Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 74 in total

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  1. Yap NY, Yap FN, Perumal K, Rajandram R
    Biomarkers, 2019 Sep;24(6):607-614.
    PMID: 31215811 DOI: 10.1080/1354750X.2019.1634763
    Context: Metabolic imbalance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can lead to abnormal adiponectin levels. Objective: To evaluate circulating adiponectin as a detection or predictive marker for RCC. Methods: A comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis was performed on studies reporting circulating adiponectin levels and RCC. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan. Results: Seven studies compared the circulating adiponection levels between RCC cases and controls. Adiponectin level was significantly lower in RCC cases compared to controls at pre-diagnosis and pre-operative time-points. RCC stage, grade and subtype did not affect adiponectin levels. Conclusion: Low circulating adiponectin could be a predictive or risk factor for RCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  2. Lu HT, Chong JL, Othman N, Vendargon S, Omar S
    J Med Case Rep, 2016 May 03;10(1):109.
    PMID: 27142514 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-016-0888-5
    BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma is a potentially lethal cancer with aggressive behavior and it tends to metastasize. Renal cell carcinoma involves the inferior vena cava in approximately 15% of cases and it rarely extends into the right atrium. A majority of renal cell carcinoma are detected as incidental findings on imaging studies obtained for unrelated reasons. At presentation, nearly 25% of patients either have distant metastases or significant local-regional disease with no symptoms that can be attributed to renal cell carcinoma.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Indian male with a past history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus complained of worsening shortness of breath for 2 weeks. Incidentally, a transthoracic echocardiography showed a "thumb-like" mass in his right atrium extending into his right ventricle through the tricuspid valve with each systole. Abdomen magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogenous lobulated mass in the upper and mid-pole of his right kidney with a tumor extending into his inferior vena cava and right atrium, consistent with our diagnosis of advanced renal cell carcinoma which was later confirmed by surgical excision and histology. Radical right nephrectomy, lymph nodes clearance, inferior vena cava cavatomy, and complete tumor thrombectomy were performed successfully. Perioperatively, he did not require cardiopulmonary bypass or deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. He had no recurrence during the follow-up period for more than 2 years after surgery.

    CONCLUSIONS: Advanced extension of renal cell carcinoma can occur with no apparent symptoms and be detected incidentally. In rare circumstances, atypical presentation of renal cell carcinoma should be considered in a patient presenting with right atrial mass detected by echocardiography. Renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava and right atrium extension is a complex surgical challenge, but excellent results can be obtained with proper patient selection, meticulous surgical techniques, and close perioperative patient care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  3. Wong KT, Khir AS, Noori S, Peh SC
    Aust N Z J Surg, 1994 Feb;64(2):128-9.
    PMID: 8291977
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  4. Sathyamoorthy P
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Aug;34(4):358-60.
    PMID: 8266217
    Incomplete form of tuberous sclerosis (TS) may present with acute complications such as haematuria, retroperitoneal haemorrhage or pneumothorax. Such cases may pose diagnostic difficulty. A patient with incomplete form of TS without any cerebral impairment who presented as an acute surgical abdomen is reported. The diagnostic criteria of TS are reviewed. Visceral manifestations of TS including acute complications are discussed. The importance of recognising such presentations is stressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  5. Yap NY, Ong TA, Morais C, Pailoor J, Gobe GC, Rajandram R
    Cell Biol. Int., 2019 Jun;43(6):715-725.
    PMID: 31062478 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.11150
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urogenital cancers and effective treatment of metastatic RCC remains an elusive target. Cell lines enable the in vitro investigation of molecular and genetic changes leading to renal carcinogenesis and are important for evaluating cellular drug response or toxicity. This study details a fast and easy protocol of establishing epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures or cell lines concurrently from renal cancer nephrectomy tissue. The protocol involves mechanical disaggregation, collagenase digestion and cell sieving for establishing epithelial cells while fibroblast cells were grown from explants. This protocol has been modified from previous published reports with additional antibiotics and washing steps added to eliminate microbial contamination from the surgical source. Cell characterisation was carried out using immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Eleven stable epithelial renal tumour cell lines of various subtypes, including rare subtypes, were established with a spontaneous immortalisation rate of 21.6% using this protocol. Eight fibroblast cell cultures grew successfully but did not achieve spontaneous immortalisation. Cells of epithelial origin expressed higher expressions of epithelial markers such as pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 8 and E-cadherin whereas fibroblast cells expressed high α-smooth muscle actin. Further mutational analysis is needed to evaluate the genetic or molecular characteristics of the cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  6. Yap NY, Ng KL, Ong TA, Pailoor J, Gobe GC, Ooi CC, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(12):7497-500.
    PMID: 24460324
    BACKGROUND: This study concerns clinical characteristics and survival of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), as well as the prognostic significance of presenting symptoms.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical characteristics, presenting symptoms and survival of RCC patients (n=151) treated at UMMC from 2003-2012 were analysed. Symptoms evaluated were macrohaematuria, flank pain, palpable abdominal mass, fever, lethargy, loss of weight, anaemia, elevated ALP, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of these presenting symptoms. Kaplan Meier and log rank tests were employed for survival analysis.

    RESULTS: The 2002 TNM staging was a prognostic factor (p<0.001) but Fuhrman grading was not significantly correlated with survival (p=0.088). At presentation, 76.8% of the patients were symptomatic. Generally, symptomatic tumours had a worse survival prognosis compared to asymptomatic cases (p=0.009; HR 4.74). All symptoms significantly affect disease specific survival except frank haematuria and loin pain on univariate Cox regression analysis. On multivariate analysis adjusted for stage, only clinically palpable abdominal mass remained statistically significant (p=0.027). The mean tumour size of palpable abdominal masses, 9.5±4.3cm, was larger than non palpable masses, 5.3±2.7cm (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report which includes survival information of RCC patients from Malaysia. Here the TNM stage and a palpable abdominal mass were independent predictors for survival. Further investigations using a multicentre cohort to analyse mortality and survival rates may aid in improving management of these patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications; Kidney Neoplasms/mortality*; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology; Kidney Neoplasms/therapy
  7. Ho CC, Krishna KK, Praveen S, Goh EH, Lee BC, Zulkifli MZ
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):229-30.
    PMID: 21939176
    We present a case of a middle-aged man who was incidentally found to have right renal solid mass while investigating for his left eye proptosis. Computerised tomography (CT) scan confirmed the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma and the tumour was successfully excised via open surgery. The histopathology examination revealed the 10x7x8 cm mass to be a clear cell type renal cell carcinoma. The rare presentation of this metastatic renal cell carcinoma, its diagnosis and management will be discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  8. Rohana J, Boo NY, Hayati AR, Baizura J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2002 Sep;57(3):364-7.
    PMID: 12440278
    A term newborn infant developed hypovolaemic shock shortly after birth. She was pale with gross hepatomegaly. She required multiple boluses of intravenous fluids, blood products as well as inotropic support. Blood investigations showed persistent thrombocytopenia, anaemia and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). She also developed heart failure. She finally succumbed on the eleventh day of life. Autopsy revealed haemangiomatosis involving the liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and adrenals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*; Kidney Neoplasms/congenital*
  9. Lim NK, Aik OT, Meng LL, Htun TH, Razack AH
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2014 Mar;24 Suppl 1:S68-70.
    PMID: 24718014 DOI: 03.2014/JCPSP.S68S70
    Superior vena caval syndrome (SVCS) is a debilitating condition attributed to malignancy in more than 70% of cases. However, solitary head and neck metastases arising from renal cell carcinomas without evidence of disease elsewhere are rare. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma presenting as a rapidly growing right cervical lymph node with compression on the subclavian vein causing superior vena caval syndrome (SVCS). There was pulmonary embolism as well. Biopsy of the neck mass confirmed metastatic clear cell carcinoma with primary found in the (L) kidney. The patient had partial response to focussed radiotherapy to neck mass and Sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) before succumbing to the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*; Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  10. Ariffin H, Muthukkumaran T, Stanslas J, Sabariah AR, Veerasekaran N, Lin HP
    Leuk. Lymphoma, 2005 Aug;46(8):1233-7.
    PMID: 16085568
    We report the clinical features and in vitro chemosensitivity assay findings of a 13-year-old girl who developed secondary B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 7 years after a diagnosis of Wilms' tumor. The patient was treated using the Berlin - Frankfurt - Muenster (BFM) ALL chemotherapy protocol with poor response to initial therapy before succumbing to sepsis. An in vitro chemosensitivity assay on her peripheral blood lymphoblasts was performed while she was undergoing induction therapy and showed a high level of resistance to drugs commonly used for ALL therapy, e.g. steroids, anthracyclines, vincristine and L-asparaginase. The mechanism of chemoresistance was not elicited, but was probably not related to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression. We believe that the in vitro chemosensitivity assay is a good indicator of cellular response to chemotherapy and may provide reliable information for the basis of the selection of drugs to be used for the treatment of similarly rare patients rather than relying on "standard" protocols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*; Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis; Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy
  11. Lim, Pei Shan, Ng, BK, Rozman, Z, Nirmala K, Shuhaila A, Omar MH
    MyJurnal
    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare disease seen during pregnancy. Rupture of renal angiomyolipoma could be catastrophic and might result in maternal and even perinatal mortality. Management includes conservative vs surgical approach. A 29-year-old woman Para 2 with history of bleeding renal angiomyolipoma in her first pregnancy at 11 weeks treated with selective arterial embolisation. The pregnancy was terminated. Even though having small residual tumour, her subsequent pregnancy progressed well with conservative management. Intervention is advisable in the presence of large or symptomatic renal angiomyolipoma prior to pregnancy in order to minimise potential life-threatening haemorrhage during pregnancy. For those with small tumour of less than 4cm, perhaps conservative approaches i.e. frequent follow-up and close monitoring would assist in early identification of any rupture or bleeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  12. Tan BL, Norhaizan ME, Hairuszah I, Hazilawati H, Roselina K
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2015;2015:539798.
    PMID: 26257841 DOI: 10.1155/2015/539798
    Brewers' rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers' rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers' rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers' rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers' rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers' rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/chemically induced; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology; Kidney Neoplasms/prevention & control*
  13. Poh ME, Liam CK, Pang YK, Chua KT
    Respirol Case Rep, 2013 Dec;1(2):26-7.
    PMID: 25473534 DOI: 10.1002/rcr2.16
    We report a man presenting with dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis due to left lung collapse from an endobronchial tumor obstructing the left main bronchus. Endobronchial biopsy of the tumor showed renal cell carcinoma, identical to a previous specimen of renal cell carcinoma removed by a radical left nephrectomy five years ago. The endobronchial tumor was removed by snare diathermy through a flexible bronchoscope, following which his symptoms resolved and the left lung re-expanded. Endobronchial metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is rare and can mimic obstruction from other endobronchial etiologies, such as bronchogenic carcinoma. Total lung collapse as a result is even more uncommon, although atelectasis is well described. Endobronchial techniques, such as snare diathermy, can relieve obstruction, providing symptom palliation even in advanced disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  14. Bennett NC, Rajandram R, Ng KL, Gobe GC
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2014;1(2):17-25.
    PMID: 28326246 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2014.9
    Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a peak in interest in evaluating the roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in RCC pathogenesis in the late 20th century, with some positive outcomes for RCC therapy that targeted estrogen receptors, especially for metastatic disease. Since that time, however, there have been few studies that look at use of steroid hormone modulators for RCC, especially in the light of new therapies such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new immune therapies, which are having some success for treatment of metastatic RCC. This review summarises past and current literature and attempts to stimulate renewed interest in research into the steroid hormones and their receptors, which might be used to effect, for example, in combination with the other newer targeted therapies for RCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  15. Rajandram R, Razack AH, Ng KL, Gobe GC
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2016;3(1):1-11.
    PMID: 28326275 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2016.47
    Although primary localised tumours of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be treated relatively successfully with surgery, metastatic RCC has poor prognosis because of late diagnosis and resistance to therapies. In the present study, we were interested in profiling the protein expression of "inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase" (ICAD), an apoptosis inhibitor, in kidney cancer and its paired normal kidney. Immunohistochemistry with automated batch staining and morphometry using digital pathology were used to compare ICAD in 121 RCC specimens with their paired normal kidney tissue. Tissue microarray of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue was used. Intensity and localisation of ICAD were compared between normal and cancer samples, and against grading within the cancers. The results demonstrated that, in this cohort, ICAD was highly expressed in the proximal tubular epithelium of normal kidney, and significantly decreased in clear cell RCC tissue (p < 0.05) as well as other subtypes of RCC (p < 0.01) compared with normal kidney. There was a tendency towards nuclear localisation of ICAD in clear cell RCC, but not in other subtypes of RCC. No significant association was found between ICAD intensity and grade of RCC. In summary, down-regulation of ICAD occurs in RCC. ICAD normally inhibits DNA fragmentation and apoptosis; thus, its down-regulation was unexpected in a cancer known for its resistance to apoptosis. However, these RCC samples were from primary, not metastatic, RCC sites, and down-regulated ICAD may be part of a progressive pathway that promotes RCC metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  16. Ellis RJ, Ng KL, Samaratunga H, Del Vecchio SJ, Wood ST, Gobe GC
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2016;3(2):14-22.
    PMID: 28326280 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2016.53
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the fifth most common malignancy in kidney transplant recipients, with increased risk arising due to immunosuppression. De novo RCC occurrence in kidney allografts is much less common when compared with the native kidneys. Multifocal RCC in allograft kidneys is rarely described. In this report, we discuss two cases of de novo multifocal renal neoplasms in allograft kidneys. Case 1 had three distinct neoplastic lesions of >5 mm, and case 2 had four. Using the World Health Organization 2016 classification of adult renal tumours, case 1 had one clear-cell (cc) RCC (grade 3) and two papillary adenomas; all confined to the kidney. Case 2 had a nodular lesion classified as ccRCC (grade 4) with focal rhabdoid differentiation and some infiltration of renal sinus fat; a cc tubulopapillary RCC; a multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential; and a mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma; the last three all confined to the kidney. This is the first report of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma in a kidney allograft. When considering multifocal RCC with discordant histology, it is likely that these represent independent tumourigenic events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  17. Kadhim Jawad Obaid, Yahya Mohammad Arpine, Nor Salmah Bakar, Marlina Tanty Ramli Hamid, Ahmed Ramzi Yusof
    MyJurnal
    Intramuscular shoulder angiomyolipomas are very rare. We report a case in a 22-year-old male with a well circumscribed lesion located on the back of the shoulder. This lesion, differs from renal angiomyolipoma in terms of non-association with tuberous sclerosis, circumscription and male predominance. Another characteristic feature is the absence of epithelioid cells. Differential diagnosis includes lipoma, angiolipoma, angioleiomyoma, hemangioma, myolipoma and liposarcoma. It is distinguished from the above mentioned entities by the presence of a combination of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle and fat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  18. Kadhim Jawad Obaid, Yahya Mohammad Arpine, Nor Salmah Bakar, Marlina Tanty Ramli Hamid, Ahmed Ramzi Yusof
    Intramuscular shoulder angiomyolipomas are very rare. We report a case in a 22-year-old male with a well circumscribed lesion located on the back of the shoulder. This lesion, differs from renal angiomyolipoma in terms of non-association with tuberous sclerosis, circumscription and male predominance. Another characteristic feature is the absence of epithelioid cells. Differential diagnosis includes lipoma, angiolipoma, angioleiomyoma, hemangioma, myolipoma and liposarcoma. It is distinguished from the above mentioned entities by the presence of a combination of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle and fat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  19. Perumal K, Huin WK, Yap NY, Ong TA, Gobe GC, Rajandram R
    Med. Hypotheses, 2019 Aug;129:109239.
    PMID: 31371068 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109239
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the commonest from of renal neoplasm. Although surgery is a successful curative treatment for localized RCC, most patients are diagnosed with advanced or metastatic RCC, which has poor prognosis. RCC is classified by stage and grade using tissue samples. Whilst these provide good prognostic information, they are not very useful for early detection. Proteins that are dysregulated in patient's serum can be a valuable alternative and less invasive biomarker for early detection of the disease. For this reason, a hypothesis was formed that leptin is a possible biomarker for early detection and prognostication of RCC. The literature has disparate results on the usefulness of leptin as a biomarker for the early detection of RCC. Hence, a systematic review and a meta-analysis was carried out to investigate whether serum leptin could be a reliable diagnostic and prognostic factor in RCC patients. Literature on the available cohort and case-control studies on serum leptin in RCC was searched in electronic databases and included to evaluate this adipokine in the progression of RCC. The relevant studies were evaluated for the diagnostic and prognostic value of leptin in RCC patients. Overall, only 6 original research studies matched selection criteria and were included for meta-analysis. This study was hypothesised that; leptin might be a useful biomarker for early detection and prognostication of RCC. However, the data were presented in this study did not support our hypothesis. Serum leptin levels in RCC patients do not strongly associate with the development or progression of RCC, thus cannot act as a biomarker for early detection in RCC in patients. Extending our hypothesis further to include levels of obesity and RCC development may be worthwhile, but studies are currently limited.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  20. Yap YH, Say YH
    Cell Biol. Int., 2012 Mar 1;36(3):273-7.
    PMID: 21980981 DOI: 10.1042/CBI20110088
    Since the discovery of PrPC (cellular prion protein), most studies have focused on its role in neurodegenerative diseases, whereas its function outside the nervous system remains obscure. We investigated the ability of PrPC in resisting TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) apoptosis in three PrPC-transiently transfected cancer cell lines, renal adenocarcinoma ACHN, oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 and colon adenocarcinoma LS174T. PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells had higher viabilities compared with the mock-transfected cells, while the transient overexpression of PrPC had minimal overall effect on HSC-2 cells due to its high endogenous PrPC expression. Cell cycles were also analysed, with both PrPC expressing ACHN and LS174T cells having a significantly higher proliferative index than mock-transfected cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated a G1/S-phase cell cycle transition in both PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells. PrPC resists TNFα apoptosis due to a modest, but statistically significant, cell-specific cytoprotection compared with mock-transfected cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism*
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