Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 78 in total

  1. Elnaem MH, Jamshed SQ, Elkalmi RM, Baharuddin MF, Johari MA, Aziz NABA, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):115-120.
    PMID: 28717334 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_336_16
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Students in relevant health-care academic programs are the future professionals who should play an active role in increasing community awareness regarding chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. This research aimed to evaluate the knowledge of osteoporosis, one of the growing health-care burdens in Malaysia, among students belong to three different health occupations programs in a Malaysian University.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess the level of knowledge on osteoporosis and to explore the potential association between the study program and osteoporosis-related knowledge among medicine, pharmacy, and allied health sciences students in a Malaysian University. A total of 348 students were approached. The data were collected using validated revised Osteoporosis Knowledge Test questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The results showed variability in knowledge score between students belonging to different study programs. allied health sciences students have the highest overall total score (median = 20) and nutrition score (median = 16), but for exercise score, both students in allied health sciences and medicine programs shared a similar median score (median = 11.5). More than half of the respondents showed adequate knowledge on osteoporosis. The students from allied health sciences exhibited more knowledge on osteoporosis compared to students in other study programs. Among the Kulliyyah of Pharmacy respondents, the majority did not manage to answer correctly on the whole scale. This was evident by total percentage of 69.91% of the respondents scored below than median score.

    CONCLUSION: There is a considerable gap of knowledge regarding osteoporosis among students in various health occupations academic programs. Pharmacy students particularly need focused learning related to exercise and nutrition in preventing osteoporosis during their academic program.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  2. Upadhyay DK, Mohamed Ibrahim MI, Mishra P, Alurkar VM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2015;15:57.
    PMID: 25888828 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-015-0715-5
    Patient satisfaction is the ultimate goal of healthcare system which can be achieved from good patient-healthcare professional relationship and quality of healthcare services provided. Study was conducted to determine the baseline satisfaction level of newly diagnosed diabetics and to explore the impact of pharmaceutical care intervention on patients' satisfaction during their follow-ups in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  3. Chua, Siew Siang, Wong, Wai Kee, Lee, Hong Gee, Richard, Yvonne, Jennifer, Tan See Hui
    The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) adopted a set of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) guidelines in 1993 and recommended that the regulatory bodies of individual countries should adapt the guidelines in accordance with their resources. The Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society (MPS) introduced its benchmarking guidelines (BMG) in 2003 as a means to raise the professional standards of the community pharmacy practice in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the extent to which community pharmacies have adopted the BMG. A cross-sectional study was conducted using mail questionnaires, which were posted to all community pharmacies in Malaysia. A total of 371 questionnaires (29.2%) were returned. Only 51.0% of the respondents were aware of the BMG. The extent of compliance with the guidelines was 62.6+21.1% (mean + standard deviation), with a median of 65%. The type and ownership of the community pharmacies were significantly associated with compliance with certain aspects of the guidelines. The main problem in complying with the BMG was financial constraint, and this problem was more likely to occur with independent than with chain pharmacies. However, the respondents generally agreed that most aspects of the BMG could be achieved in less than five years. Since the level of awareness among community pharmacists regarding the BMG is low, the MPS should promote or publicise the BMG further. The BMG should be reviewed before being used as part of the criteria for the accreditation of community pharmacies, as proposed by the MPS to further improve the quality and standards of community pharmacies in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  4. Azarisman S.M.S., Aszrin A., Sahimi M.S., Ngow, Harris, Marzuki A.O., Jamalludin A.R., et al.
    Introduction: Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Malaysia. The prevalence of hypertension nearly doubled over a ten-year period (1986 – 1996). This has resulted in a significant rise in its attendant cost. We aim to review the institutional anti-hypertensive use, the cost incurred and the implications on management in our local setting. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the annual cost (2006) of anti-hypertensive medications was undertaken at the Department of Pharmacy, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, a 600-bed major regional hospital on the east-coast of Malaysia. The total number of prescriptions given out and the total cost per drug is then factored to give the annual cost per drug per person in a percentage of the total annual expenditure.Results: The majority of patients were on either 2 (46.5%) or 3 (25.9%) anti-hypertensives. The most frequently prescribed medications were ACE Inhibitors (33.45%), Calcium channel blockers (29.63%), diuretics (16.67%) and β-blockers (13.64%). In terms of cost however, the Calcium channel blockers constituted the greatest percentage of the annual anti-hypertensive budget (63.67%) compared to ACE Inhibitors at just 20.04% of the annual expenditure. The least costly group of drugs is the diuretic making up 16.67% of the total annual prescriptions but only constituting 1.23% of the annual cost. Conclusion: The majority of patients were on ACE Inhibitors and/or Calcium channel blockers. This has huge monetary implications as they represent a large proportion of the annual antihypertensive allocation. There may be a need to reverse the trend in the developing world due to cost restrictions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  5. Yeoh, Peng-Nam
    IMU is one of 17 institutions of higher learning conducting the Bachelor of Pharmacy course
    in Malaysia. The White paper on pharmacy student professionalism by the Task Force of the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy together with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Council of Deans mentioned10 essential traits of a professional, recommending their early development. Since the beginning of theIMU Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) (Hons) course in July 2004 on Registration Day, IMU has adopted the concept of developing professionalism in the pharmacy student from the very first day of university, by having the White Coat Ceremony where the entire class takes the Pledge of Professionalism (adapted from the Task Force) against the “Code of Conduct for Pharmacists and Bodies Corporate” by the Pharmacy Board of Malaysia in the presence of the Senior Director of the Pharmaceutical Services Division of the Ministry of
    Health, Malaysia and the President of the Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society (MPS). Throughout their 4 years in IMU, the pharmacy students are exposed to various aspects of professionalism in different subjects in their curriculum. On 23rd April 2012, when the fifth cohort of BPharm students received their final examination results, “Pharmacy Professional Day” was launched. The graduating students took the Oath of a Pharmacist (adapted from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy’s Oath with slight amendment). Talks by alumni and speakers from MPS aimed to facilitate the transition of the new graduate to working life as a pharmacist.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  6. Pei, Lin Lua, Umar Idris Ibrahim
    Recently, the integration of mobile phone apps into healthcare system is increasing as a result of the availability of medical applications. This study determined the perception of readiness of community pharmacists on the use of mobile smartphone as a health monitoring tool and the relationships between perception and readiness with selected demographic variables of the respondents. Methods: A crosssectional survey was conducted by distributing a modified 15-item instrument to a convenience sample of pharmacists (n = 245) across Malaysia by post. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Results: Response rate was 31.4% (n= 77). The mean age of the respondents was 35.5 ± 6. 52 years. The sample consisted of mostly women (71.4%). Overall, there were moderate “positive responses” across the two domains. Positive perception ranged from 54.5% to 66.2% and positive readiness ranged from 55.8% to 64.9%. No significant associations between perception and readiness with the selected demographic variables were detected (age, gender, location and outlet type). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there was generally positive perception of mobile phone use for pharmaceutical care among community pharmacists in Malaysia. They were also ready to adapt it to improve pharmaceutical care delivery to patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  7. Aziz H, Hatah E, Makmor-Bakry M, Islahudin F, Ahmad Hamdi N, Mok Pok Wan I
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2018 08 06;18(1):605.
    PMID: 30081892 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-018-3417-y
    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have evaluated the related factors of medication adherence among patients with chronic disease. However, the factors influencing medication adherence and non-adherence among subsidised patients with chronic diseases-for whom medication costs may not be a constraint-remain unexplored. Thus, this study aims to identify and compare the potential factors that may influence subsidised and non-subsidised (i.e., self-paying) patients' adherence to medication.

    METHODS: Subsidised and self-paying patients were identified at public and private healthcare institutions in three states of Malaysia. Patients were then purposively selected for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews according to their medication adherence status (including adherent and non-adherent patients), which was measured using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Adherence was defined as having 80% or more for the percentage of days in which the dose regimen was executed as prescribed. The interview was conducted from January to August 2016 and during the interviews, patients were asked to provide reasons for their medication adherence or non-adherence. The patient interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis with NVivo 11 software.

    RESULTS: Thirteen subsidised and 12 self-paying patients were interviewed. The themes found among subsidised and self-paying patients were similar. The factors that influenced adherence to medication include the 'perceived importance of quality of life' and 'perceived benefit or value of the medications'. A unique factor reported by patients in this study included 'perceived value of the money spent on medications'; more specifically, patients adhered to their medications because they valued the money spent to buy/receive the medications.

    CONCLUSION: Medication adherence among subsidised and self-paying patients was influenced by many factors, including a unique factor relating to their perceptions of the value of money spent on medications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services
  8. Ong SW, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2018 06 27;16(2):1166.
    PMID: 30023025 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.02.1166
    Objective: The current study was carried out to assess community pharmacists' perceptions towards online health information, to examine the type of information seek from Internet and to identify the barriers when they retrieved online health information.

    Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey whereby all (300) community pharmacists practicing in Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were targeted for data collection. A 35-itemed questionnaire was posted out along with a stamped addressed envelope, invitation letter and support letter. Responses were also accepted via online response. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 20.0.

    Results: A total of 67 responses were received with a response rate of 22.3%. The top three frequently health information searched by respondents were medicine information, general healthcare information and disease-related information. High number of respondents agreed that Internet had too much health information to scan through. Gender (p=0.018) showed significant association with visiting established health websites. Meanwhile, statistical significant was observed between age and searching medicine information (p=0.037), undertaking online continuing professional development (p=0.023), as well as searching clinical guidelines (p=0.047). Respondents' education level showed significant association with uncertainty about the reliability of online health information (p=0.023) and unsure about filtering the information (p=0.007).

    Conclusions: Majority of the respondents expressed positive perception with the use of Internet for health information. The findings of the current study showed the widely use of Internet for health information among community pharmacists. Hence, this study provides opportunity for future works to further examine community pharmacist's retrieval and appraisal skills for online health information, as well as application of this information into their daily pharmacy practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  9. Zainal INA, Karim NAA, Soh YC, Suleiman AK, Khan TM, Hameed MA, et al.
    Ther Innov Regul Sci, 2017 Jul;51(4):419-425.
    PMID: 30227049 DOI: 10.1177/2168479017701977
    The Internet and rapid development of technology has led to the application of pharmacoinformatic technologies in improving the efficiency of the medication use process. By integrating pharmacoinformatics in pharmacy education, a qualified workforce of pharmacists well trained in the perspective of both pharmacy practice and informatics for safe and positive health-related outcomes can be produced. This survey assessed the level of importance of the suggested topics for pharmacoinformatics courses for pharmacy bachelor's and master's degrees by giving a questionnaire to pharmacy lecturers in both public and private universities, and to pharmacists registered with the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. Briefly the study of pharmacoinformatics was classified into 5 major areas: Drug Information Services, Information Technology & Internet, Drug Formulary Management, Supply Chain Management, and Health Policy. The relative importance of all relevant topics were evaluated and reported. It was found that compared with the undergraduate level, master's degree had higher expectations, and thus a more in-depth pharmacoinformatics curriculum content. In addition, the experiential method of learning instead of formal lectures alone was used on pharmacy master's courses. The findings from this survey could serve as a guide to improve pharmacoinformatics curricula in order to produce pharmacists who can safely and effectively utilize pharmacy informatics to disseminate information in drug use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  10. Ishak AS, Haque MS, Sadhra SS
    Occup Med (Lond), 2019 Apr 13;69(2):99-105.
    PMID: 30295884 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqy129
    BACKGROUND: Needlestick injury (NSI) is a significant occupational health issue among healthcare workers (HCWs).

    AIMS: To determine the national self-reported incidence and risk factors for NSI among Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) HCWs.

    METHODS: Using data from the MOH national sharps injury surveillance programme, information on reported NSIs over a 1-year period (2016) for different HCW subgroups were extracted and analysed.

    RESULTS: A total of 1234 NSI cases were reported in 2016, giving an overall incidence of 6 injuries per 1000 HCWs. Medical doctors recorded the highest incidence (21.1 per 1000 HCWs) followed by dental staff (7.5), pharmacy staff (4.2), nurses (3.7), medical assistants (3.4) and allied and auxiliary staff (1.0). Doctors had significantly increased risk of NSI compared with allied and auxiliary staff (relative risk [RR] = 20.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.5-27.5), medical assistants (RR = 6.1, 95% CI 4.5-8.2), nurses (RR = 5.7, 95% CI 5.0-6.6), pharmacy staff (RR = 5.0, 95% CI 3.7-6.6) and dental staff (RR = 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.5). Significant differences were found in age and sharps- handling experience between occupational subgroups (P < 0.001 for both variables). Male employees had higher risk than females (RR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.50), with a significant difference seen in their sharps-handling experience (P < 0.01). Important risk factors included unsafe practices such as recapping of needles and their improper disposal.

    CONCLUSIONS: The national incidence of NSI amongst Malaysian HCWs was lower compared with other countries, but unsafe practices remain an important concern. There is a need to formulate, implement and monitor safe and consistent practices for the different healthcare professionals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  11. Kawaguchi-Suzuki M, Hogue MD, Khanfar NM, Lahoz MR, Law MG, Parekh J, et al.
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2019 May;83(4):7215.
    PMID: 31223162 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe7215
    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States increasingly interact with those in Asian countries for various purposes such as education and research. For both those visiting and those hosting, it is important to understand and respect the culture of the other's country to enrich these interactions. This paper, the second of two manuscripts on Asian countries, focuses on India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam. For each country, the following information is provided: general introduction, health care system, pharmacy practice, and pharmacy education, stereotypes and misconceptions, recommendations for US-based health care professionals, faculty members, and students who visit these Asian countries, and recommendations for them to host visitors from these Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to assist US health care professionals, faculty members, and students in initiating and promoting a culturally sensitive engagement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  12. Abubakar U, Tangiisuran B
    PMID: 31628999 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.10.007
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the participation and the barriers to hospital pharmacists' participation in antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in Nigerian tertiary hospitals.

    METHODS: A cross sectional nationwide online survey was conducted over six weeks period between May and June 2019. Invitation was sent to all the Heads of Pharmacy department or pharmacist in charge of the Infectious Disease (ID) or antimicrobial pharmacist. A validated questionnaire consisting of 24-item were used for data collection.

    RESULTS: Forty five hospitals were invited and 37 completed the survey (response rate: 82.2%). Only 5 (13.5%) hospitals had a formal antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) team with each of them having pharmacist representation. Regardless of the existence of AMS team, most hospital pharmacists executed AMS strategy including evaluating the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions (54.1%) and monitoring antimicrobial consumption (48.6%). The most common barriers to pharmacists' involvement in ASP were lack of education and training in AMS and ID (51.4%), lack of pharmacists with ID specialization (40.5%) and lack of support from hospital administrators (37.8%). Majority of the respondents recommended training in AMS and ID (100%), participation in ward rounds (89.2%) and employment of more pharmacists (73%) as strategies to improve pharmacist's participation in ASP.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hospital pharmacists are actively involved in AMS activities despite the lack of established AMS team in most tertiary hospitals. However, lack of training and personnel are major barrier to their involvement in ASP.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  13. Wong PS, Chen YS, Saw PS
    Med Teach, 2019 Oct 11.
    PMID: 31603016 DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2019.1672864
    Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) is an instructional approach for equipping health professions students with essential competencies needed to provide collaborative patient-centred care. The implementation and sustainability of IPE are challenging for many institutions. This qualitative study identified barriers and facilitators in the processes of IPE implementation. Methods: We conducted mixed focus groups (FGs) with faculty members from medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nutrition and dietetics, nursing, chiropractic, Chinese medicine, and other health sciences programmes; who were involved in the planning of IPE at institutional or programme level, or who participated in IPE activity. Transcripts were analysed using grounded theory. Results: We identified 25 barriers and facilitators, clustered under five major categories of commitment, faculty engagement, IPE design, support, and delivery. Conclusions: Successful implementation of IPE may hinge on actions in 5 stages; commitment, faculty engagement, IPE design, support, and delivery. The processes will require consistent leadership to break down professional silos and enhance collaborative effort in IPE implementation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  14. Aljumah K, Hassali MA
    BMC Psychiatry, 2015;15:219.
    PMID: 26376830 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-015-0605-8
    Adherence to antidepressant treatment is essential for the effective management of patients with major depressive disorder. Adherence to medication is a dynamic decision-making process, and pharmacists play an important role in improving adherence to antidepressant treatment in different settings within the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to assess whether pharmacist interventions based on shared decision making improved adherence and patient-related outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services*
  15. Mak VS, March G, Clark A, Gilbert AL
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2014 Oct;22(5):366-72.
    PMID: 24428202 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12090
    OBJECTIVE: To explore South Australian (SA) pharmacy interns' values, beliefs and motivations to study pharmacy and their assessment of how well their pharmacy education has prepared them for activities required of all health professionals under Australia's health care reforms.
    METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to all 136 SA pharmacy interns enrolled in SA intern training programmes in February 2010 (second month of the intern training programme).
    KEY FINDINGS: Sixty (44%) of SA pharmacy interns responded; 75% selected pharmacy as a career because of an interest in health-related sciences and 65% valued working with patients. Respondents believed their pharmacy education prepared them for patient care (80%), providing medicine information (72%) and primary health care delivery (68%), but 51% indicated that they were not prepared for multidisciplinary team care.
    CONCLUSIONS: The positive values, beliefs and motivations expressed by respondents are significant behavioural precursors to meet the requirements of health professionals in Australia's health care reforms. Respondents indicated that their pharmacy education provided appropriate training in a number of relevant professional areas.
    KEYWORDS: behaviour; career choice; education; pharmacy interns; preparedness
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*
  16. Balan S, Hassali MA, Mak VSL
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2017 May-Jun;13(3):653-655.
    PMID: 27493130 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.06.014
    The pediatric population is an enormously diverse segment of population varying both in size and age. The diversity caused pharmacists face various challenges primarily related to procuring, provision as well as use of drugs in this group of patients. Pediatric dose calculation is particularly a concern for pharmacists. Another challenge faced by pharmacists is unavailability of suitable formulations for pediatric use. This has also led many pharmacists to prepare extemporaneous liquid preparations, even though stability data on such preparations are scarce. Some extemporaneous preparations contain excipients which are potentially harmful in children. Besides that, inadequate labeling and drug information for pediatric drug use had not only challenged pharmacists in recommending and optimizing drug use in children, but also inadvertently caused many drugs used outside the approved terms of the product license (off-label use). Pharmacists are striving to stay connected to overcome the common and comparable challenges faced in their day to day duties and strive to maximize the safe and effective use of medicines for children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*
  17. Gnanasan S, Ting KN, Wong KT, Mohd Ali S, Muttalif AR, Anderson C
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2011 Feb;33(1):44-52.
    PMID: 21365392 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-010-9452-3
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of providing a pharmacist-led pharmaceutical care service to patients with tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus.

    SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods Action research methodology was used.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pharmaceutical care issues.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients was 15% (53/352). Out of 53 patients identified, 35 participated in the study. Patients' ages ranged between 29 and 73 years (mean of 52 ± 10 years). The male: female ratio was 1.7:1. Pharmaceutical care issues identified by pharmacists were nonadherence, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, adverse drug reactions and individual patient's medication related problems. Pharmacists were able to intervene and resolve some of the pharmaceutical care issues.

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacists played an important role in integrating the provision of care for tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus by providing individualised pharmaceutical care management. There still remains a need to address logistic barriers that impinged on the ability to conduct the pharmaceutical care service to its full potential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services*
  18. Babar ZD, Izham MI
    Public Health, 2009 Aug;123(8):523-33.
    PMID: 19665741 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.06.011
    Previous studies on anti-infective and cardiovascular drugs have shown extraordinary price increases following privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system. Therefore, it was felt that there was a need to undertake a full-scale study to evaluate the effect of privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system on drug prices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/economics
  19. Hashmi FK, Hassali MA, Khalid A, Saleem F, Aljadhey H, Babar ZUD, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2017 07 19;17(1):500.
    PMID: 28724411 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-017-2442-6
    BACKGROUND: In recent decades, community pharmacies reported a change of business model, whereby a shift from traditional services to the provision of extended roles was observed. However, such delivery of extended pharmacy services (EPS) is reported from the developed world, and there is scarcity of information from the developing nations. Within this context, the present study was aimed to explore knowledge, perception and attitude of community pharmacists (CPs) about EPS and their readiness and acceptance for practice change in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to gain an in-depth knowledge of the issues. By using a semi-structured interview guide, 12 CPs practicing in the city of Lahore, Pakistan were conveniently selected. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and were then analyzed for thematic contents by the standard content analysis framework.

    RESULTS: Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes. (1) Familiarity with EPS, (2) current practice of EPS, (3) training needed to provide EPS, (4) acceptance of EPS and (5) barriers toward EPS. Majority of the CPs were unaware of EPS and only a handful had the concept of extended services. Although majority of our study respondents were unaware of pharmaceutical care, they were ready to accept practice change if provided with the required skills and training. Lack of personal knowledge, poor public awareness, inadequate physician-pharmacist collaboration and deprived salary structures were reported as barriers towards the provision of EPS at the practice settings.

    CONCLUSION: Although the study reported poor awareness towards EPS, the findings indicated a number of key themes that can be used in establishing the concept of EPS in Pakistan. Over all, CPs reported a positive attitude toward practice change provided to the support and facilitation of health and community based agencies in Pakistan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration
  20. Salih MR, Bahari MB, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Al-Lela OQ, Abd AY, et al.
    J Pharm Pract, 2013 Jun;26(3):192-7.
    PMID: 22797836 DOI: 10.1177/0897190012451926
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the practices associated with the application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the management of children with structural-metabolic epilepsy.
    METHODS: It was a retrospective chart review and included children aged ≥2 years old with structural-metabolic epilepsy, treated with AEDs, and received TDM. The data were extracted from the medical records.
    RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were identified with 50 TDM assays. In two thirds of the assays, "check level" and "recheck level" were the reasons behind the requesting of serum level monitoring of AEDs. Knowledge of serum AED levels led to alterations in the management in 60% of the assays. Thirty-two (76%) pediatrician's actions were consistent with the recommendation of TDM pharmacist. Forty-nine (98%) levels were appropriately indicated. In relation to the appropriateness of sampling time, 9 (18%) levels were not assessed due to missing data. Twenty-seven (54%) levels were appropriately sampled.
    CONCLUSIONS: More studies should be designed to improve the component of the current TDM request form, especially in the reason section. By the same token, the number of pointless assays and the costs to the health care system can be reduced both by enhancing and improving the educational standards of the requesting neurologists.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; epilepsy; neurology; pediatrics; therapeutic drug monitoring
    Study site: Paediatric Neurology Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration
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