Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 1454 in total

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  1. Chin, V.K., Chong, W.C., Hassan, H., Zakaria, Z.A., Nordin, N., Basir, R., et al.
    JUMMEC, 2019;22(2):4-12.
    MyJurnal
    Background: The cytokine cascade in the immunopathogenesis of malaria infection had been widely studied.
    However, their specific association with survival and severe infection remained obscure.

    Methods: The study investigated the cytokine profiles and histopathological features of malaria in the severe
    infection and survival models by using male ICR mice and male Sprague Dawley rats respectively.

    Results: The severe model, the infected ICR mice, exhibited a high parasitemia with 100% mortality after
    peak parasitemia at day 5 post-infection. The survival model, the infected Sprague Dawley rats, showed
    mild parasitemia with full recovery by day 14 of infection. Both severe and survival models showed similar
    histopathological severity during peak parasitemia. The severe model produced highly elevated levels of proinflammatory
    cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1α, and low levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-4; while the
    survival model showed low levels of TNF-α and IL-1α with high levels of IL-4.

    Conclusion: There were differences in the pathogenesis of the severe and survival models of malaria infection.
    These could be a basis for immunotherapy of malaria in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  2. Higuchi A, Ling QD, Kumar SS, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA, Chang Y, et al.
    Lab. Invest., 2015 Jan;95(1):26-42.
    PMID: 25365202 DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2014.132
    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a platform to obtain patient-specific cells for use as a cell source in regenerative medicine. Although iPSCs do not have the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cells, iPSCs have not been widely used in clinical applications, as they are generated by gene transduction. Recently, iPSCs have been generated without the use of genetic material. For example, protein-induced PSCs and chemically induced PSCs have been generated by the use of small and large (protein) molecules. Several epigenetic characteristics are important for cell differentiation; therefore, several small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic-modifying enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and histone demethylases, are potential candidates for the reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs. In this review, we discuss what types of small chemical or large (protein) molecules could be used to replace the viral transduction of genes and/or genetic reprogramming to obtain human iPSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  3. Ho WY, Yeap SK, Ho CL, Abdul Rahim R, Alitheen NB
    PMID: 22973401 DOI: 10.1155/2012/417953
    Elephantopus scaber has been traditionally used as liver tonic. However, the protective effect of E. scaber on ethanol-induced liver damage is still unclear. In this study, we have compared the in vivo hepatoprotective effect of E. scaber with Phyllanthus niruri on the ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. The total phenolic and total flavanoid content of E. scaber ethanol extract were determined in this study. Accelerating serum biochemical profiles (including AST, ALT, ALP, triglyceride, and total bilirubin) associated with fat drop and necrotic body in the liver section were observed in the mice treated with ethanol. Low concentration of E. scaber was able to reduce serum biochemical profiles and the fat accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, high concentration of E. scaber and positive control P. niruri were able to revert the liver damage, which is comparable to the normal control. Added to this, E. scaber did not possess any oral acute toxicity on mice. These results suggest the potential effect of this extract as a hepatoprotective agent towards-ethanol induced liver damage without any oral acute toxicity effect. These activities might be contributed, or at least in part, by its high total phenolic and flavonoid contents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  4. Lancet, 1970 Apr 11;1(7650):761-2.
    PMID: 4191257
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  5. Mat Jais AM, Dambisya YM, Lee TL
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1997 Jul;57(2):125-30.
    PMID: 9254114
    Haruan, Channa striatus, is a snakehead fish consumed in many parts of the southeast Asian region. It is believed to promote wound healing, as well as reduce post-operative pain. In an attempt to establish the scientific basis for the alleged pain-relieving benefits of this fish, we studied the antinociceptive effects of whole fillet and mucus extracts from haruan in the mouse using the abdominal constriction and tail flick tests. In the abdominal constriction test, the 30 min fillet extract exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of the writhing response in the 10-50% concentration range, with 20% as the IC50 value. This activity was not dependent on the duration of extraction, with no significant differences among the extracts obtained at durations of 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min (range between 45-54% inhibition at 20% concentration). The mucus extract also showed concentration-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constriction response-at the highest concentration used the average inhibition was 68.9%, while IC50 value was 25%. Neither the fillet extract (30 min, 20%) nor the mucus extract (25%) had any demonstrable effect on the tail flick latency on their own, but significantly enhanced the antinociceptive activity of morphine in this assay. Similarly, low concentrations of the mucus and fillet extract enhanced the effects of morphine in the abdominal constriction test. Collectively, these results suggest a scientific basis for the folklore practice of eating haruan fish in the post-operative period for pain relief: Haruan extracts have antinociceptive activity and enhance the activity of other antinociceptive agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  6. Daood U, Yiu CKY
    Dent Mater, 2019 02;35(2):206-216.
    PMID: 30509480 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.018
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transdentinal cytotoxicity and macrophage phenotype response to a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant.

    METHODS: NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and incubated for 3 days. The cells (3×104) were seeded on the pulpal side of dentine discs and the occlusal side of the discs were treated with different cavity disinfectants: Group 1: de-ionized water (control); Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); Group 3: 2% QAS; Group 4: 5% QAS, and Group 5: 10% QAS. Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue assay. The eluates were collected and applied on cells seeded in 24-well plates. The total protein production, alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of mineralized nodules were evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on the samples with primary antibodies of CD68+, CD80+, and CD163+ assessing the macrophage M1/M2 phenotypes. The macrophages were imaged using a confocal scanning light microscope with an excitation wavelength of 488nm.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in cell viability (p<0.0001), total protein production (p<0.01) and mineralized nodule production (p<0.05) was found between 2% QAS and the control, which was significantly higher than 2% CHX, 5% and 10% QAS after 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase production of 2% QAS was significantly lower than the control (p<0.001), but higher than 2% CHX at 14 days. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio was also significantly lower in the 2% and 10% QAS groups (p<0.05) compared to the control and 2% CHX groups.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The 2% QAS cavity disinfectant does not have cytotoxic effects on 3T3 NIH mouse fibroblast cells and the predominance of the anti-inflammatory phenotype after its application may stimulate healing and tissue repair.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  7. Khor KH, Moore TA, Shiels IA, Greer RM, Arumugam TV, Mills PC
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(1):e0146022.
    PMID: 26727203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146022
    PURPOSE: Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of specific cardiovascular diseases, but it is uncertain if mediators released during the inflammatory process will affect the continued efficacy of drugs used to treat clinical signs of the cardiac disease. We investigated the role of the complement 5a receptor 1 (C5aR1/CD88) in the cardiac response to inflammation or atenolol, and the effect of C5aR1 deletion in control of baseline heart rate in an anesthetized mouse model.

    METHODS: An initial study showed that PMX53, an antagonist of C5aR1 in normal C57BL6/J (wild type, WT) mice reduced heart rate (HR) and appeared to have a protective effect on the heart following induced sepsis. C5aR1 knockout (CD88-/-) mice had a lower HR than wild type mice, even during sham surgery. A model to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in anesthetized mice was developed to assess the effects of inhibiting the β1-adrenoreceptor (β1-AR) in a randomized crossover study design.

    RESULTS: HR and LF Norm were constitutively lower and SDNN and HF Norm constitutively higher in the CD88-/- compared with WT mice (P< 0.001 for all outcomes). Administration of atenolol (2.5 mg/kg) reduced the HR and increased HRV (P< 0.05, respectively) in the wild type but not in the CD88-/- mice. There was no shift of the sympathovagal balance post-atenolol in either strains of mice (P> 0.05), except for the reduced LF/HF (Lower frequency/High frequency) ratio (P< 0.05) at 60 min post-atenolol, suggesting increased parasympathetic tone of the heart due to the effect of atenolol administration. The HR of the WT mice were lower post atenolol compared to the CD88-/- mice (P = 0.001) but the HRV of CD88-/- mice were significantly increased (P< 0.05), compared with WT mice.

    CONCLUSION: Knockout of the C5aR1 attenuated the effect of β1-AR in the heart, suggesting an association between the β1-AR and C5aR1, although further investigation is required to determine if this is a direct or causal association.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice
  8. Rain AN, Roxas CC, Mak JW
    PMID: 8266248
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C/parasitology*; Mice
  9. Okamoto M, Ito A, Kurosawa T, Oku Y, Kamiya M, Agatsuma T
    Int. J. Parasitol., 1995 Feb;25(2):221-8.
    PMID: 7622329
    The technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to Japanese wild populations of Taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from Norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (KRN isolated from a Malaysian Norway rat, BMM from a Belgian house mouse and ACR from a Japanese gray red-backed vole). The average heterozygosities of Japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. The genetic make-up of T. taeniaeformis in Norway rats was rather uniform in the whole of Japan. In KRN isolate, each of all 10 loci examined possessed the allele which was predominant in Japanese wild populations. Similarly, each of 9 loci in BMM isolate possessed the same alleles, but one of 2 alleles at HK locus was different from that in the others. T. taeniaeformis parasitizing house mice and rats were considered to be genetically closely related to each other. In ACR isolate, 7 out of 10 loci possessed different alleles from those in the other populations. It was considered that ACR isolate was genetically distant and its phylogenetic origin in Japan should be different from worms parasitizing Norway rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred Strains; Mice/parasitology
  10. Kawai H, Tsujigiwa H, Siar CH, Nakano K, Takabatake K, Fujii M, et al.
    Int J Med Sci, 2018;15(12):1406-1414.
    PMID: 30275769 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.24370
    Background: The tumor microenvironment and its stromal cells play an important role in cancer development and metastasis. Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), a rich source of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, putatively contribute to this tumoral stroma. However their characteristics and roles within the tumor microenvironment are unclear. In the present study, BMDCs in the tumor microenvironment were traced using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) bone marrow transplantation model. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated and rescued by bone marrow transplantation from GFP-transgenic mice. Lewis lung cancer cells were inoculated into the mice to generate subcutaneous allograft tumors or lung metastases. Confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry for GFP, α-SMA, CD11b, CD31, CD34 and CD105, and double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry for GFP-CD11b, GFP-CD105 and GFP-CD31 were performed. Results: Round and dendritic-shaped GFP-positive mononuclear cells constituted a significant stromal subpopulation in primary tumor peripheral area (PA) and metastatic tumor area (MA) microenvironment, thus implicating an invasive and metastatic role for these cells. CD11b co-expression in GFP-positive cells suggests that round/dendritic cell subpopulations are possibly BM-derived macrophages. Identification of GFP-positive mononuclear infiltrates co-expressing CD31 suggests that these cells might be BM-derived angioblasts, whereas their non-reactivity for CD34, CD105 and α-SMA implies an altered vascular phenotype distinct from endothelial cells. Significant upregulation of GFP-positive, CD31-positive and GFP/CD31 double-positive cell densities positively correlated with PA and MA (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taken together, in vivo evidence of traceable GFP-positive BMDCs in primary and metastatic tumor microenvironment suggests that recruited BMDCs might partake in cancer invasion and metastasis, possess multilineage potency and promote angiogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; Mice
  11. Hashim YZ, Worthington J, Allsopp P, Ternan NG, Brown EM, McCann MJ, et al.
    Food Funct, 2014 Jul 25;5(7):1513-9.
    PMID: 24836598 DOI: 10.1039/c4fo00090k
    The decreased cancer risk associated with consumption of olive oil may be due to the presence of phenolics which can modulate pathways including apoptosis and invasion that are relevant to carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that a virgin olive oil phenolics extract (OVP) inhibited invasion of HT115 colon cancer cells in vitro. In the current study we assessed the in vitro effects of OVP (25 μg mL(-1)) on HT115 cell migration, spreading and integrin expression. Furthermore, the anti-metastatic activity of OVP - at a dose equivalent to 25 mg per kg per day for 2, 8 or 10 weeks - was assessed in a Severe Combined ImmunoDeficiency (SCID) Balb-c mouse model. After 24 h OVP did not inhibit cell migration but significantly reduced cell spreading on fibronectin (65% of control; p < 0.05) and expression of a range of α and β integrins was modulated. In vivo, OVP by gavage significantly (p < 0.05) decreased not only tumour volume but also the number of metastases in SCID Balb-c mice. Collectively, the data suggest that - possibly through modulation of integrin expression - OVP decreases invasion in vitro and also inhibits metastasis in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, SCID; Mice
  12. Mohd-Zin SW, Abdullah NL, Abdullah A, Greene ND, Cheah PS, Ling KH, et al.
    Genome, 2016 Jul;59(7):439-48.
    PMID: 27373307 DOI: 10.1139/gen-2015-0142
    The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is involved in numerous cell-signalling activities during embryonic development. EphA4 has the ability to bind to both types of ephrin ligands, the ephrinAs and ephrinBs. The C57BL/6J-Epha4rb-2J/GrsrJ strain, denoted Epha4(rb-2J/rb-2J), is a spontaneous mouse mutant that arose at The Jackson Laboratory. These mutants exhibited a synchronous hind limb locomotion defect or "hopping gait" phenotype, which is also characteristic of EphA4 null mice. Genetic complementation experiments suggested that Epha4(rb-2J) corresponds to an allele of EphA4, but details of the genomic defect in this mouse mutant are currently unavailable. We found a single base-pair deletion in exon 9 resulting in a frame shift mutation that subsequently resulted in a premature stop codon. Analysis of the predicted structure of the truncated protein suggests that both the kinase and sterile α motif (SAM) domains are absent. Definitive determination of genotype is needed for experimental studies of mice carrying the Epha4(rb-2J) allele, and we have also developed a method to ease detection of the mutation through RFLP. Eph-ephrin family members are reportedly expressed as numerous isoforms. Hence, delineation of the specific mutation in EphA4 in this strain is important for further functional studies, such as protein-protein interactions, immunostaining and gene compensatory studies, investigating the mechanism underlying the effects of altered function of Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases on phenotype.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice
  13. Thekkeparambil Chandrabose S, Sriram S, Subramanian S, Cheng S, Ong WK, Rozen S, et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2018 03 20;9(1):68.
    PMID: 29559008 DOI: 10.1186/s13287-018-0796-2
    BACKGROUND: While a shift towards non-viral and animal component-free methods of generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is preferred for safer clinical applications, there is still a shortage of reliable cell sources and protocols for efficient reprogramming.

    METHODS: Here, we show a robust episomal and xeno-free reprogramming strategy for human iPS generation from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) which renders good efficiency (0.19%) over a short time frame (13-18 days).

    RESULTS: The robustness of DPSCs as starting cells for iPS induction is found due to their exceptional inherent stemness properties, developmental origin from neural crest cells, specification for tissue commitment, and differentiation capability. To investigate the epigenetic basis for the high reprogramming efficiency of DPSCs, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and found that the epigenetic signature of DPSCs associated with pluripotent, developmental, and ecto-mesenchymal genes is relatively close to that of iPS and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Among these genes, it is found that overexpression of PAX9 and knockdown of HERV-FRD improved the efficiencies of iPS generation.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study provides underlying epigenetic mechanisms that establish a robust platform for efficient generation of iPS cells from DPSCs, facilitating industrial and clinical use of iPS technology for therapeutic needs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, SCID; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice
  14. Rodrigues P, Patel SA, Harewood L, Olan I, Vojtasova E, Syafruddin SE, et al.
    Cancer Discov, 2018 07;8(7):850-865.
    PMID: 29875134 DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-1211
    Metastases, the spread of cancer cells to distant organs, cause the majority of cancer-related deaths. Few metastasis-specific driver mutations have been identified, suggesting aberrant gene regulation as a source of metastatic traits. However, how metastatic gene expression programs arise is poorly understood. Here, using human-derived metastasis models of renal cancer, we identify transcriptional enhancers that promote metastatic carcinoma progression. Specific enhancers and enhancer clusters are activated in metastatic cancer cell populations, and the associated gene expression patterns are predictive of poor patient outcome in clinical samples. We find that the renal cancer metastasis-associated enhancer complement consists of multiple coactivated tissue-specific enhancer modules. Specifically, we identify and functionally characterize a coregulatory enhancer cluster, activated by the renal cancer driver HIF2A and an NF-κB-driven lymphoid element, as a mediator of metastasis in vivo We conclude that oncogenic pathways can acquire metastatic phenotypes through cross-lineage co-option of physiologic epigenetic enhancer states.Significance: Renal cancer is associated with significant mortality due to metastasis. We show that in metastatic renal cancer, functionally important metastasis genes are activated via co-option of gene regulatory enhancer modules from distant developmental lineages, thus providing clues to the origins of metastatic cancer. Cancer Discov; 8(7); 850-65. ©2018 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 781.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, SCID; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice
  15. Lee HC, Md Yusof HH, Leong MP, Zainal Abidin S, Seth EA, Hewitt CA, et al.
    Int. J. Neurosci., 2019 Sep;129(9):871-881.
    PMID: 30775947 DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1580280
    Aims: The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is one of the key regulators of pro-gliogenesis process during brain development. Down syndrome (DS) individuals, as well as DS mouse models, exhibit an increased number of astrocytes, suggesting an imbalance of neurogenic-to-gliogenic shift attributed to dysregulated JAK-STAT signalling pathway. The gene and protein expression profiles of JAK-STAT pathway members have not been characterised in the DS models. Therefore, we aimed to profile the expression of Jak1, Jak2, Stat1, Stat3 and Stat6 at different stages of brain development in the Ts1Cje mouse model of DS. Methods: Whole brain samples from Ts1Cje and wild-type mice at embryonic day (E)10.5, E15, postnatal day (P)1.5; and embryonic cortex-derived neurospheres were collected for gene and protein expression analysis. Gene expression profiles of three brain regions (cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus) from Ts1Cje and wild-type mice across four time-points (P1.5, P15, P30 and P84) were also analysed. Results: In the developing mouse brain, none of the Jak/Stat genes were differentially expressed in the Ts1Cje model compared to wild-type mice. However, Western blot analyses indicated that phosphorylated (p)-Jak2, p-Stat3 and p-Stat6 were downregulated in the Ts1Cje model. During the postnatal brain development, Jak/Stat genes showed complex expression patterns, as most of the members were downregulated at different selected time-points. Notably, embryonic cortex-derived neurospheres from Ts1Cje mouse brain expressed lower Stat3 and Stat6 protein compared to the wild-type group. Conclusion: The comprehensive expression profiling of Jak/Stat candidates provides insights on the potential role of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway during abnormal development of the Ts1Cje mouse brains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; Mice
  16. Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RBH
    J Tissue Viability, 2017 Aug;26(3):208-215.
    PMID: 28615133 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtv.2017.05.003
    Advances in tissue engineering led to the development of various tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESS) for the treatment of skin injuries. The majority of the autologous TESS required lengthy and costly cell expansion process to fabricate. In this study, we determine the possibility of using a low density of human skin cells suspended in platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-enriched medium to promote the healing of full-thickness skin wounds. To achieve this, full-thickness wounds of size 1.767 cm2 were created at the dorsum part of nude mice and treated with keratinocytes (2 × 104 cells/cm2) and fibroblasts (3 × 104 cells/cm2) suspended in 10% PRP-enriched medium. Wound examination was conducted weekly and the animals were euthanized after 2 weeks. Gross examination showed that re-epithelialization was fastest in the PRP+cells group at both day 7 and 14, followed by the PRP group and NT group receiving no treatment. Only the PRP+cells group achieved complete wound closure by 2 weeks. Epidermal layer was presence in the central region of the wound of the PRP+cells and PRP groups but absence in the NT group. Comparison between the PRP+cells and PRP groups showed that the PRP+cells-treated wound was more mature as indicated by the presence of thinner epidermis with single cell layer thick basal keratinocytes and less cellular dermis. In summary, the combination of low cell density and diluted PRP creates a synergistic effect which expedites the healing of full-thickness wounds. This combination has the potential to be developed as a rapid wound therapy via the direct application of freshly harvested skin cells in diluted PRP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Nude/injuries; Mice, Nude/metabolism
  17. Teow SY, Liew K, Che Mat MF, Marzuki M, Abdul Aziz N, Chu TL, et al.
    BMC Biotechnol., 2019 06 14;19(1):34.
    PMID: 31200673 DOI: 10.1186/s12896-019-0528-4
    BACKGROUND: In vitro modelling of cancer cells is becoming more complex due to prevailing evidence of intimate interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding stroma. A co-culture system which consists of more than one cell type is physiologically more relevant and thus, could serve as a useful model for various biological studies. An assay that specifically detects the phenotypic changes of cancer cells in a multi-cellular system is lacking for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

    RESULTS: Here, we describe a luciferase/luciferin (XenoLuc) assay that could specifically measure changes in the proliferation of cancer cells in the co-culture system using two modified NPC patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDTXs) cells: Xeno284-gfp-luc2 and XenoB110-gfp-luc2. Through this assay, we are able to show that the growth of NPC xenograft cells in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models was enhanced when co-cultured with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). In addition, potential applications of this assay in in vitro drug or inhibitor screening experiments are also illustrated.

    CONCLUSIONS: XenoLuc assay is specific, sensitive, rapid and cost-effective for measuring the growth of luciferase-expressing cells in a co- or multiple-culture system. This assay may also be adapted for tumour microenvironment studies as well as drug screening experiments in more complex 3D co-culture systems.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, SCID; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice, Knockout
  18. Yeap SK, Abu N, Mohamad NE, Beh BK, Ho WY, Ebrahimi S, et al.
    PMID: 26335427 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0832-z
    The progression of breast cancer is increasing at an alarming rate, particularly in western countries. Meanwhile, the lower incidence in Asian countries could be attributed to the heavy incorporation of green leaves vegetables or spices in their diets. Murraya koenigii (MK) or often times known as curry leaves are common spice used mostly in tropical countries. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of MK aqueous extract on 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice were evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
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