Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey whereby all (300) community pharmacists practicing in Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were targeted for data collection. A 35-itemed questionnaire was posted out along with a stamped addressed envelope, invitation letter and support letter. Responses were also accepted via online response. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 20.0.
Results: A total of 67 responses were received with a response rate of 22.3%. The top three frequently health information searched by respondents were medicine information, general healthcare information and disease-related information. High number of respondents agreed that Internet had too much health information to scan through. Gender (p=0.018) showed significant association with visiting established health websites. Meanwhile, statistical significant was observed between age and searching medicine information (p=0.037), undertaking online continuing professional development (p=0.023), as well as searching clinical guidelines (p=0.047). Respondents' education level showed significant association with uncertainty about the reliability of online health information (p=0.023) and unsure about filtering the information (p=0.007).
Conclusions: Majority of the respondents expressed positive perception with the use of Internet for health information. The findings of the current study showed the widely use of Internet for health information among community pharmacists. Hence, this study provides opportunity for future works to further examine community pharmacist's retrieval and appraisal skills for online health information, as well as application of this information into their daily pharmacy practice.
METHODS: Subsidised and self-paying patients were identified at public and private healthcare institutions in three states of Malaysia. Patients were then purposively selected for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews according to their medication adherence status (including adherent and non-adherent patients), which was measured using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Adherence was defined as having 80% or more for the percentage of days in which the dose regimen was executed as prescribed. The interview was conducted from January to August 2016 and during the interviews, patients were asked to provide reasons for their medication adherence or non-adherence. The patient interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis with NVivo 11 software.
RESULTS: Thirteen subsidised and 12 self-paying patients were interviewed. The themes found among subsidised and self-paying patients were similar. The factors that influenced adherence to medication include the 'perceived importance of quality of life' and 'perceived benefit or value of the medications'. A unique factor reported by patients in this study included 'perceived value of the money spent on medications'; more specifically, patients adhered to their medications because they valued the money spent to buy/receive the medications.
CONCLUSION: Medication adherence among subsidised and self-paying patients was influenced by many factors, including a unique factor relating to their perceptions of the value of money spent on medications.
SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods Action research methodology was used.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pharmaceutical care issues.
RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients was 15% (53/352). Out of 53 patients identified, 35 participated in the study. Patients' ages ranged between 29 and 73 years (mean of 52 ± 10 years). The male: female ratio was 1.7:1. Pharmaceutical care issues identified by pharmacists were nonadherence, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, adverse drug reactions and individual patient's medication related problems. Pharmacists were able to intervene and resolve some of the pharmaceutical care issues.
CONCLUSION: Pharmacists played an important role in integrating the provision of care for tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus by providing individualised pharmaceutical care management. There still remains a need to address logistic barriers that impinged on the ability to conduct the pharmaceutical care service to its full potential.
METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to gain an in-depth knowledge of the issues. By using a semi-structured interview guide, 12 CPs practicing in the city of Lahore, Pakistan were conveniently selected. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and were then analyzed for thematic contents by the standard content analysis framework.
RESULTS: Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes. (1) Familiarity with EPS, (2) current practice of EPS, (3) training needed to provide EPS, (4) acceptance of EPS and (5) barriers toward EPS. Majority of the CPs were unaware of EPS and only a handful had the concept of extended services. Although majority of our study respondents were unaware of pharmaceutical care, they were ready to accept practice change if provided with the required skills and training. Lack of personal knowledge, poor public awareness, inadequate physician-pharmacist collaboration and deprived salary structures were reported as barriers towards the provision of EPS at the practice settings.
CONCLUSION: Although the study reported poor awareness towards EPS, the findings indicated a number of key themes that can be used in establishing the concept of EPS in Pakistan. Over all, CPs reported a positive attitude toward practice change provided to the support and facilitation of health and community based agencies in Pakistan.
METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.
RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia.
METHODS: A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted.
RESULTS: The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of "staff training and skills" were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup.
CONCLUSION: The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety.
Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was divided into two sections: the first section assessed the visits to community pharmacies, purpose, interaction with pharmacy staffs, professional fee, and improvements to pharmacy practices; the second section evaluated the characteristics of respondents including an e-consent form. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 11.5).
Results: The highest number of respondents (66.1%) consulted with the pharmacists for cough and cold, 33.1% for gastric and stomach ailments, and 28.9% for diarrhea and constipation. Only 34% of cases were handled by the pharmacists, whereas 52.1% by the sales assistant. Approximately 88.5% showed satisfaction with the counseling provided. A total of 46.3% did not know whom they dealt with, whereas 51.2% wanted personal attention of the pharmacists instead of the sales assistants. However, 66.9% of respondents preferred to a private consultation room. Records of only 32.2% of respondents were secured by the pharmacies, whereas 42.1% showed interest to pay a professional fee. Moreover, 83.3% agreed the fee of RM5 only, whereas 20.8% agreed to RM10. Among the respondents, majority agreed to pay a fee willingly, but approximately 30% stayed neutral.
Conclusion: There is a need for the community pharmacists to play vital roles firsthand at the front desk to serve the patients professionally instead of handing over the responsibilities to the sales assistant.
METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized, single-blind, two-arm, controlled trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis visiting outpatient rheumatology clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. We will enroll patients with established diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis over 3 months. The patients would be randomized through a computer-generated list into the control group, i.e., usual care or into the intervention group, i.e., pharmaceutical care, in a ratio of 1:1, after providing signed written consent. The study will take place in two patient-visits over the course of 3 months. Patients in the intervention group would receive intervention from the pharmacist while those in the control group will receive usual care. Primary outcomes include change in mean score from baseline (week 0) and at follow up (week 12) in disease knowledge, adherence to medications and rehabilitation/physical therapy. The secondary outcomes include change in the mean direct cost of treatment, HRQoL and patient satisfaction with pharmacist counselling.
DISCUSSION: This is a novel study that evaluates the role of the pharmacist in improving treatment outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The results of this trial could set the foundation for future delivery of care for this patient population in Pakistan. The results of this trial would be published in a peer-reviewed journal.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03827148 . Registered on February 2019.