurring on day one. Those requiring ventilatory support for more than 3 days contributed the largest proportion of IAH (n = 17, 71%). There was strong correlation between days of IAH and duration of ventilation (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Azmi JA, C Thambiah S, Lee YL, Zahari Sham SY, Abdul Hamid H, Samsudin IN
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2023 Jan;59(1):185-187.
    PMID: 36222293 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.16243
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Halder D, Abdullah WA, Johari MR, Choo KE
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Feb;34(1):85-6.
    PMID: 8266140
    We report a neonate with melioidosis. The presentation, progress and treatment are described, followed by a discussion on melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Koh MT, Lim CT
    Singapore Med J, 1991 Aug;32(4):230-2.
    PMID: 1775999
    While it is not difficult to recognise the classical clinical features of congenital syphilis in most cases, some of them may present with unusual manifestations which can defy early diagnosis. We report our experience with 13 cases of early congenital syphilis over a period of 10 years from 1980 to 1989. Twelve of the thirteen patients were less than 3 months at presentation. There were two infants born prematurely and six of the babies were born with a low birthweight (less than 2.5 kg). All but four patients survived following treatment. Skin lesions either in the form of typical vesiculobullous eruption over the palms and soles or a maculopapular skin rash over the body were the most common presentation and was seen in 10 patients. Splenomegaly with or without hepatomegaly was the most consistent physical sign. Radiological changes in the form of periostitis and/or metaphysitis were seen in all cases where an X-ray of the long bones was performed. An elevated serum immunoglobulin M, though non-specific for the disease, was found to be a useful screening test for recent infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Muhd Helmi MA, Lai NM, Van Rostenberghe H, Ayub I, Mading E
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2023 May 04;5(5):CD013841.
    PMID: 37142550 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013841.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Central venous catheters (CVC) are associated with potentially dangerous complications such as thromboses, pericardial effusions, extravasation, and infections in neonates. Indwelling catheters are amongst the main risk factors for nosocomial infections. The use of skin antiseptics during the preparation for central catheter insertion may prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). However, it is still not clear which antiseptic solution is the best to prevent infection with minimal side effects.

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the safety and efficacy of different antiseptic solutions in preventing CRBSI and other related outcomes in neonates with CVC.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and trial registries up to 22 April 2022. We checked reference lists of included trials and systematic reviews that related to the intervention or population examined in this Cochrane Review.  SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion in this review if they were performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and were comparing any antiseptic solution (single or in combination) against any other type of antiseptic solution or no antiseptic solution or placebo in preparation for central catheter insertion. We excluded cross-over trials and quasi-RCTs.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods from Cochrane Neonatal. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included three trials that had two different comparisons: 2% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropyl alcohol (CHG-IPA) versus 10% povidone-iodine (PI) (two trials); and CHG-IPA versus 2% chlorhexidine in aqueous solution (CHG-A) (one trial). A total of 466 neonates from level III NICUs were evaluated. All included trials were at high risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence for the primary and some important secondary outcomes ranged from very low to moderate. There were no included trials that compared antiseptic skin solutions with no antiseptic solution or placebo. CHG-IPA versus 10% PI Compared to PI, CHG-IPA may result in little to no difference in CRBSI (risk ratio (RR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 3.25; risk difference (RD) 0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.06; 352 infants, 2 trials, low-certainty evidence) and all-cause mortality (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.68; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.06; 304 infants, 1 trial, low-certainty evidence). The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of CHG-IPA on CLABSI (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.07 to 15.08; RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.11; 48 infants, 1 trial; very low-certainty evidence) and chemical burns (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.24 to 4.48; RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.03; 352 infants, 2 trials, very low-certainty evidence), compared to PI. Based on a single trial, infants receiving CHG-IPA appeared less likely to develop thyroid dysfunction compared to PI (RR 0.05, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.85; RD -0.06, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.02; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 17, 95% CI 10 to 50; 304 infants). Neither of the two included trials assessed the outcome of premature central line removal or the proportion of infants or catheters with exit-site infection. CHG-IPA versus CHG-A The evidence suggests CHG-IPA may result in little to no difference in the rate of proven CRBSI when applied on the skin of neonates prior to central line insertion (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.87; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.13; 106 infants, 1 trial, low-certainty evidence) and CLABSI (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.34 to 3.84; RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.15; 106 infants, 1 trial, low-certainty evidence), compared to CHG-A. Compared to CHG-A, CHG-IPA probably results in little to no difference in premature catheter removal (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.19; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.13; 106 infants, 1 trial, moderate-certainty evidence) and chemical burns (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.47 to 2.03; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.18; 114 infants, 1 trial, moderate-certainty evidence). No trial assessed the outcome of all-cause mortality and the proportion of infants or catheters with exit-site infection.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on current evidence, compared to PI, CHG-IPA may result in little to no difference in CRBSI and mortality. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of CHG-IPA on CLABSI and chemical burns. One trial showed a statistically significant increase in thyroid dysfunction with the use of PI compared to CHG-IPA. The evidence suggests CHG-IPA may result in little to no difference in the rate of proven CRBSI and CLABSI when applied on the skin of neonates prior to central line insertion. Compared to CHG-A, CHG-IPA probably results in little to no difference in chemical burns and premature catheter removal. Further trials that compare different antiseptic solutions are required, especially in low- and middle-income countries, before stronger conclusions can be made.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Jayaraj VJ, Ng CW, Bulgiba A, Appannan MR, Rampal S
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2022 Nov;16(11):e0010887.
    PMID: 36346816 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0010887
    Malaysia has reported 2.75 million cases and 31,485 deaths as of 30 December 2021. Underestimation remains an issue due to the underdiagnosis of mild and asymptomatic cases. We aimed to estimate the burden of COVID-19 cases in Malaysia based on an adjusted case fatality rate (aCFR). Data on reported cases and mortalities were collated from the Ministry of Health official GitHub between 1 March 2020 and 30 December 2021. We estimated the total and age-stratified monthly incidence rates, mortality rates, and aCFR. Estimated new infections were inferred from the age-stratified aCFR. The total estimated infections between 1 March 2020 and 30 December 2021 was 9,955,000-cases (95% CI: 6,626,000-18,985,000). The proportion of COVID-19 infections in ages 0-11, 12-17, 18-50, 51-65, and above 65 years were 19.9% (n = 1,982,000), 2.4% (n = 236,000), 66.1% (n = 6,577,000), 9.1% (n = 901,000), 2.6% (n = 256,000), respectively. Approximately 32.8% of the total population in Malaysia was estimated to have been infected with COVID-19 by the end of December 2021. These estimations highlight a more accurate infection burden in Malaysia. It provides the first national-level prevalence estimates in Malaysia that adjusted for underdiagnosis. Naturally acquired community immunity has increased, but approximately 68.1% of the population remains susceptible. Population estimates of the infection burden are critical to determine the need for booster doses and calibration of public health measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Lilyasari O, Goo HW, Siripornpitak S, Abdul Latiff H, Ota H, Caro-Dominguez P
    Pediatr Radiol, 2023 Sep;53(10):2120-2133.
    PMID: 37202498 DOI: 10.1007/s00247-023-05660-3
    Anomalous pulmonary venous connections represent a heterogeneous group of congenital heart diseases in which a part or all pulmonary venous flow drains directly or indirectly into the right atrium. Clinically, anomalous pulmonary venous connections may be silent or have variable consequences, including neonatal cyanosis, volume overload and pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the left-to-right shunt. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections are frequently associated with other congenital cardiac defects and their accurate diagnosis is crucial for treatment planning. Therefore, multimodality diagnostic imaging, comprising a combination (but not all) of echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, cardiothoracic computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, helps identify potential blind spots relevant to each imaging modality before treatment and achieve optimal management and monitoring. For the same reasons, diagnostic imaging evaluation using a multimodality fashion should be used after treatment. Finally, those interpreting the images should be familiar with the various surgical approaches used to repair anomalous pulmonary venous connections and the common postoperative complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Lopez CG, Lie-Injo Luan Eng
    Hum. Hered., 1971;21(2):185-91.
    PMID: 5127409
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases/blood; Infant, Newborn, Diseases/genetics; Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology*
  15. Wong AC, Chan LG
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Oct;69(5):229-30.
    PMID: 25638238 MyJurnal
    We report a case of neonatal Bartter syndrome in a 31 weeks premature baby girl with antenatal unexplained polyhydramnios requiring amnioreduction. She presented with early onset E. coli septicaemia and severe dehydration leading to pre-renal renal impairment which obscure the typical biochemical changes of hypokalaemic hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases
  16. Hashim Z
    J Trop Pediatr, 1992 Aug;38(4):204-5.
    PMID: 1527822
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn/growth & development*
  17. Raman S, Shahla A
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 1992 May;32(2):117-9.
    PMID: 1520194
    A prospective study of temperature drop in 141 normal term newborn infants delivered vaginally at the labour ward, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were studied. The effect of various manoeuvres on the temperature drop were also studied. They were randomized into 3 study groups, 63 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth alone, 37 cases where the babies were put into a plastic bag immediately after birth and lastly 41 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth and then inserted into a plastic bag. There was significant temperature drop in all the 3 groups maximum in the first 15 minutes and the fall continued for 1 hour after delivery (p less than 0.001). This shows that in an air-conditioned labour ward in a tropical country the temperature fall in newborn infants can be significant. This study also showed that plastic is a poor insulator against significant temperature drop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn/physiology*
  18. Yadav H
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):224-8.
    PMID: 3241580
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn/physiology*
  19. Chong YH, Hussein H
    Med J Malaysia, 1982 Mar;37(1):40-5.
    PMID: 7121345
    The birthweights of 13,614 singleton infants comprising 5376 Malays, 5352 Chinese and 2886 Indians born at the Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur, during 1973, 1975 and 1977 have been extracted and analysed. Male Chinese infants (3.16 ± 0.37 kg) were significantly heavier than Malay and Indian infants while the male Malay infants (3.12 ± 0.41 kg) were significantly heavier than the Indian (2.97 ± 0.41 kg). Both female Chinese (3.04 ± 0.38 kg) and Malay infants (3.05 ± 0.38 kg) were heavier than the female Indian (2.89 ± 0.39 kg) but there was no difference in birthweight between Chinese and Malay female infants. The mean gestational period and the proportion of full-term births were similar for all 3 races with averages of 39.9 weeks and 77.8 percent respectively. Maternal age at first birth was also closely similar for the three communities with an average of 22.9 years. Significant correlations were found between birthweight and length of neonates, birthweight and gravida, birthweight and maternal age. Indians have a higher incidence of low birthweight or small-for-gestational age infants (14.5 percent) compared to the Chinese (5.6 percent) and the Malays (7.6 percent); the incidence of low birthweights being higher in girls than in boys. Present-day Malay and Indian full-term male and female infants are significantly heavier than their counterparts born at the same Hospital two decades ago, but no difference in birthweight was observed for Chinese infants during this time interval. The gap between the incidence of low birthweight found in Malaysia and those in the developed countries seems to be narrowing and this may be taken to reflect the overall effects of socioeconomic development, including the greater availability of general health and ante-natal care throughout the country since its Independence in 1957.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn*
  20. Devadason I
    Med J Malaysia, 1976 Mar;30(3):243-4.
    PMID: 986534
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases
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