Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 164 in total

  1. Samak YO, Santhanes D, El-Massik MA, Coombes AGA
    J Microencapsul, 2019 Mar;36(2):204-214.
    PMID: 31164027 DOI: 10.1080/02652048.2019.1620356
    Nigella sativa extract (NSE) was incorporated in alginate microcapsules using aerosolisation and homogenisation methods, respectively, with the aim of delivering high concentrations of the active species, thymoquinone (TQ), directly to sites of inflammation in the colon following oral administration. Encapsulation of NSE was accomplished either by direct loading or diffusion into blank microparticles. Microcapsules in the size range 40-60 µm exhibited significantly higher NSE loading up to 42% w/w and encapsulation efficiency (EE) up to 63% when the extract was entrapped by direct encapsulation compared with 4.1 w/w loading, 6.2% EE when NSE was incorporated by diffusion loading. Sequential exposure of samples to simulated intestinal fluids (SIFs) revealed that the microcapsules suppressed NSE release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) for 2 h and SIF for 4 h and liberated most of the NSE content (80%) in simulated colonic fluid (SCF) over 18 h. NSE released in SCF at 12 h exhibited antioxidant activity, when measured using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay at levels comparable with the activity of unencapsulated extract. These findings demonstrate the potential of oral alginate microcapsules as highly efficient, targeted carriers for colonic delivery of NSE in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  2. Saleem H, Zengin G, Locatelli M, Ahmad I, Khaliq S, Mahomoodally MF, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2019 Sep;131:110535.
    PMID: 31154083 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.043
    This study endeavours to investigate the phytochemical composition, biological properties and in vivo toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey. Total bioactive contents, antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) and enzyme inhibition (cholinesterases, tyrosinase α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) potential were assessed utilizing in vitro bioassays. UHPLC-MS phytochemical profiling was carried out to identify the essential compounds. The methanol extract was found to contain highest phenolic (22.60 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (31.49 mg QE/g) contents which correlate with its most significant radical scavenging, reducing potential and tyrosinase inhibition. The dichloromethane extract was most potent for phosphomolybdenum, ferrous chelation, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and cholinesterase inhibition assays. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract unveiled to identify 11 secondary metabolites belonging to five sub-groups, i.e., phenolic, alkaloid, carbohydrate, terpenoid, and fatty acid derivatives. Additionally, in vivo toxicity was conducted for 21 days and the methanol extract at different doses (150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg) was administered in experimental chicks divided into five groups each containing five individuals. Different physical, haematological and biochemical parameters along with the absolute and relative weight of visceral body organs were studied. Overall, no toxic effect was noted for the extract at tested doses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  3. Muhammad H, Maslan SF, Md Saad WM, Thani NSIA, Ibnu Rasid EN, Mahomoodally MF, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2019 Sep;131:110538.
    PMID: 31152790 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.046
    Dioscorea hispida var. daemona (Roxb) Prain & Burkill (DH), also known a tropical yam or intoxicating yam is a bitter wild tuber which is consumed as a staple food and traditionally used as a remedy in Malaysia. However, DH is also notorious for its intoxicating effects and there is currently a dearth of study of possible effects of DH on liver and placental tissues and hence its safe consumption warrants in-depth investigation. This study was therefore designed to investigate into the effect of DH on liver and placenta of pregnant rat via histopathological examination. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups consisting of a control (distilled water) and four DH aqueous extract groups (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight). The extracts were administered via oral gavage daily throughout the study and animals were sacrificed on day 21. Paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of placenta and liver were examined. Significant changes (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  4. Ng PL, Rajab NF, Then SM, Mohd Yusof YA, Wan Ngah WZ, Pin KY, et al.
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2014 Aug;15(8):692-700.
    PMID: 25091987 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1300303
    OBJECTIVE: The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated.
    METHODS: HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds.
    RESULTS: In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 µmol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway.
    KEYWORDS: 5-Fluorouracil; Herb-drug interaction; Isobologram analysis; Piper betle L.; Piperaceae
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  5. Norhayati MN, George A, Hazlina NH, Azidah AK, Idiana HI, Law KS, et al.
    J Med Food, 2014 Aug;17(8):929-38.
    PMID: 25000151 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2013.2953
    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400 mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17β-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  6. Effendy NM, Khamis MF, Soelaiman IN, Shuid AN
    J Xray Sci Technol, 2014;22(4):503-18.
    PMID: 25080117 DOI: 10.3233/XST-140441
    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is best treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause breast cancer, uterine cancer and cardiovascular problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb with phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects has potential as an ERT alternative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  7. Abuzeid N, Kalsum S, Koshy RJ, Larsson M, Glader M, Andersson H, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Nov 18;157:134-9.
    PMID: 25261689 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.020
    The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis underscores the need for continuous development of new and efficient methods to determine the susceptibility of isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the search for novel antimycobacterial agents. Natural products constitute an important source of new drugs, and design and implementation of antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods are necessary to evaluate the different extracts and compounds. In this study we have explored the antimycobacterial properties of 50 ethanolic extracts from different parts of 46 selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan to treat infectious diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  8. Mogana R, Adhikari A, Debnath S, Hazra S, Hazra B, Teng-Jin K, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:903529.
    PMID: 24949478 DOI: 10.1155/2014/903529
    In continuation of our natural and medicinal research programme on tropical rainforest plants, a bioassay guided fractionation of ethanolic extract of leaves of Canarium patentinervium Miq. (Burseraceae Kunth.) led to the isolation of scopoletin (1), scoparone (2), (+)-catechin (3), vomifoliol (4), lioxin (5), and syringic acid (6). All the compounds exhibited antiacetylcholinesterase activity with syringic acid, a phenolic acid exhibiting good AChE inhibition (IC50 29.53 ± 0.19 μ g/mL). All compounds displayed moderate antileishmanial activity with scopoletin having the highest antileishmanial activity (IC50 163.30 ± 0.32 μ g/mL). Given the aforementioned evidence, it is tempting to speculate that Canarium patentinervium Miq. represents an exciting scaffold from which to develop leads for treatment of neurodegenerative and parasitic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  9. Mohd Ghazali MA, Al-Naqeb G, Krishnan Selvarajan K, Hazizul Hasan M, Adam A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:539607.
    PMID: 24955361 DOI: 10.1155/2014/539607
    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae) is a medicinal herb distributed throughout eastern Asia. The present study investigated antiproliferative effect of P. minus and its possible mechanisms. Four extracts (petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) were prepared by cold maceration. Extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antiproliferative assays; the most bioactive was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography into seven fractions (F1-F7). Antioxidant activity was measured via total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most active fraction was tested for apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Apoptotic-related gene expression was studied by RT-PCR. Ethyl acetate extract was bioactive in initial assays. Its fraction, F7, exhibited highest antioxidant capacity (TPC; 113.16 ± 6.2 mg GAE/g extract, DPPH; EC50: 30.5 ± 3.2 μg/mL, FRAP; 1169 ± 20.3 μmol Fe (II)/mg extract) and selective antiproliferative effect (IC50: 25.75 ± 1.5 μg/mL). F7 induced apoptosis in concentration- and time-dependent manner and caused cell cycle arrest at S-phase. Upregulation of proapoptotic genes (Bax, p53, and caspase-3) and downregulation of antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-2, were observed. In conclusion, F7 was antiproliferative to HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and via antioxidative effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  10. Hu L, Yu W, Li Y, Prasad N, Tang Z
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:341291.
    PMID: 24719856 DOI: 10.1155/2014/341291
    The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 → 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  11. Kazemipoor M, Radzi CW, Hajifaraji M, Cordell GA
    Phytother Res, 2014 Oct;28(10):1456-60.
    PMID: 24638976 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5147
    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) is known as caraway, and its derivatives find wide medicinal use for health purposes, including for gastrointestinal problems and obesity. Since there is inconsistency among the reports on the safety of this plant in humans, this research was aimed at assessing the safety of a characterized caraway aqueous extract (CAE) in a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy, overweight and obese, healthy women were randomly assigned into placebo (n = 35) and plant extract (n = 35) groups. Participants received either 30 ml/day of CAE or placebo. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 12 weeks for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, urine test, 25-item blood chemistries, and general health status. No significant changes of blood pressure, heart rate, urine specific gravity, and serum blood tests were observed between the two groups before and after treatment. However, in the complete blood count test, red blood cell levels were significantly (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  12. Castillo VP, Sajap AS, Sahri MH
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2013 Aug;106(4):1794-801.
    PMID: 24020295
    Feeding responses of subterranean termites Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren) and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) to bait matrices supplemented with various sugars, amino acids, and cassava were evaluated both in the laboratory and field. The results indicated that the two termite species consumed significantly different amount of filter papers that had been treated with various types and concentrations of sugars and amino acids. Based on consumption and survival data, filter papers with 3% glucose and 3% xylose were among the most consumed by C. curvignathus and C. gestroi, respectively. Both termite species consumed more of the filter papers treated with 3% casein than filter papers treated with L-alanine. Both species had a comparable survival rate compared with those in the controls. Results from laboratory and field trials on bait prototypes indicated that C. gestroi consumed more bait prototypes containing cellulose, 3% xylose, 3% casein, and cassava, whereas C curvignathus consumed more bait prototype containing cellulose, 3% glucose, and cassava, than on pure crystalline cellulose baits. Thus, with an improved and cost-effective bait formulation, a much wider control of subterranean termite colonies could be achieved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  13. Farsi E, Shafaei A, Hor SY, Ahamed MB, Yam MF, Asmawi MZ, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013 Jun;68(6):865-75.
    PMID: 23778480 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2013(06)23
    Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  14. Sapaat A, Satrija F, Mahsol HH, Ahmad AH
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Dec;29(4):508-12.
    PMID: 23202594
    The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  15. Sarmadi B, Aminuddin F, Hamid M, Saari N, Abdul-Hamid A, Ismail A
    Food Chem, 2012 Sep 15;134(2):905-11.
    PMID: 23107706 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.202
    Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit α-amylase activity. However, no α-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  16. Kamisan FH, Yahya F, Ismail NA, Din SS, Mamat SS, Zabidi Z, et al.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2013 Feb;6(1):52-5.
    PMID: 23433055 DOI: 10.1016/j.jams.2012.08.002
    The present study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective activity of a methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves (MEMM) using two established rat models. Ten groups of rats (n=6) were given a once-daily administration of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (negative control), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control), or MEMM (50, 250, or 500 mg/kg) for 7 days followed by induction of hepatotoxicity either using paracetamol or carbon tetrachloride. Blood samples and livers were collected for biochemical and microscopic analysis. Based on the results obtained, MEMM exhibited a significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity against both inducers, as indicated by an improvement in the liver function test. These observations were supported by the histologic findings. In conclusion, M. malabathricum leaves possessed hepatoprotective activity, which could be linked to their phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity; this therefore requires further in-depth studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  17. Jothy SL, Zakariah Z, Chen Y, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 07;17(6):6997-7009.
    PMID: 22678414 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17066997
    Cassia fistula seeds have many therapeutic uses in traditional medicine practice. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the anticandidal activity of the C. fistula seed extract at ultra-structural level through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The effect of seed extract on the growth profile of the Candida albicans was examined via time-kill assays and in vivo efficacy of the extract was tested in an animal model. In addition, the anticandidal effect of seed extract was further evaluated by microscopic observations using SEM and TEM to determine any major alterations in the ultrastructure of C. albicans. The complete inhibition of C. albicans growth was shown by C. fistula seed extract at 6.25 mg/mL concentration. The time-kill assay suggested that C. fistula seed extract had completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and also exhibited prolonged anti-yeast activity. The SEM and TEM observations carried out to distinguish the metamorphosis in the morphology of control and C. fistula seed extract-treated C. albicans cells revealed the notable effect on the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic content of the C. albicans and complete collapse of yeast cell exposed to seed extract at concentration 6.25 mg/mL at 36 h. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 6-fold decrease in C. albicans in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g/kg body weight). The results suggested that the C. fistula seed extract possessed good anticandidal activity and is a potential candidate for the development of anticandidal agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  18. Zabidi Z, Wan Zainulddin WN, Mamat SS, Shamsahal Din S, Kamisan FH, Yahya F, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2012;21(5):501-3.
    PMID: 22517296 DOI: 10.1159/000337406
    To determine the potential antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves (MEMM) using various established rat models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  19. Khamis S, Bibby MC, Brown JE, Cooper PA, Scowen I, Wright CW
    Phytother Res, 2004 Jul;18(7):507-10.
    PMID: 15305306
    Bioassay guided fractionation of the roots of Cyathostemma argenteum using the brine shrimp resulted in the isolation of two uncommon flavanones, 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone 1 and 2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavanone 2 while the stem bark yielded the related compounds 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy flavone 3 and 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavone 4. The alkaloids liriodenine 5 and discretamine 6 as well as benzyl benzoate 7 were isolated from the roots and 6 was also isolated from the stembark. In cytotoxicity tests using four human breast cancer cell lines, 1 and 2 were weakly toxic to MCF-7 cells (IC(50) = 19.6 and 19.0 microM, respectively) but showed little activity against MCF-7 cells resistant to doxorubicin or against two oestrogen receptor-deficient cell lines. Compound 5, but not 6 and 7, was moderately cytotoxic against all four cell lines. These results are discussed in the context of the traditional use of C. argenteum in the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  20. Wiart C, Mogana S, Khalifah S, Mahan M, Ismail S, Buckle M, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2004 Jan;75(1):68-73.
    PMID: 14693223
    Seventy-two extracts (methanol) obtained from the leaves, barks, and roots of 50 plant species used in the traditional medicine of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Peristrophe tinctoria, Polyalthia lateriflora, Knema malayana, Solanum torvum, Celosia argentea, Eclipta prostrata, Ancistrocladus tectorius, Dillenia suffruticosa, Piper stylosum and Rafflesia hasseltii displayed the broadest spectrum of activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
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