Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 776 in total

  1. Chan CM, Wan Ahmad WA, Md Yusof M, Ho GF, Krupat E
    Eur J Cancer Care (Engl), 2015 Nov;24(6):938-44.
    PMID: 25810106 DOI: 10.1111/ecc.12312
    Defaulting is an important issue across all medical specialties, but much more so in cancer as delayed or incomplete treatment has been shown to result in worse clinical outcomes such as treatment resistance, disease progression as well as lower survival. Our objective was to identify psychosocial variables and characteristics associated with default among cancer patients. A total of 467 consecutive adult cancer patients attending the oncology clinic at a single academic medical centre completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and reported their preference for psychological support at baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12-18 months follow-up. Default was defined as refusal, delay or discontinuation of treatment or visit, despite the ability to do so. A total of 159 of 467 (34.0%) cancer patients were defaulters. Of these 159 defaulters, 89 (56.0%) desired psychological support, compared to only 13 (4.2%) of 308 non-defaulters. Using a logistic regression, patients who were defaulters had 52 times higher odds (P = 0.001; 95% confidence interval 20.61-134.47) of desiring psychological support than non-defaulters after adjusting for covariates. These findings suggest that defaulters should be offered psychological support which may increase cancer treatment acceptance rates and improve survival.
    Study site: Oncology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  2. Rashid Ali MR, Parameswaran U, William T, Bird E, Wilkes CS, Lee WK, et al.
    J Trop Med, 2015;2015:261925.
    PMID: 25838829 DOI: 10.1155/2015/261925
    Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results.
    Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study.
    Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9%) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) in three (1.7%). Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Seven people (4.5%) had isoniazid resistance (INH-R); all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5-9 months). Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant), 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM.
    Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB.
    Study site: Tuberculosis clinic, Klinik Kesihatan Luyang, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  3. Albaroodi KA, Syed Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A, Lajis R
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A590.
    PMID: 27202012 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.2023
    Widespread evidence has demonstrated the negative effects of tobacco smoking in patients with diabetes. Although many studies have explored the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population, data are lacking regarding its prevalence in a specific population with a chronic disease such as diabetes.
    Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among patients with diabetes in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to study diabetic patients who attended the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Malaysia from March to August 2012. All the diabetic patients who attended the endocrine clinic during that period were asked about their smoking status, and their medical records were reviewed. A total of 1,118 patients with diabetes were reviewed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking in diabetic patients at the endocrine clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang.
    Results: The majority of the study population was male, with Malay and Chinese patients in almost equal proportions and a smaller proportion of Indian patients. Most of these patients had started smoking before they were diagnosed with diabetes. Among the 1,118 diabetic patients, only 108 patients smoked; therefore, the prevalence of tobacco smoking in our patients with diabetes was 9.66%.
    Conclusions: A low prevalence of tobacco smoking was estimated in this study. This prevalence is close to the corresponding value in the general population in Malaysia.
    Study site: Endocrine clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  4. Thanimalai S, Shafie AA, Ahmad HM, Sinnadurai J
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A487.
    PMID: 27201439 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.1428
    Objectives: Systematic anticoagulation management clinic is now recommended to manage warfarinized atrial fibrillation (AF) patient. In Malaysia, the service is recently introduced as pharmacist managed Warfarin Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (WMTAC). The objective of the present study was to assess the cost effectiveness of anticoagulation clinic in comparison with usual medical in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
    Methods: A Markov model built using the provider perspective and 20 year time horizon was used to assess the cost effectiveness. The base case analysis assumed a cohort of patients with AF 57 years of age with comorbid illnesses. Data sources include a 6 month retrospective cohort analysis of the effectiveness of the clinics, the cost of drugs, cost of personnel and space of the clinics, cost of monitoring and cost of adverse events were obtained from the local source and publications. The transition probabilities of these clinics outcomes were obtained from a literature search. Future costs were discounted by 3% to convert to present values. All costs were in Ringgit Malaysia (RM) based on year 2012.
    Results: The results of a 20-year period model showed that UMC was dominated by the WMTAC in the same time period. The mean cost of the WMTAC was RM 5864 whereas the UMC cost was RM 6550. The sensitivity analysis showed that clinic treatment costs and effectiveness influenced the cost-effectiveness. If the cost of WMTAC was increased by 50% of the current cost, the WMTAC would not be a dominant intervention. WMTAC was also cost effective for a willingness to pay of RM32000.
    Conclusions: The anticoagulation management service appears to cost less and provide greater effectiveness than usual care. In conclusion, the Markov model suggests that from the provider perspective the anticoagulation clinic is a more cost effective option than the usual medical clinic in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
    Study site: Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  5. Ayiesah R, Leonard JH, Chong CY
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(3):123-8.
    PMID: 24999563 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1708
    OBJECTIVE: Non-adherence is a serious issue among the participants in pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP). Till date, no clinical tool is available to screen participants who will show poor adherence towards PRP. This study aimed to develop and validate a tool called "Adherence to Pulmonary Rehabilitation Questionnaire (APRQ)", a self-administered questionnaire to screen the risk of non-adherence to PRP among the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. APRQ comprises of 6 main constructs such as disease management behaviour, perceived treatment benefits, emotional factors, perceived severity of disease, barriers towards treatment and coping attitude.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a preliminary validity study carried out in the physiotherapy department and respiratory clinic in an university teaching hospital. A total of 109 patients with average age of 58.8 ± 1 year participated in the study. The inclusion criteria for subjects were: patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (Stage II and III). Exclusion criteria include those COPD patients with mental problems and disabled patients. The tool was developed based on thematic analysis and in-depth interview with focus group and literature search on the factors that lead to non-adherence among the PRP's participants. Principal component analysis was carried out to examine the construct validity and content validity of APRQ.
    RESULTS: A total of 20 items were created under 6 constructs. However, 2 items (smoking and hospital admission) were eliminated due to poor correlations. Thus, the final version of APRQ was developed and validated with 18 items. Reliability was measured using internal consistency and achieved Cronbach's Alpha of 0.762.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this preliminary study supports that APRQ may be a valid and reliable tool to screen adherence towards PRP among chronic lung disease patients.
    Study site: Respiratory clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  6. Jayanath S, Lee WS, Chinna K, Boey CC
    Pediatr Int, 2014 Aug;56(4):583-7.
    PMID: 24617982 DOI: 10.1111/ped.12335
    BACKGROUND: Children with chronic illness may have depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among children attending a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic in Malaysia, and whether it differed by age, gender and diagnosis.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, with data collected over a 16 month period (April 2010-July 2011). Patients aged 7-17 years on follow up at the pediatric gastroenterology clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, were recruited consecutively. They were classified into high, average and low scores based on responses to questions in the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; high, T-score >55; average, T-score 45-55; low, T-score <45). Children with high scores were considered to have depressive symptoms.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 93%. One hundred children (44 boys; 56 girls) were studied. Major diagnoses were: functional abdominal pain (n = 22), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 26), biliary atresia (n = 17) and miscellaneous gastrointestinal conditions (n = 35). The overall prevalence of high CDI for depressive symptoms was 27.0%, while 43.0% and 30.0% had average and low scores, respectively. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of high scores among children with different diagnoses.
    CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms were common among children attending a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. It is important to recognize symptoms of depression in children with gastrointestinal disorders.
    KEYWORDS: Children's Depression Inventory; depression; gastrointestinal disorders; outpatient; pediatric

    Study site: Pediatric gastroenterology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  7. Md Redzuan A, Lee MS, Mohamed Shah N
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:263-70.
    PMID: 24600208 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S56467
    PURPOSE: Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide. Poor adherence to prescribed preventive medications, especially among children with asthma, leads to increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to assess the adherence and persistence levels of asthmatic children at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), a tertiary care teaching hospital, and to determine the factors that influence adherence to prescribed preventive medications.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were asthmatic patients aged 18 years and younger with at least one prescription for a preventive medication refilled between January and December 2011. Refill records from the pharmacy dispensing database were used to determine the medication possession ratio (MPR) and continuous measure of gaps (CMG), measures of adherence and persistence levels, respectively.
    RESULTS: The sample consisted of 218 children with asthma from the General and Respiratory pediatric clinics at UKMMC. The overall adherence level was 38% (n=83; MPR ≥80%), and the persistence level was 27.5% (n=60; CMG ≤20%). We found a significant association between the adherence and persistence levels (r=0.483, P<0.01). The presence of comorbidities significantly predicted the adherence (odds ratio [OR] =16.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.76-33.84, P<0.01) and persistence level (OR =2.63, 95% CI: 0.13-52.79, P<0.01). Other factors, including age, sex, ethnicity, duration of asthma diagnosis, and number of prescribed preventive medications did not significantly affect adherence or persistence (P>0.05).
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the adherence level among children with asthma at UKMMC was low. The presence of comorbidities was found to influence adherence towards preventive medications in asthmatic children.
    KEYWORDS: asthma; medication possession ratio; non adherence; pediatric patients; persistence
    Study site: General and Respiratory pediatric clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  8. Jacob S, Ibrahim MM, Mohammed F
    Ment Health Fam Med, 2013 Jan;10(1):37-43.
    PMID: 24381653
    The present study was conducted primarily to determine the occurrence of polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia on risperidone. The secondary aim was to ascertain the incidence of inappropriate prescribing with anticholinergics. A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients who were being followed up at the out-patient clinic of a tertiary-care hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Only patients who were being prescribed risperidone between 1 June 2008 and 31 December 2008 were included in the study. Demographic data such as patient's age, gender and race were obtained from the patient's medical records. In total, 113 patients met the selection criteria. Polypharmacy was found to occur in 34 patients (30.09%), with the majority (76.47%) being on two antipsychotics. In total, 27 patients (34.18%) on monotherapy with risperidone were prescribed an anticholinergic on scheduled dosing, while 19 patients (24.05%) were prescribed it on an as-needed basis. Of the patients on polypharmacy, 26 (76.47%) were on scheduled dosing of anticholinergics, while three (8.82%) were taking the medication on an as-needed basis. Polypharmacy should be avoided, and the use of anticholinergics should be closely reviewed. By adopting more efficient prescribing practices, costs can be reduced and financial resources can instead be channelled towards more beneficial areas for the patients.
    Study site: Psychiatric clinic, tertiary hospital, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  9. Atif M, Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA, Qamar Uz Zaman M, Asif M
    J Pharm Policy Pract, 2014;7(1):16.
    PMID: 25838918 DOI: 10.1186/2052-3211-7-16
    Death among tuberculosis patients is one of the major reasons for non-attainment of 85% treatment success target set by World Health Organization. In this short paper, we evaluated whether the overall mortality rate in pulmonary tuberculosis is being affected by other comorbid conditions. All new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients (N =336), who started their treatment at the chest clinic of the Penang General Hospital, between March 2010 and February 2011, were followed-up until December 2011. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes were reported according to six treatment outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. The outcome category 'died' was defined as 'a patient who died due to tuberculosis or other cause during tuberculosis treatment'. Our findings showed that out of 336 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 59 (17.6%) died during treatment (mortality rate = 1.003 cases per 1000 person-days of follow-up). Among the deceased patients, the mean age was 55.8 years (SD =16.17) and 49 were male. According to the mortality review forms, 29 deaths were tuberculosis-related, while the remaining 30 patients died due to reasons other than tuberculosis. Cerebrovascular accident (n =7), septicaemia shock (n =4) and acute coronary syndrome (n =4) were the most common non-tuberculosis related reasons for mortality in the patients. If the 30 patients, for whom tuberculosis was incidental to death, are excluded from the final cohort, the proportion of patients in the 'died' outcome category could be reduced to 9.5%. The treatment outcome criterion (i.e., died) set by World Health Organization has limitations. Therefore, it requires improvement for more objective evaluation of the performance of the National Tuberculosis Program.
    Study site: Chest clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  10. Hassan R, Yusof WA, Hussain NH, Abdullah WZ
    Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus, 2012 Sep;28(3):157-61.
    PMID: 23997452 DOI: 10.1007/s12288-011-0135-6
    Menorrhagia is one of the gynecological complaints, seen in women of reproductive age. In majority of cases no organic pathology is found. To date there is no consensus on application of von Willebrand disease (vWD) testing as part of the routine investigations in menorrhagia. Diagnosis of vWD is challenging. It is complicated by intra-individual variations in von Willebrand antigen, activity, and factor VIII levels due to fluctuation of these factor levels during the menstrual cycle or hormonal therapy. The aim of this study is to detect vWD presenting with menorrhagia among Malays attending gynecology clinic by using a standard panel of haemostatic profiles. Thirty Malay patients attending gynecology clinic with unexplained menorrhagia were included in this study. Haemostatic profile such as platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), factor VIII assay, von Willebrand factor antigen, and von Willebrand factor activity, and collagen binding assay were measured in all patients. Pre- and post hormonal haemostatic profiles were also performed in the patients diagnosed as vWD. All patients had normal APTT. Based on von Willebrand factor work-up, vWD was diagnosed in four patients (13.3%). Three of them were Type 1 and the other one was Type 2M. Investigation for vWD is essential in patients with menorrhagia and thus the laboratories performing vWD testing should provide a complete panel of diagnostic work-up in order to reduce the interpretation error. Screening for vWD should be performed before hormonal treatment as haemostatic profile post treatment could mask the diagnosis.
    Study site: Gynaecology clinic, Hospital of Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  11. Nurfahzura MJ, Hanizasurana H, Zunaina E, Adil H
    Clin Ophthalmol, 2013;7:1651-4.
    PMID: 23986629 DOI: 10.2147/OPTH.S46876
    We report successful treatment of syphilitic uveitis in a case series of three Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients at Malaysia's Selayang Hospital eye clinic. All three patients with syphilitic uveitis were male, aged from 23 to 35 years old, with a history of high-risk behaviors. Of the patients, two presented with blurring of vision and only one patient presented with floaters in the affected eye. Ocular examination revealed intermediate uveitis (case 1 and case 3) and panuveitis (case 2). Each patient showed a high Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titer at presentation and they were also newly diagnosed as HIV positive with variable CD4 counts. All three patients responded well to a neurosyphilis regimen of intravenous penicillin G. At 3 months posttreatment, there was reduction in VDRL titer with improvement of vision in the affected eye. Diagnosis of syphilis needs to be ruled out in all cases of uveitis. All syphilitic uveitis cases should have HIV screening and vice versa, as syphilis is one of the most common infectious diseases associated with HIV-positive patients. Early detection and treatment are important for a good visual outcome.

    Study site: opthamolagy clinic, Hospital Selayang
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  12. Barua A, Jacob GP, Mahmood SS
    Indian J Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;55(2):125-30.
    PMID: 23825844 DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.111448
    BACKGROUND: The adult population often suffers from a number of physical and mental problems. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of mental illnesses in adult population visiting the outpatient departments at Dr. TMA Pai Rotary Hospital, Karkala and to study the socio-demographic correlates of psychiatric disorders.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted during March 2004 among 193 adult individuals of 18 years and above at Dr. TMA Pai Rotary Hospital, Karkala, Karnataka. Data was analyzed by the statistical package for social sciences version 10.0 for windows and results were expressed in terms of proportions and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Chi-square test, multiple logistic regression with adjusted odds ratio and its 95% CI.
    RESULTS: The proportion of psychiatric disorders in adult population was determined to be 39.9%. Proportion of psychiatric morbidity among males and females were 36.2 and 42.2%, respectively.
    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that socio-demographic correlates like age group of 50 years and above, unemployed or housewives, living alone, and a history of psychiatric illness in the family were independently associated with psychiatric disorders in adult population.
    KEYWORDS: Adult population; patient health questionnaire; psychiatric disorders; screening; socio-demographic correlates
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  13. Cho SH, Lin HC, Ghoshal AG, Bin Abdul Muttalif AR, Thanaviratananich S, Bagga S, et al.
    Allergy Asthma Proc, 2016 Mar-Apr;37(2):131-40.
    PMID: 26802834 DOI: 10.2500/aap.2016.37.3925
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases represent a significant impact on health care. A cross-sectional, multicountry (India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand) observational study was conducted to investigate the proportion of adult patients who received care for a primary diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or rhinosinusitis.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of patients who received care for asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis, and the frequency and main symptoms reported.
    METHODS: Patients ages ≥18 years, who presented to a physician with symptoms that met the diagnostic criteria for a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Patients and physicians completed a survey that contained questions related to demographics and respiratory symptoms.
    RESULTS: A total of 13,902 patients with a respiratory disorder were screened, of whom 7030 were eligible and 5250 enrolled. The highest percentage of patients who received care had a primary diagnosis of AR (14.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 13.4-14.6%]), followed by asthma (13.5% [95% CI, 12.9-14.1%]), rhinosinusitis (5.4% [95% CI, 4.6-5.3%]), and COPD (4.9% [95% CI, 5.0-5.7%]). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD (73%), followed by asthma (61%), rhinosinusitis (59%), and AR (47%) most frequently reported cough as a symptom. Cough was the main reason for seeking medical care among patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD (43%), asthma (33%), rhinosinusitis (13%), and AR (11%).
    CONCLUSION: Asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis represent a significant proportion of respiratory disorders in patients who presented to health care professionals in the Asia-Pacific region, many with concomitant disease. Cough was a prominent symptom and the major reason for patients with respiratory diseases to seek medical care.
    Study site:; 22 sites in six countries (various types of clinics, including primary care)
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  14. Kusyairi KA, Gendeh BS, Sakthiswary R, Shaharir SS, Haizlene AH, Yusof KH
    Lupus, 2016 Apr;25(5):520-4.
    PMID: 26657735 DOI: 10.1177/0961203315622279
    The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its association with the disease activity of SLE based on the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). This was a cross-sectional and observational study involving 73 stable SLE patients. All subjects were evaluated for the SLEDAI scores and had nasal endoscopic examination. The most commonly reported symptom was nasal congestion (31.5%) followed by nasal itchiness (26.0%), runny nose (20.5%) and nasal dryness (19.2%). Almost half (42.9%) of the subjects had nasal mucosal abnormalities, which included mucositis, crusting, ulceration, bifid middle turbinate, septal spur, Jacobson's organ, deviated nasal septum, bilateral inferior turbinate hypertrophy, everted uncinate process, nasopharynx cleft and torus palatinus. The median SLEDAI score for subjects with nasal symptoms was significantly higher than subjects without nasal symptoms (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  15. Tan SS, Leong CL, Lee CK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Oct;70(5):281-7.
    PMID: 26556116
    BACKGROUND: Co-infection by human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses (HIV/HCV) is common and results in significant morbidity and mortality despite effective antiretroviral therapies (ART).
    METHOD: A retrospective and prospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa 2a/2b plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) in consecutive HIV/HCV co-infected patients treated in real life clinical practice in Malaysia.
    RESULTS: Forty-five HIV/HCV co-infected patients with a median age (interquartile range, IQR) of 41 years (37; 47) were assessed for treatment with PEG-IFN/RBV. All except one are of male gender and the most common risk behaviour was injecting drug use. At baseline 75.5% was on ART and the median (IQR) CD4 count was 492 cells/μl (376; 621). The HCV genotypes (GT) were 73 % GT3 and 27% GT1. Liver biopsies in forty patients showed 10% had liver cirrhosis and another 50% had significant liver fibrosis. The treatment completion rate was 79.5% with 15.9% dropped out of treatment due to adverse effects (AE) or default and 4.6% due to lack of early virological response. The AE causing premature discontinuations were neuropsychiatric and haematological. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) was 63.6% with a trend towards higher SVR in GT3 compared with GT1 (71.9% vs. 41.7%; p=0.064). In patients with bridging fibrosis plus occasional nodules or cirrhosis on liver biopsy, the SVR was significantly lower at 20% (p=0.030) compared to those with milder fibrosis.
    CONCLUSION: HIV/HCV co-infected patients can be successfully and safely treated with PEG-IFN/RBV achieving high rates of SVR except in cirrhotic patients.

    Study site: co-infection clinics at Sungai Buloh Hospita
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  16. Ul Haq N, Saeed S, Iqbal Q, Naseem A, Razaq G, Farooqui M
    Value Health, 2015 Nov;18(7):A865.
    PMID: 26534631 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.516
    Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) and its types used in diabetes patients in Quetta, Pakistan.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken with diabetes patients, attending different government and private hospitals and clinic of Quetta city, Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire containing 16 questions (5 questions related with disease and remaining questions were for information regarding CAM use). Descriptive statistics were applied to evaluate the patient’s demographics. Inferential statistics were used to fine the association between demographics characteristics and CAM (p<0.05).
    Results: A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed and 451 were returned (with response rate of 90.2%). Out of 451 patients 148 (32.8%) used CAM for the diabetes treatment, out of which 87 (58.8%) were females and 61 (41.2%) were males. Most of the participants were uneducated 51 (34.5%) and belongs to large families 89 (60.1%). Fifty (33.8%) participants were using mind body intervention, followed by alternative medical system (33.1%) and herbal products (31.8%) respectively for treatment of diabetes. Type of family, monthly income and per month medicine cost were significant associated (p<0.05) with CAM use.
    Conclusions: The current study indicated that diabetes patients used mind body intervention, alternative medical system and herbal products are the most common CAM type used for diabetes control. Further research is recommended to evaluate the diabetes control in patients with CAM used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  17. Mohd Hajiri M, Shaharuddin S, Long CM, Hashim R, Zulkifly HH, Kasim SS, et al.
    Value Health, 2015 Nov;18(7):A378.
    PMID: 26532133 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.795
    Conference abstract:
    Objectives: Warfarin has been used for more than 50 years as stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. New oral anticoagulant, Dabigatran, was developed and shown to be safer and more efficacious compared to Warfarin due to its lower tendency of bleeding and in reducing stroke incidences. This study aims to compare the pattern of anticoagulants used and to assess their safety and efficacy by evaluating bleeding and stroke occurrences in both groups.
    Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at a hospital with hematology clinic in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The samples of the study were patients with atrial fibrillation, prescribed with warfarin or dabigatran. Data collected includes patients’ demographics, co-morbidities, and stroke and haemorrhage events.
    Results: A total of 71 patients were recruited in this study with 21, 21 and 29 patients were on Warfarin, Dabigatran 110 mg and Dabigatran 150 mg respectively. Out of 50 Dabigatran users, 36 of them are warfarin-experienced. 1 out of 21 patients on warfarin experienced stroke while none in both 110 and 150mg dabigatran group. A total of 11 (52.4%) of warfarin patients experienced bleeding with 2 of them having major bleeding whereas, only 4 (8%) out of 50 dabigatran patients experienced minor bleeding, 1 in patient who were on Dabigatran 150mg and 3 patients who were on Dabigatran 110mg.
    Conclusions: The pattern of anticoagulant used for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation is slowly changing from Warfarin to Dabigatran. Evaluation of safety and efficacy profile of Warfarin shows that Warfarin requires more extensive management and monitoring in order to achieve therapeutic goals with fewer side effects. Comparison between both anticoagulants show that Dabigatran is safer and more effective compared to warfarin
    Study site: Haematology clinic, hospital, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  18. Ali MF, Abdul Aziz AF, Rashid MR, Che Man Z, Amir AA, Lim YS, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Feb;70(1):18-23.
    PMID: 26032524
    INTRODUCTION: The lack of evidence that proves the benefit of traditional and complementary medicines (T & CM) in treating chronic medical conditions does not deter its usage among patients worldwide. Prevalence of usage among post-stroke patients in Malaysia especially is unknown. This study aims to determine the prevalence, practice and perception of T & CM use among stroke survivors attending an outpatient rehabilitation program in a teaching hospital.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 104 post stroke patients attending an outpatient rehabilitation program. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients, as well as types of therapy used and perception on T & CM usage. Descriptive analysis was done, and bivariate analysis was used to determine associations between categorical data.
    RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 62 years (SD 12.2), 54% were Chinese and 75% of the patients had ischaemic stroke. Mean age of T & CM users was younger compared to non- T & CM users (61 years vs. 66 years, p=0.04). Two-thirds (66%) of patients admitted to concurrent T & CM usage while attending conventional post stroke rehabilitation. Acupuncture (40.4%), massage (40.4%) and traditional Chinese medicine (11.5%) were the most common T & CM used. Positive perception was recorded in terms of ability of T & CM usage to relieve post stroke symptoms (68%), and it was safe to use because it was made from 'natural sources'. Negative perception recorded: T & CM caused significant adverse effects (57.6%) and was not safe to be used in combination with other conventional medicines (62.5%).
    CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent T & CM usage among post-stroke patients attending structured outpatient rehabilitation program is widely practised especially acupuncture, massage and traditional Chinese medicines. Overall the perception towards its use is favourable.
    Study site: Medical Rehabilitation Services Department, Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  19. Hussein MS, Akram W, Mamat MN, Majeed AB, Ismail NE
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Apr;9(4):OC14-8.
    PMID: 26023580 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/11995.5801
    CONTEXT: In recent years, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important outcome measure in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. For patients with asthma there are many instruments but most of them have been developed in English. With the increase in research project, researchers working in other languages have two options; either to develop a new measure or to translate an already developed measure. Children Health Survey for Asthma is developed by American Academy of Paediatrics which has two versions one for the parents (CHSA) and the other for the child (CHSA-C). However, there is no Malay version of the CHSA or the CHSA-C.
    AIM: The aim of this study was to translate and determine the validity and reliability of the Malaysian versions of Parent and Children Health Survey for Asthma.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were translated to Bahasa Melayu using previously established guidelines, data from 180 respondents (asthmatic children and their parent) were analysed using Rasch-Model; as, it is an approach that has been increasingly used in health field and also it explores the performance of each item rather than total set score.
    RESULTS: The internal consistency was high for the parent questionnaire (CHSA) (reliability score for persons = 0.88 and for items was 0.97), and good for child questionnaire (CHSA-C) (reliability score for persons = 0.83 and for items was 0.94). Also, this study shows that all items measure for both questionnaires (CHSA and CHSA-C) are fitted to Rasch-Model.
    CONCLUSION: This study produced questionnaires that are conceptually equivalent to the original, easy to understand for the children and their parents, and good in terms of internal consistency. Because of the questionnaire has two versions one for the child and the other for the parents, they could be used in clinical practice to measure the effect of asthma on the child and their families. This current research had translated two instruments to other language (BahasaMalayu) and evaluated their reliability and validity hence will help researchers from the same country to use these translated instruments in their studies.
    KEYWORDS: CHSA; CHSA-C; Rasch analysis; Reliability; Validity
    Study site: paediatric and respiratory specialist clinics, Hospital Selayang and Hospital Sungai Buloh, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  20. Chan WK, Goh KL
    Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2012;2012:561893.
    PMID: 22606201 DOI: 10.1155/2012/561893
    Aim. To evaluate patient satisfaction towards an outpatient colonoscopy service and analyze areas of dissatisfaction for potential improvement. Method. Consecutive patients attending the outpatient diagnostic colonoscopy service in University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1st February and 31th July 2010 were interviewed using a questionnaire modified from the modified Group Health Association of America-9 (mGHAA-9) questionnaire. Favorable/unfavorable responses to each question, contribution of each question to unfavorable responses, and effect of waiting times on favorable/unfavorable response rates were analyzed. Results. Interview was carried out on 426 patients (52.1% men). Mean age ± standard deviation was 61.3 ± 12.9 years old. Mean waiting times for colonoscopy appointment and on colonoscopy day were 3.8 ± 2.7 months and 1.1 ± 0.8 hours, respectively. The main factors that contributed to unfavorable responses were bowel preparation followed by waiting times for colonoscopy appointment and on colonoscopy day (32.3%, 27.5%, and 19.6%, resp.). Favorable responses diminished to undesirable levels when waiting times for colonoscopy appointment and on colonoscopy day exceeded 1 month and 1 hour, respectively. Conclusion. Bowel preparation and waiting times were main factors for patient dissatisfaction. Waiting times for colonoscopy appointment and on colonoscopy day should not exceed 1 month and 1 hour, respectively, to maintain acceptable levels of patient satisfaction.
    Study site: outpatient endoscopy, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
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