Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 66 in total

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  1. Ong SW, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2018 06 27;16(2):1166.
    PMID: 30023025 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.02.1166
    Objective: The current study was carried out to assess community pharmacists' perceptions towards online health information, to examine the type of information seek from Internet and to identify the barriers when they retrieved online health information.

    Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey whereby all (300) community pharmacists practicing in Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were targeted for data collection. A 35-itemed questionnaire was posted out along with a stamped addressed envelope, invitation letter and support letter. Responses were also accepted via online response. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 20.0.

    Results: A total of 67 responses were received with a response rate of 22.3%. The top three frequently health information searched by respondents were medicine information, general healthcare information and disease-related information. High number of respondents agreed that Internet had too much health information to scan through. Gender (p=0.018) showed significant association with visiting established health websites. Meanwhile, statistical significant was observed between age and searching medicine information (p=0.037), undertaking online continuing professional development (p=0.023), as well as searching clinical guidelines (p=0.047). Respondents' education level showed significant association with uncertainty about the reliability of online health information (p=0.023) and unsure about filtering the information (p=0.007).

    Conclusions: Majority of the respondents expressed positive perception with the use of Internet for health information. The findings of the current study showed the widely use of Internet for health information among community pharmacists. Hence, this study provides opportunity for future works to further examine community pharmacist's retrieval and appraisal skills for online health information, as well as application of this information into their daily pharmacy practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  2. Aziz H, Hatah E, Makmor-Bakry M, Islahudin F, Ahmad Hamdi N, Mok Pok Wan I
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2018 08 06;18(1):605.
    PMID: 30081892 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-018-3417-y
    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have evaluated the related factors of medication adherence among patients with chronic disease. However, the factors influencing medication adherence and non-adherence among subsidised patients with chronic diseases-for whom medication costs may not be a constraint-remain unexplored. Thus, this study aims to identify and compare the potential factors that may influence subsidised and non-subsidised (i.e., self-paying) patients' adherence to medication.

    METHODS: Subsidised and self-paying patients were identified at public and private healthcare institutions in three states of Malaysia. Patients were then purposively selected for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews according to their medication adherence status (including adherent and non-adherent patients), which was measured using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Adherence was defined as having 80% or more for the percentage of days in which the dose regimen was executed as prescribed. The interview was conducted from January to August 2016 and during the interviews, patients were asked to provide reasons for their medication adherence or non-adherence. The patient interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis with NVivo 11 software.

    RESULTS: Thirteen subsidised and 12 self-paying patients were interviewed. The themes found among subsidised and self-paying patients were similar. The factors that influenced adherence to medication include the 'perceived importance of quality of life' and 'perceived benefit or value of the medications'. A unique factor reported by patients in this study included 'perceived value of the money spent on medications'; more specifically, patients adhered to their medications because they valued the money spent to buy/receive the medications.

    CONCLUSION: Medication adherence among subsidised and self-paying patients was influenced by many factors, including a unique factor relating to their perceptions of the value of money spent on medications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services
  3. Wong PS, Chen YS, Saw PS
    Med Teach, 2019 Oct 11.
    PMID: 31603016 DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2019.1672864
    Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) is an instructional approach for equipping health professions students with essential competencies needed to provide collaborative patient-centred care. The implementation and sustainability of IPE are challenging for many institutions. This qualitative study identified barriers and facilitators in the processes of IPE implementation. Methods: We conducted mixed focus groups (FGs) with faculty members from medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nutrition and dietetics, nursing, chiropractic, Chinese medicine, and other health sciences programmes; who were involved in the planning of IPE at institutional or programme level, or who participated in IPE activity. Transcripts were analysed using grounded theory. Results: We identified 25 barriers and facilitators, clustered under five major categories of commitment, faculty engagement, IPE design, support, and delivery. Conclusions: Successful implementation of IPE may hinge on actions in 5 stages; commitment, faculty engagement, IPE design, support, and delivery. The processes will require consistent leadership to break down professional silos and enhance collaborative effort in IPE implementation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  4. Aljumah K, Hassali MA
    BMC Psychiatry, 2015;15:219.
    PMID: 26376830 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-015-0605-8
    Adherence to antidepressant treatment is essential for the effective management of patients with major depressive disorder. Adherence to medication is a dynamic decision-making process, and pharmacists play an important role in improving adherence to antidepressant treatment in different settings within the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to assess whether pharmacist interventions based on shared decision making improved adherence and patient-related outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services*
  5. Mak VS, March G, Clark A, Gilbert AL
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2014 Oct;22(5):366-72.
    PMID: 24428202 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12090
    OBJECTIVE: To explore South Australian (SA) pharmacy interns' values, beliefs and motivations to study pharmacy and their assessment of how well their pharmacy education has prepared them for activities required of all health professionals under Australia's health care reforms.
    METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to all 136 SA pharmacy interns enrolled in SA intern training programmes in February 2010 (second month of the intern training programme).
    KEY FINDINGS: Sixty (44%) of SA pharmacy interns responded; 75% selected pharmacy as a career because of an interest in health-related sciences and 65% valued working with patients. Respondents believed their pharmacy education prepared them for patient care (80%), providing medicine information (72%) and primary health care delivery (68%), but 51% indicated that they were not prepared for multidisciplinary team care.
    CONCLUSIONS: The positive values, beliefs and motivations expressed by respondents are significant behavioural precursors to meet the requirements of health professionals in Australia's health care reforms. Respondents indicated that their pharmacy education provided appropriate training in a number of relevant professional areas.
    KEYWORDS: behaviour; career choice; education; pharmacy interns; preparedness
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*
  6. Balan S, Hassali MA, Mak VSL
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2017 May-Jun;13(3):653-655.
    PMID: 27493130 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.06.014
    The pediatric population is an enormously diverse segment of population varying both in size and age. The diversity caused pharmacists face various challenges primarily related to procuring, provision as well as use of drugs in this group of patients. Pediatric dose calculation is particularly a concern for pharmacists. Another challenge faced by pharmacists is unavailability of suitable formulations for pediatric use. This has also led many pharmacists to prepare extemporaneous liquid preparations, even though stability data on such preparations are scarce. Some extemporaneous preparations contain excipients which are potentially harmful in children. Besides that, inadequate labeling and drug information for pediatric drug use had not only challenged pharmacists in recommending and optimizing drug use in children, but also inadvertently caused many drugs used outside the approved terms of the product license (off-label use). Pharmacists are striving to stay connected to overcome the common and comparable challenges faced in their day to day duties and strive to maximize the safe and effective use of medicines for children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*
  7. Kawaguchi-Suzuki M, Hogue MD, Khanfar NM, Lahoz MR, Law MG, Parekh J, et al.
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2019 05;83(4):7215.
    PMID: 31223162 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe7215
    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States increasingly interact with those in Asian countries for various purposes such as education and research. For both those visiting and those hosting, it is important to understand and respect the culture of the other's country to enrich these interactions. This paper, the second of two manuscripts on Asian countries, focuses on India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam. For each country, the following information is provided: general introduction, health care system, pharmacy practice, and pharmacy education, stereotypes and misconceptions, recommendations for US-based health care professionals, faculty members, and students who visit these Asian countries, and recommendations for them to host visitors from these Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to assist US health care professionals, faculty members, and students in initiating and promoting a culturally sensitive engagement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*
  8. Gnanasan S, Ting KN, Wong KT, Mohd Ali S, Muttalif AR, Anderson C
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2011 Feb;33(1):44-52.
    PMID: 21365392 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-010-9452-3
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of providing a pharmacist-led pharmaceutical care service to patients with tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus.

    SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods Action research methodology was used.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pharmaceutical care issues.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients was 15% (53/352). Out of 53 patients identified, 35 participated in the study. Patients' ages ranged between 29 and 73 years (mean of 52 ± 10 years). The male: female ratio was 1.7:1. Pharmaceutical care issues identified by pharmacists were nonadherence, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, adverse drug reactions and individual patient's medication related problems. Pharmacists were able to intervene and resolve some of the pharmaceutical care issues.

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacists played an important role in integrating the provision of care for tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus by providing individualised pharmaceutical care management. There still remains a need to address logistic barriers that impinged on the ability to conduct the pharmaceutical care service to its full potential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services*
  9. Babar ZD, Izham MI
    Public Health, 2009 Aug;123(8):523-33.
    PMID: 19665741 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.06.011
    Previous studies on anti-infective and cardiovascular drugs have shown extraordinary price increases following privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system. Therefore, it was felt that there was a need to undertake a full-scale study to evaluate the effect of privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system on drug prices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/economics
  10. Salih MR, Bahari MB, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Al-Lela OQ, Abd AY, et al.
    J Pharm Pract, 2013 Jun;26(3):192-7.
    PMID: 22797836 DOI: 10.1177/0897190012451926
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the practices associated with the application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the management of children with structural-metabolic epilepsy.
    METHODS: It was a retrospective chart review and included children aged ≥2 years old with structural-metabolic epilepsy, treated with AEDs, and received TDM. The data were extracted from the medical records.
    RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were identified with 50 TDM assays. In two thirds of the assays, "check level" and "recheck level" were the reasons behind the requesting of serum level monitoring of AEDs. Knowledge of serum AED levels led to alterations in the management in 60% of the assays. Thirty-two (76%) pediatrician's actions were consistent with the recommendation of TDM pharmacist. Forty-nine (98%) levels were appropriately indicated. In relation to the appropriateness of sampling time, 9 (18%) levels were not assessed due to missing data. Twenty-seven (54%) levels were appropriately sampled.
    CONCLUSIONS: More studies should be designed to improve the component of the current TDM request form, especially in the reason section. By the same token, the number of pointless assays and the costs to the health care system can be reduced both by enhancing and improving the educational standards of the requesting neurologists.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; epilepsy; neurology; pediatrics; therapeutic drug monitoring
    Study site: Paediatric Neurology Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration
  11. Hashmi FK, Hassali MA, Khalid A, Saleem F, Aljadhey H, Babar ZUD, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2017 07 19;17(1):500.
    PMID: 28724411 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-017-2442-6
    BACKGROUND: In recent decades, community pharmacies reported a change of business model, whereby a shift from traditional services to the provision of extended roles was observed. However, such delivery of extended pharmacy services (EPS) is reported from the developed world, and there is scarcity of information from the developing nations. Within this context, the present study was aimed to explore knowledge, perception and attitude of community pharmacists (CPs) about EPS and their readiness and acceptance for practice change in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to gain an in-depth knowledge of the issues. By using a semi-structured interview guide, 12 CPs practicing in the city of Lahore, Pakistan were conveniently selected. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and were then analyzed for thematic contents by the standard content analysis framework.

    RESULTS: Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes. (1) Familiarity with EPS, (2) current practice of EPS, (3) training needed to provide EPS, (4) acceptance of EPS and (5) barriers toward EPS. Majority of the CPs were unaware of EPS and only a handful had the concept of extended services. Although majority of our study respondents were unaware of pharmaceutical care, they were ready to accept practice change if provided with the required skills and training. Lack of personal knowledge, poor public awareness, inadequate physician-pharmacist collaboration and deprived salary structures were reported as barriers towards the provision of EPS at the practice settings.

    CONCLUSION: Although the study reported poor awareness towards EPS, the findings indicated a number of key themes that can be used in establishing the concept of EPS in Pakistan. Over all, CPs reported a positive attitude toward practice change provided to the support and facilitation of health and community based agencies in Pakistan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration
  12. Parasuraman S, Mueen Ahmed KK, Bin Hashim TS, Muralidharan S, Kumar KJ, Ping WY, et al.
    J Basic Clin Pharm, 2014 Dec;6(1):19-23.
    PMID: 25538467 DOI: 10.4103/0976-0105.145773
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the knowledge about the availability of the pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department among health-care professionals through a prospective cohort study.
    METHODS: A total of 741 health-care professionals participated in the study by answering 10 simple questions about the role of the pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department and the availability of pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department. An online questionnaire system was used to conduct the study, and participants were invited to participate through personal communications and by promoting the study through social websites including Facebook, LinkedIn and Google (including Gmail and Google+). The study was conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 using the http://www.freeonlinesurveys.com/Webserver. Finally, the data provided by 621 participants was analyzed. Group frequency analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc. USA).
    RESULTS: The participants were from Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, UAE and Nepal. In total, 312 (50.2%) female health-care professionals and 309 (49.8%) male health-care professionals participated in the study. Of the 621 participants, 390 were working in hospitals, and 231 were not working in hospitals. Of the participants who were working in hospitals, 57.6% were pharmacists. The proportion of study participants who were aware of nuclear pharmacists was 55.39%. Awareness about the role of the pharmacist in nuclear medicine was poor.
    CONCLUSION: The role of the pharmacist in a nuclear medicine unit needs to be highlighted and promoted among health-care professionals and hence that the nuclear medicine team can provide better pharmaceutical care.
    KEYWORDS: Nuclear medicine; nuclear pharmacist; radiopharmaceuticals
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  13. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Rodriguez SP, Patel I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 10 1;7(4):302-8.
    PMID: 26692742 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.158438
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  14. Amrizal, M.N., Rohaizat, Y.B., Saperi, S., SyedMohamed Aljunid
    MyJurnal
    Hospital UKM is the first hospital to implement case·mix system in Malaysia. The objective of the programme is to utilise case-mix system as a tool in improving efficiency and quality of care. From July 2002 to June 2004, a total of 35,568 cases were grouped using IRDRG-Version 1.1 case-mix grouper. Out of these, 3,622 cases or 10.2 % were cardiology cases in MDC 05 (Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System). Medical Cardiology cases consist of 86.5% and the remaining 13.5% were Surgical Cardiology. Most of the cases were in severity level one (43.4%), 29.5 % in severity level two and 27.1% in severity level three. The mortality rates for severity level one, two and three were 1.0%, 2.6% and 11.5% respectively. Top three cardiology cases were Acute Myocardial Infarction Without Comorbidity and Complication (IRDRG 05331) (8.4%), Acute Myocardial Infarction With Major Comorbidity and Complication (IRDRG 05333) (7.6%) and Cardiac Catheterization for Ischemic Heart Disease Without Comorbidity and Complication (IRDRG 05311) (7.4%). Step-down costing was carried out to obtain the cost for each DRG group. The mean cost per episode of care for Medical Cardiology cases was RM 3,562 (SD= RM 2, 1 19) with average LOS of 6.4 days (SD= 3 .8days) . For the Surgical Cardiology cases, the mean cost per episode ofcare was RM 6,526 (SD= RM 4,585) and average LOS of5.8 days (SD= 4.1 days). The main components of cost for Medical Cardiology cases are ICU cost (28.8%), pharmacy (17.3%) and Ward Services (15.3%). In Surgical Cardiology, the biggest component of cost was for Operation Theatre (27.9%), followed by Ward Services (25 .4%) and pharmacy (8.5%). Multivariate analysis using multiple linear regression showed that factors which significantly influence the treatment cost of cardiology cases were length of stay, age of the patient, discharge outcome, case type ('surgical partition') and severity level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  15. Sivanandy P, Maharajan MK, Rajiah K, Wei TT, Loon TW, Yee LC
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2016;10:1317-25.
    PMID: 27524887 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S111537
    BACKGROUND: Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted.

    RESULTS: The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of "staff training and skills" were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup.

    CONCLUSION: The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  16. Bhagavathula AS, Bandari DK, Jamshed SQ, Chattu VK
    PMID: 30505859 DOI: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_77_18
    BACKGROUND: Scholarly research experiences during student life can make pharmacy students capable of reaching the pinnacle of triumph with scientific skills.

    AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the perception of pharmacy students and their inclination toward scholarly research publications.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted among pharmacy students across India, Malaysia, and Pakistan. A 21-item questionnaire was distributed through different social networking sites between July and September 2016. Descriptive and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the findings. A value of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

    RESULTS: Of 543 pharmacy students approached, 348 participants from India, Pakistan, and Malaysia were included giving a response rate of 64%. The study comprises 48.5% of males and 51.4% of females, studying a bachelor of pharmacy (44.5%), and from private institutions (94%). Nearly, three-fourths (76.4%) of the students had no publications but showed high interest toward original research (87.4%). Most of the participants cited the reasons to engage in the scholarly publication is too advanced research/share findings (74.1%), and to improve writing and research skills (73.6%). Further, a significant percentage of students agreed that contributing to the literature during student life as a valuable experience and publishing will provide them with personal fulfilment.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that most of the pharmacy students had positive perceptions toward scholarly research activities to advance research and improve their writing research skills. We recommend the pharmacy schools to incorporate scholarly activities in the curriculum to embark research-inclusive career.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  17. Mathews A, Azad AK, Abbas SA, Bin Che Rose FZ, Helal Uddin ABM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2018 12 21;10(4):226-231.
    PMID: 30568380 DOI: 10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_80_18
    Background: In Malaysia, community pharmacies play an important and vital role in both urban and rural areas with approximately 30% of 12,000 registered pharmacists with annual retention certificate practicing in community pharmacies. The main objective of this study was to find the perception of respondents on the value and necessity of pharmacists.

    Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was divided into two sections: the first section assessed the visits to community pharmacies, purpose, interaction with pharmacy staffs, professional fee, and improvements to pharmacy practices; the second section evaluated the characteristics of respondents including an e-consent form. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 11.5).

    Results: The highest number of respondents (66.1%) consulted with the pharmacists for cough and cold, 33.1% for gastric and stomach ailments, and 28.9% for diarrhea and constipation. Only 34% of cases were handled by the pharmacists, whereas 52.1% by the sales assistant. Approximately 88.5% showed satisfaction with the counseling provided. A total of 46.3% did not know whom they dealt with, whereas 51.2% wanted personal attention of the pharmacists instead of the sales assistants. However, 66.9% of respondents preferred to a private consultation room. Records of only 32.2% of respondents were secured by the pharmacies, whereas 42.1% showed interest to pay a professional fee. Moreover, 83.3% agreed the fee of RM5 only, whereas 20.8% agreed to RM10. Among the respondents, majority agreed to pay a fee willingly, but approximately 30% stayed neutral.

    Conclusion: There is a need for the community pharmacists to play vital roles firsthand at the front desk to serve the patients professionally instead of handing over the responsibilities to the sales assistant.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  18. Shim YW, Chua SS, Wong HC, Alwi S
    Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2018;14:1115-1125.
    PMID: 29942134 DOI: 10.2147/TCRM.S146218
    Background: The elderly population is the largest consumer of medications as this age group is at high risk for developing chronic diseases. However, medication use among elderly people is complicated by an increased risk of drug-related problems. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of collaborative interventions between pharmacists and physicians on health-related outcomes of elderly patients.
    Patients and methods: This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted on elderly outpatients who sought treatment in the Medical Outpatient Department of a public tertiary hospital in Malaysia and who were taking at least five medications. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received pharmaceutical care from a pharmacist in collaboration with physicians and was followed-up for 6 months, while the control group received usual care in the outpatient pharmacy.
    Results: A total of 73 participants in the intervention group and 79 participants in the control group completed the study. Participants in the intervention group had significantly better medication adherence (median =7.0 vs 5.0, U=1224.5, p<0.001, r=0.503) and better Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) score (median =8.0 vs 20.0, U=749.5, p<0.001, r=0.639).
    Conclusion: Collaborative interventions between pharmacists and physicians improved medication adherence and MAI scores of the elderly patients. Therefore, such services should be implemented in all hospitals, especially in countries where pharmacists are still not playing a substantial role in patient care.
    Trial registration: NMRR-12-958-13020.
    Study site: Outpatient clinic (MOPD), Duchess of Kent Hospital, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  19. Naqvi AA, Hassali MA, Naqvi SBS, Aftab MT
    Trials, 2019 Aug 09;20(1):488.
    PMID: 31399128 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-3540-z
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacist intervention in improving disease knowledge, adherence to treatment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and direct cost of treatment. The study also documents patient satisfaction with pharmacist counselling as a quality control measure.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized, single-blind, two-arm, controlled trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis visiting outpatient rheumatology clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. We will enroll patients with established diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis over 3 months. The patients would be randomized through a computer-generated list into the control group, i.e., usual care or into the intervention group, i.e., pharmaceutical care, in a ratio of 1:1, after providing signed written consent. The study will take place in two patient-visits over the course of 3 months. Patients in the intervention group would receive intervention from the pharmacist while those in the control group will receive usual care. Primary outcomes include change in mean score from baseline (week 0) and at follow up (week 12) in disease knowledge, adherence to medications and rehabilitation/physical therapy. The secondary outcomes include change in the mean direct cost of treatment, HRQoL and patient satisfaction with pharmacist counselling.

    DISCUSSION: This is a novel study that evaluates the role of the pharmacist in improving treatment outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The results of this trial could set the foundation for future delivery of care for this patient population in Pakistan. The results of this trial would be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03827148 . Registered on February 2019.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  20. Hamat, N.N., Yusof, N.N., Ramli, N.I., Zubir, N.Z., Wahairi, N., Jusoh, N., et al.
    JUMMEC, 2019;22(2):39-42.
    MyJurnal
    Background: Most postpartum women are prescribed at least one medication; so the safety of the medication
    is a major concern. In 2017, 11% of 815 questions received by the Pharmacy Drug Information Services at seven
    clinics in Dungun is related to medication use in breastfeeding. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate
    the attitudes of healthcare providers (HCPs) and to investigate the effect of knowledge about medication use
    in breastfeeding among HCPs; pre- and post-educational intervention.

    Methods: An interventional study was carried out among medical officers, assistant medical officers,
    pharmacists and pharmacist assistants from seven clinics in the district of Dungun, Malaysia. The questionnaires
    were distributed during pre- and post-intervention period. The interventions in this study included continuous
    medical education (CME) and the use of a booklet regarding medication use for breastfeeding women. The
    data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS) and presented as frequencies,
    means, and standard deviations.

    Results: Fifty HCPs were enrolled in this study and over 20% of them advised mothers to discontinue
    breastfeeding whenever they are prescribed any medication. The knowledge of HCPs about medication use in
    breastfeeding women was significantly improved (Z= -5.917, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
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