Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 154 in total

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  1. Devaraj S, Esfahani AS, Ismail S, Ramanathan S, Yam MF
    Molecules, 2010 Apr;15(4):2925-34.
    PMID: 20428088 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042925
    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the paw licking time of rats in both early and late phases at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. In the acute oral toxicity study, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  2. Hafizah AH, Zaiton Z, Zulkhairi A, Mohd Ilham A, Nor Anita MM, Zaleha AM
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2010 May;11(5):357-65.
    PMID: 20443214 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B0900397
    Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initial endothelial injury, which promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Piper sarmentosum (PS), a natural product, has been shown to have an antioxidant property, which is hypothesized to inhibit production of ROS and prevent cell injury. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of PS on the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative cell damage in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this experiment, HUVECs were obtained by collagenase perfusion of the large vein in the umbilical cord and cultured in medium M200 supplemented with low serum growth supplementation (LSGS). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of H(2)O(2) (0-1000 micromol/L) and it was observed that 180 micromol/L H(2)O(2) reduced cell viability by 50% as denoted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Using the above concentration as the positive control, the H(2)O(2)-induced HUVECs were concomitantly treated with various concentrations (100, 150, 250 and 300 microg/ml) of three different extracts (aqueous, methanol and hexane) of PS. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in HUVECs compared to the negative control. However, PS extracts showed a protective effect on HUVECs from H(2)O(2)-induced cell apoptosis with a significant reduction in MDA, SOD, CAT and GPX levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, PS had exhibited ferric reducing antioxidant power with its high phenolic content. Hence, it was concluded that PS plays a beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress in H(2)O(2)-induced HUVECs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  3. Parthasarathy S, Ramanathan S, Ismail S, Adenan MI, Mansor SM, Murugaiyah V
    Anal Bioanal Chem, 2010 Jul;397(5):2023-30.
    PMID: 20454783 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-010-3707-7
    A new solid phase extraction method for rapid high performance liquid chromatography-UV determination of mitragynine in plasma has been developed. Optimal separation was achieved with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate buffer, 50 mM at pH 5.0 (50:50, v/v). The method had limits of detection and quantification of 0.025 and 0.050 microg/mL, respectively. The method was accurate and precise for the quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human and rat plasma with within-day and between-day accuracies between 84.0 and 109.6%, and their precision values were between 1.7 and 16.8%. Additional advantages over known methods are related to the solid phase extraction technique for sample preparation which yields a clean chromatogram, a short total analysis time, requires a smaller amount of plasma samples and has good assay sensitivity for bioanalytical application. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic and stability studies of mitragynine. In the present study, mitragynine was found to be fairly stable during storage and sample preparation. The present study showed for the first time the detailed pharmacokinetic profiles of mitragynine. Following intravenous administration, mitragynine demonstrated a biphasic elimination from plasma. Oral absorption of the drug was slow, prolonged and was incomplete, with a calculated absolute oral bioavailability value of 3.03%. The variations observed in previous pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration of mitragynine could be attributed to its poor bioavailability rather than to the differences in assay method, metabolic saturation or mitragynine dose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  4. Lee CY, Sim SM, Cheng HM
    Nutr Res, 2008 Aug;28(8):555-63.
    PMID: 19083460 DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.05.001
    The use of a high quercetin dose to demonstrate its absorption and bioavailability does not reflect the real dietary situation because quercetin glycosides are usually present in small amounts in the human diet. This study aimed to demonstrate the absorption and bioavailability of quercetin in mulberry leaves that represents a more physiologic dietary situation. Mulberry leaf ethanol extract was prepared similar to tea infusion, which is the way the tea leaves are generally prepared for consumption. Accordingly, rats were fed by oral intubation the mulberry leaf ethanol extract (15 g%/rat per day) or pure rutin (135 microg/rat per day) for 2 weeks. The control group received a similar volume of the vehicle, 10% ethanol. There was a significant increase in total antioxidant activity (TAA) in the urine and feces of the antioxidants-fed rats. Phenylacetic acid, a microbial metabolite of quercetin, was detected in the urine of the test animals, and quercetin was present in the fecal samples. By using an in situ intestinal preparation, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, another microbial metabolite of quercetin, was detected in the plasma when the duodenal segment was instilled with 2 mg of rutin. This microbial metabolite retained 50% of the TAA of quercetin. The results of this study indicate that in a more realistic dietary situation, an increase in TAA in the body after consumption of quercetin-containing foods is contributed mainly by the microbial metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  5. Mohd Azamai ES, Sulaiman S, Mohd Habib SH, Looi ML, Das S, Abdul Hamid NA, et al.
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2009 Jan;10(1):14-21.
    PMID: 19198018 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B0820168
    Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has been reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. We evaluated the effect of CV on apoptotic regulator protein expression in liver cancer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats (200~250 g) were divided into eight groups: control group (normal diet), CDE group (choline deficient diet supplemented with ethionine in drinking water to induce hepatocarcinogenesis), CV groups with three different doses of CV (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg body weight), and CDE groups treated with different doses of CV (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed at various weeks and liver tissues were embedded in paraffin blocks for immunohistochemistry studies. CV, at increasing doses, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein, caspase 8, in CDE rats, which was correlated with decreased hepatocytes proliferation and increased apoptosis as determined by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. Our study shows that CV has definite chemopreventive effect by inducing apoptosis via decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and increasing the expression of caspase 8 in hepatocarcinogenesis-induced rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  6. Mohd Ridzuan MA, Sow A, Noor Rain A, Mohd Ilham A, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Jun;24(1):111-8.
    PMID: 17568384 MyJurnal
    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as 'Tongkat Ali' is a popular local medicinal plant that possess a lot of medicinal properties as claimed traditionally, especially in the treatment of malaria. The claims have been proven scientifically on isolated compounds from the plant. The present study is to investigate the anti malaria properties of Eurycoma longifolia standardized extract (root) (TA164) alone and in combination with artemisinin in vivo. Combination treatment of the standardized extract (TA164) with artemisinin suppressed P. yoelii infection in the experimental mice. The 4 day suppressive test showed that TA164 suppressed the parasitemia of P. yoelii-infected mice as dose dependent manner (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW) by oral and subcutaneous treatment. By oral administration, combination of TA164 at 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW each with artemisinin respectively showed a significant increase in the parasitemia suppression to 63, 67 and 80 percent as compared to artemisinin single treatment (31%). Using subcutaneous administration, at 10 mg/kg BW of TA164 in combination with 1.7 mg/kg BW of artemisinin gave a suppression of 80% of infection. This study showed that combination treatment of TA164 with artemisinin gives a promising potential anti malaria candidate using both oral and subcutaneous route, the later being the most potent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  7. Ali Khan MS, Nazan S, Mat Jais AM
    Arq Gastroenterol, 2017 Jul-Sep;54(3):183-191.
    PMID: 28492713 DOI: 10.1590/S0004-2803.201700000-21
    BACKGROUND: Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. from family Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda and Siddha traditional systems of medicine to heal ulcers.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective effect and understand the fundamental mechanism of action of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Leaf Methanolic Extract.

    METHODS: The test extract was screened for anti-ulcer activity by Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses - 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using Ranitidine 50 mg/kg and Misoprostol 100 μg/kg as standard drug in respective models. Seven parameters were carefully examined, that is, ulcer index, total protein, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels and histopathology. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet profiling and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis of crude Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract were carried out as a part of chemical characterization to identify bioactive compounds.

    RESULTS: All the test doses exhibited significant gastroprotective function, particularly the higher doses demonstrated improved action. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and Mucin with reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also illustrated the gastroprotective effect of Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract.

    CONCLUSION: Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract exhibited strong anti-oxidant and anti-secretory activities mediated gastroprotection besides inducing the gastric mucosal production. The observed pharmacological response can be attributed to the flavonoidal compounds namely - Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Myricetin hexoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside and Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside identified in the extract for the first time with High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  8. Nurdiana S, Goh YM, Ahmad H, Dom SM, Syimal'ain Azmi N, Noor Mohamad Zin NS, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jun 02;17(1):290.
    PMID: 28576138 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1762-8
    BACKGROUND: The potential application of Ficus deltoidea and vitexin for the management of symptomatologies associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) has gained much attention. However, less firm evidence comes from data to augment our understanding of the role of F. deltoidea and vitexin in protecting pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to assess histological and oxidative stress changes in the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats following F. deltoidea extract and vitexin treatment.

    METHODS: F. deltoidea and vitexin was administrated orally to six-weeks STZ-induced diabetic rats over 8 weeks period. The glucose and insulin tolerances were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose (2 g/kg) tolerance test (IPGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin (0.65 U/kg) tolerance test (IPITT), respectively. Subsequently, insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and the insulin/triglyceride-derived McAuley index. The histological changes in the pancreas were then observed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Further, the pattern of fatty acid composition and infrared (IR) spectra of the serum and pancreas were monitored by gas chromatography (GC) method and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    RESULTS: F. deltoidea and vitexin increased pancreatic antioxidant enzymes and promoted islet regeneration. However, a significant increase in insulin secretion was observed only in rats treated with F. deltoidea. More importantly, reduction of fasting blood glucose is consistent with reduced FT-IR peaks at 1200-1000 cm-1.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results accentuate that F. deltoidea and vitexin could be a potential agent to attenuate pancreatic oxidative damage and advocate their therapeutic potential for treating DM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  9. Loh YC, Ch'ng YS, Tan CS, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ, Yam MF
    J Med Food, 2017 Sep;20(9):895-911.
    PMID: 28771084 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2016.3804
    Uncaria rhynchophylla is one of the major components included in Traditional Chinese Medicine prescriptions for hypertensive treatment. Previous studies have suggested that U. rhynchophylla might contain vasodilation-mediating active compounds, especially indole alkaloids. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the vasodilatory effects of U. rhynchophylla, which was extracted by different solvents. The most effective extract was then further studied for its signaling mechanism pathways. The authenticity of U. rhynchophylla was assured by using modernized tri-step Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), including conventional 1D FTIR, second derivative scanning combined with 2D-correlated IR spectroscopy. Results obtained proved that the fingerprint of U. rhynchophylla used was identical to the atlas. Isolated aortic rings from male Sprague-Dawley rats were preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE) followed by cumulative addition of U. rhynchophylla extracts. The signaling mechanism pathways were studied by incubation with different receptor antagonists before the PE precontraction. In conclusion, the 95% ethanolic U. rhynchophylla extract (GT100) was found to be most effective with an EC50 value of 0.028 ± 0.002 mg/mL and an Rmax value of 101.30% ± 2.82%. The signaling mechanism pathways employed for exerting its vasodilatory effects included nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cylcase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/sGC/cGMP) and PGI2 (endothelium-derived relaxing factors), G protein-coupled M3- and β2 receptors, regulation of membrane potential through voltage-operated calcium channel, intracellular Ca2+ released from inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R), and all potassium channels except the Kca channel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  10. Chongmelaxme B, Sruamsiri R, Dilokthornsakul P, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C, Saokaew S, et al.
    Complement Ther Med, 2017 Dec;35:70-77.
    PMID: 29154071 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.09.009
    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. known locally as "Plai" in Thai, has been used for treating bruise, sprain and musculoskeletal pain. Several pre-clinical studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of Plai. However, current evidence of clinical effects of Plai is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of Plai among all identified indications. Of the 808 articles identified by a systematic review, six studies were included. Four studies were randomized controlled trials, while two studies were quasi-experimental studies involving 178 patients in intervention group and 177 patients in control group. Duration of treatment ranged from 7days to 2 months. Our findings showed that 14% Plai cream had a strong trend of benefits in pain reduction for muscle pain and ankle sprain. However, evidence supporting the effects of Plai on acne vulgaris treatment and anti-histamine effect are still unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  11. Aziz TA, Hussain SA, Mahwi TO, Ahmed ZA, Rahman HS, Rasedee A
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2018;12:735-742.
    PMID: 29670330 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S157113
    Background and aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major diseases confronting the health care systems. In diabetes mellitus (DM), combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications has been shown to be more effective than metformin (Met) alone in glycemic control. This study determined the effects of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract as an adjuvant to Met in patients with uncontrolled T2DM.

    Subjects and methods: Sixty T2DM patients were recruited in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and multicenter trial. The patients, currently using Met, were randomly grouped into those treated with either GKB extract (120 mg/day) or placebo (starch, 120 mg/day) for 90 days. Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting serum glucose, serum insulin, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), insulin resistance, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were determined before (baseline) and after 90 days of GKB extract treatment.

    Results: GKB extract significantly decreased blood HbA1c (7.7%±1.2% vs baseline 8.6%±1.6%, P<0.001), fasting serum glucose (154.7±36.1 mg/dL vs baseline 194.4±66.1 mg/dL, P<0.001) and insulin (13.4±7.8 μU/mL vs baseline 18.5±8.9 μU/mL, P=0.006) levels, BMI (31.6±5.1 kg/m2 vs baseline 34.0±6.0 kg/m2, P<0.001), waist WC (102.6±10.5 cm vs baseline 106.0±10.9 cm, P<0.001), and VAI (158.9±67.2 vs baseline 192.0±86.2, P=0.007). GKB extract did not negatively impact the liver, kidney, or hematopoietic functions.

    Conclusion: GKB extract as an adjuvant was effective in improving Met treatment outcomes in T2DM patients. Thus, it is suggested that GKB extract is an effective dietary supplement for the control of DM in humans.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  12. Cheurfa M, Abdallah HH, Allem R, Noui A, Picot-Allain CMN, Mahomoodally F
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2019 Jan;123:98-105.
    PMID: 30292622 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.10.002
    Aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect. The result of administration of O. europaea leaf extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in hypercholesterolaemic mice was evaluated. In addition, rutin and luteolin, reported to occur naturally in O. europaea leaves, were docked against HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol metabolism. Mice treated with both extracts showed reduced total cholesterol (246.6 and 163.4 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) and LDL (150.16 and 81.28 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) levels as compared to the hypercholesterolaemic group (total cholesterol 253.00 mg/dl and LDL 160.00 mg/dl). Mice treated with aqueous extract (200 mg/kg body weight) showed significantly reduced triglyceride and VLDL levels as compared to the group treated with atorvastatine. HDL level of mice administered with O. europaea aqueous extract was comparable to the atorvastatine-treated group. The ethanol extract of O. europeae leaves was a potent antioxidant (IC50 69.15 mg/ml, % inhibition 54.98, 82.63 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g extract, 7.53 mol of Fe2+/g extract, and % inhibition 49.71, for the DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, total antioxidant capacity, FRAP, and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively). Docking studies revealed that rutin showed higher binding affinity with HMG-CoA reductase as compared to luteolin. Data gathered from this study support the development of a prophylactic biomedicine from O. europaea leaves for the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  13. Saleem H, Zengin G, Locatelli M, Ahmad I, Khaliq S, Mahomoodally MF, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2019 Sep;131:110535.
    PMID: 31154083 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.043
    This study endeavours to investigate the phytochemical composition, biological properties and in vivo toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey. Total bioactive contents, antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) and enzyme inhibition (cholinesterases, tyrosinase α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) potential were assessed utilizing in vitro bioassays. UHPLC-MS phytochemical profiling was carried out to identify the essential compounds. The methanol extract was found to contain highest phenolic (22.60 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (31.49 mg QE/g) contents which correlate with its most significant radical scavenging, reducing potential and tyrosinase inhibition. The dichloromethane extract was most potent for phosphomolybdenum, ferrous chelation, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and cholinesterase inhibition assays. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract unveiled to identify 11 secondary metabolites belonging to five sub-groups, i.e., phenolic, alkaloid, carbohydrate, terpenoid, and fatty acid derivatives. Additionally, in vivo toxicity was conducted for 21 days and the methanol extract at different doses (150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg) was administered in experimental chicks divided into five groups each containing five individuals. Different physical, haematological and biochemical parameters along with the absolute and relative weight of visceral body organs were studied. Overall, no toxic effect was noted for the extract at tested doses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  14. Muhammad H, Maslan SF, Md Saad WM, Thani NSIA, Ibnu Rasid EN, Mahomoodally MF, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2019 Sep;131:110538.
    PMID: 31152790 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.046
    Dioscorea hispida var. daemona (Roxb) Prain & Burkill (DH), also known a tropical yam or intoxicating yam is a bitter wild tuber which is consumed as a staple food and traditionally used as a remedy in Malaysia. However, DH is also notorious for its intoxicating effects and there is currently a dearth of study of possible effects of DH on liver and placental tissues and hence its safe consumption warrants in-depth investigation. This study was therefore designed to investigate into the effect of DH on liver and placenta of pregnant rat via histopathological examination. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups consisting of a control (distilled water) and four DH aqueous extract groups (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight). The extracts were administered via oral gavage daily throughout the study and animals were sacrificed on day 21. Paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of placenta and liver were examined. Significant changes (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  15. Ooi DJ, Chan KW, Sarega N, Alitheen NB, Ithnin H, Ismail M
    Molecules, 2016 Jun 17;21(6).
    PMID: 27322226 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21060682
    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  16. Santhanam RK, Ahmad S, Abas F, Safinar Ismail I, Rukayadi Y, Tayyab Akhtar M, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 May 24;21(6).
    PMID: 27231889 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21060652
    Zanthoxylum rhetsa is an aromatic tree, known vernacularly as "Indian Prickly Ash". It has been predominantly used by Indian tribes for the treatment of many infirmities like diabetes, inflammation, rheumatism, toothache and diarrhea. In this study, we identified major volatile constituents present in different solvent fractions of Z. rhetsa bark using GC-MS analysis and isolated two tetrahydrofuran lignans (yangambin and kobusin), a berberine alkaloid (columbamine) and a triterpenoid (lupeol) from the bioactive chloroform fraction. The solvent fractions and purified compounds were tested for their cytotoxic potential against human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cells, using the MTT assay. All the solvent fractions and purified compounds were found to be non-cytotoxic to HDF cells. However, the chloroform fraction and kobusin exhibited cytotoxic effect against B16-F10 melanoma cells. The presence of bioactive lignans and alkaloids were suggested to be responsible for the cytotoxic property of Z. rhetsa bark against B16-F10 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  17. Jafari S, Meng GY, Rajion MA, Jahromi MF, Ebrahimi M
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2016 Jun 08;64(22):4522-30.
    PMID: 27192629 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00846
    Different solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water) were used to identify the effect of papaya leaf (PL) fractions (PLFs) on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and ruminal methanogenesis in an in vitro study. PLFs at a concentration of 0 (control, CON) and 15 mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) were mixed with 30 mL of buffered rumen fluid and were incubated for 24 h. Methane (CH4) production (mL/250 mg DM) was the highest (P < 0.05) for CON (7.65) and lowest for the chloroform fraction (5.41) compared to those of other PLFs at 24 h of incubation. Acetate to propionate ratio was the lowest for PLFs compared to that of CON. Supplementation of the diet with PLFs significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), and C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid; LNA) compared to that of CON after 24 h of incubation. Real time PCR indicated that total protozoa and total methanogen population in PLFs decreased (P < 0.05) compared to those of CON.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  18. Doreddula SK, Bonam SR, Gaddam DP, Desu BS, Ramarao N, Pandy V
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:519848.
    PMID: 25401145 DOI: 10.1155/2014/519848
    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  19. Ali F, Ismail A, Esa NM, Pei CP
    Genomics, 2015 Jan;105(1):23-30.
    PMID: 25451742 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2014.11.002
    Cocoa polyphenol (CP), due to their biological actions, may be supplementary treatments for adipose tissue-fat gain. However, the molecular mechanism of CPs is still ambiguous. This study investigated the hypothesis that CP treatment modulates expressing of lipid metabolism genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue (MES-WAT). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks. Thereafter, HFD rats (n = 10/group) were treated at a dose of 600 mg/kg bw/day CPs (HFD + CPs) for 4 weeks. DNA microarray analysis resulted in 753 genes of the 13,008 genes expressed. Bioinformatics tools showed CP treatment significantly decreased gene expression levels for lipogenic enzymes, while increased the mRNA levels responsible for lipolysis enzymes. CP administration differentially regulates gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in MES-WAT. These data unveil a new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effect of CPs on obesity biomarkers in obese rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  20. Rahim SM, Taha EM, Al-janabi MS, Al-douri BI, Simon KD, Mazlan AG
    PMID: 25435631
    BACKGROUND: Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) a tropical perennial herb plant that is widely cultivated to be eaten either fresh with food or dried in tea or soft drink has been reported to possess a number of medicinal and aromatic properties. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of C. citratus aqueous extract against liver injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in male rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups of five animals in each group; (1) Control. (2) Received H2O2 (0.5%) with drinking water. (3), and (4) received H2O2 and C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) b wt), vitamin C (250 mg·kg(-1) b wt) respectively. (5), was given C. citratus alone. The treatments were administered for 30 days. Blood samples were collected and serum was used for biochemical assay including liver enzymes activities, total protein, total bilirubin and malonaldehyde, glutathione in serum and liver homogenates. Liver was excised and routinely processed for histological examinations.

    RESULTS: C. citratus attenuated liver damage due to H2O2 administration as indicated by the significant reduction (p<0.05), in the elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, TB, and MDA in serum and liver homogenates; increase in TP and GSH levels in serum and liver homogenates; and improvement of liver histo-pathological changes. These effects of the extract were similar to that of vitamin C which used as antioxidant reference.

    CONCLUSION: C. citratus could effectively ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative stress and prevent liver injury in male rats.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
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