METHODS: NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and incubated for 3 days. The cells (3×104) were seeded on the pulpal side of dentine discs and the occlusal side of the discs were treated with different cavity disinfectants: Group 1: de-ionized water (control); Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); Group 3: 2% QAS; Group 4: 5% QAS, and Group 5: 10% QAS. Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue assay. The eluates were collected and applied on cells seeded in 24-well plates. The total protein production, alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of mineralized nodules were evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on the samples with primary antibodies of CD68+, CD80+, and CD163+ assessing the macrophage M1/M2 phenotypes. The macrophages were imaged using a confocal scanning light microscope with an excitation wavelength of 488nm.
RESULTS: No significant difference in cell viability (p<0.0001), total protein production (p<0.01) and mineralized nodule production (p<0.05) was found between 2% QAS and the control, which was significantly higher than 2% CHX, 5% and 10% QAS after 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase production of 2% QAS was significantly lower than the control (p<0.001), but higher than 2% CHX at 14 days. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio was also significantly lower in the 2% and 10% QAS groups (p<0.05) compared to the control and 2% CHX groups.
SIGNIFICANCE: The 2% QAS cavity disinfectant does not have cytotoxic effects on 3T3 NIH mouse fibroblast cells and the predominance of the anti-inflammatory phenotype after its application may stimulate healing and tissue repair.
METHODS: An initial study showed that PMX53, an antagonist of C5aR1 in normal C57BL6/J (wild type, WT) mice reduced heart rate (HR) and appeared to have a protective effect on the heart following induced sepsis. C5aR1 knockout (CD88-/-) mice had a lower HR than wild type mice, even during sham surgery. A model to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in anesthetized mice was developed to assess the effects of inhibiting the β1-adrenoreceptor (β1-AR) in a randomized crossover study design.
RESULTS: HR and LF Norm were constitutively lower and SDNN and HF Norm constitutively higher in the CD88-/- compared with WT mice (P< 0.001 for all outcomes). Administration of atenolol (2.5 mg/kg) reduced the HR and increased HRV (P< 0.05, respectively) in the wild type but not in the CD88-/- mice. There was no shift of the sympathovagal balance post-atenolol in either strains of mice (P> 0.05), except for the reduced LF/HF (Lower frequency/High frequency) ratio (P< 0.05) at 60 min post-atenolol, suggesting increased parasympathetic tone of the heart due to the effect of atenolol administration. The HR of the WT mice were lower post atenolol compared to the CD88-/- mice (P = 0.001) but the HRV of CD88-/- mice were significantly increased (P< 0.05), compared with WT mice.
CONCLUSION: Knockout of the C5aR1 attenuated the effect of β1-AR in the heart, suggesting an association between the β1-AR and C5aR1, although further investigation is required to determine if this is a direct or causal association.
METHODS: Here, we show a robust episomal and xeno-free reprogramming strategy for human iPS generation from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) which renders good efficiency (0.19%) over a short time frame (13-18 days).
RESULTS: The robustness of DPSCs as starting cells for iPS induction is found due to their exceptional inherent stemness properties, developmental origin from neural crest cells, specification for tissue commitment, and differentiation capability. To investigate the epigenetic basis for the high reprogramming efficiency of DPSCs, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and found that the epigenetic signature of DPSCs associated with pluripotent, developmental, and ecto-mesenchymal genes is relatively close to that of iPS and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Among these genes, it is found that overexpression of PAX9 and knockdown of HERV-FRD improved the efficiencies of iPS generation.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study provides underlying epigenetic mechanisms that establish a robust platform for efficient generation of iPS cells from DPSCs, facilitating industrial and clinical use of iPS technology for therapeutic needs.
RESULTS: Here, we describe a luciferase/luciferin (XenoLuc) assay that could specifically measure changes in the proliferation of cancer cells in the co-culture system using two modified NPC patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDTXs) cells: Xeno284-gfp-luc2 and XenoB110-gfp-luc2. Through this assay, we are able to show that the growth of NPC xenograft cells in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models was enhanced when co-cultured with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). In addition, potential applications of this assay in in vitro drug or inhibitor screening experiments are also illustrated.
CONCLUSIONS: XenoLuc assay is specific, sensitive, rapid and cost-effective for measuring the growth of luciferase-expressing cells in a co- or multiple-culture system. This assay may also be adapted for tumour microenvironment studies as well as drug screening experiments in more complex 3D co-culture systems.