Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 1208 in total

  1. Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mesaik MA, Bukhari SN
    Phytother Res, 2016 Aug;30(8):1330-8.
    PMID: 27137750 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5633
    Phyllanthus amarus has been shown to have strong inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils and on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of daily treatment of standardized extract of P. amarus at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 14 days in Balb/C mice by measuring the myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, macrophage phagocytosis, swelling of footpad in delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), and serum immunoglobulins, ceruloplasmin and lysozyme levels. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the extract using validated reversed-phase HPLC methods identified phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin and geraniin as the biomarkers. Significant dose-dependent inhibitions of MPO activity and NO release were observed in treated mice. The extract also inhibited E. coli phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages of treated mice and inhibited the sheep red blood cells (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in the DTH. There was also a significant decrease in non-specific humoral immunity including ceruloplasmin and lysozyme levels in the extract-fed groups as well as the release of serum level immunoglobulins. The strong inhibitory effects of the extract on the cellular and humoral immune responses suggest the potential of the plant to be developed as an effective immunosuppressive agent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  2. Wan Zainulddin WN, Zabidi Z, Kamisan FH, Yahya F, Ismail NA, Nor Shamsahal Din NS, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Jan;29(1):35-8.
    PMID: 26826818
    Melastoma malabathricum L. Smith (Melastomaceae) has been used in the Malay traditional culture to treat ulcer-based ailments.The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-ulcer effect of aqueous extract of M. malabathricum leaves (AEMM) using ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Rats were divided into ten groups (n=6) and received DMSO (10%; negative group), ranitidine (100mg/kg; positive group) or AEMM (50, 250 and 500mg/kg) orally for 7 days and on the 8(th) day subjected to the respective gastric ulcer models. The stomachs were collected and subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. At all groups tested, the AEMM exerted significant (p<0.05) anti-ulcer effect only against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The percentage of anti-ulcer for the 50-500mg/kg AEMM ranging between 50-82%, respectively. The macroscopic observations were supported by histological findings. In conclusion, AEMM exhibits potential anti-ulcer activity attributed to its previously proven high flavonoids content and antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  3. Kadir R, Awang K, Khamaruddin Z, Soit Z
    An. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 2015 Apr-Jun;87(2):743-51.
    PMID: 26131633 DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765201520140041
    Wood extractives from heartwood of Callophylum inophyllum (bintangor) were obtained by shaker method and analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ten compounds were identified by ethanol (EtOH) solvents, fourteen by methanol (MeOH) and only nine by petroleum ether (PETETHR). Major compounds were contributed by monoterpenes (75.11%, 53.75%) when extracted with EtOH and PETETHR solvents. The anti-termitic assay of the wood extracts was also investigated against Coptotermes curvignathus. The level of concentration for anti-termite activity may be an indication of the dose application of the wood extracts for new development of termiticide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  4. Bukhari SN, Jantan I, Seyed MA
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2015;15(6):681-93.
    PMID: 25783963
    The evaluation of crude drugs of natural origin as sources of new effective anticancer agents continues to be important due to the lack of effective anticancer drugs currently used in practice which are generally accompanied with adverse effects at different levels of severity. The aim of this concise review is to gather existing literature on anticancer potential of extracts and compounds isolated from Celastraceae species. This review covers six genera (Maytenus, Tripterygium, Hippocratea, Gymnosporia, Celastrus and Austroplenckia) belonging to this family and their 33 isolates. Studies carried out by using different cell lines have shown remarkable indication of anticancer activity, however, only a restricted number of studies have been reported using in vivo tumor models. Some of the compounds, such as triptolide, celastrol and demethylzeylasteral from T. wilfordii, have been extensively studied on their mechanisms of action due to their potent activity on various cancer cell lines. Such promising lead compounds should generate considerable interest among scientists to improve their therapeutic potential with fewer side effects by molecular modification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  5. Gan EK, Abdul Razak D, Mohamad M, Lajis R, Tan KC, Sam TW
    Med J Malaysia, 1984 Mar;39(1):42-7.
    PMID: 6513839
    Aqueous root extract of Selayak Hitam a plant commonly found in Malaysian jungles and reported to have abortifacient property was screened for oxytocic effect. Results obtained from in vitro experiments on isolated uterus preparation from both pregnant and non pregnant rats and in vivo experiments on uterus contraction in rats in situ, showed that the extract lacks oxytocic effect. It is concluded that the alleged abortifacient property if any, is not mediated through oxytocin or oxytocic-like effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  6. Lee SK, Ng LL, Lee SI
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Jun;34(4):423-5.
    PMID: 7219276
    The juice of the banana trunk produces a nondepolarising neuromuscular block. Oxygenation of
    the extract enhances its potency. Reversal with anticholinesterase is transient. Partial reversals in isolated preparations indicate there could be both specific and non-specific binding which could account for blockade after washing. It could be specifically bound to ACh receptors in an irreversible way. Its action appears similar to that of alpha-BuTX from the venom of the banded krait. Purification of the extract and subsequent investigations will support present findings and present the characteristics fully.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  7. Vijayaraghavan K, Rajkumar J, Bukhari SN, Al-Sayed B, Seyed MA
    Mol Med Rep, 2017 Mar;15(3):1007-1016.
    PMID: 28112383 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2017.6133
    The study of wound‑healing plants has acquired an interdisciplinary nature with a systematic investigational approach. Several biochemicals are involved in the healing process of the body, including antioxidants and cytokines. Although several pharmaceutical preparations and formulations are available for wound care and management, it remains necessary to search for efficacious treatments, as certain current formulations cause adverse effects or lack efficacy. Phytochemicals or biomarkers from numerous plants suggest they have positive effects on different stages of the wound healing process via various mechanisms. Several herbal medicines have displayed marked activity in the management of wounds and various natural compounds have verified in vivo wound healing potential, and can, therefore, be considered as potential drugs of natural origin. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King and H. Robinson is considered a tropical weed. However, it exhibits anti‑inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and numerous other relevant medicinal properties on an appreciable scale, and is known in some parts of the world as a traditional medicine used to treat various ailments. To understand its specific role as nature's gift for healing wounds and its contribution to affordable healthcare, this plant must be scientifically assessed based on the available literature. This review aims to summarize the role of C. odorata and its biomarkers in the wound healing activities of biological systems, which are crucial to its potential future drug design, development and application for the treatment of wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  8. Thevathasan OI
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Mar;26(3):217-9.
    PMID: 5031020
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  9. Saokaew S, Wilairat P, Raktanyakan P, Dilokthornsakul P, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C, et al.
    PMID: 27694558 DOI: 10.1177/2156587216669628
    Kaempferia parviflora (Krachaidum) is a medicinal plant in the family Zingiberaceae. Its rhizome has been used as folk medicine for many centuries. A number of pharmacological studies of Krachaidum had claimed benefits for various ailments. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically search and summarize the clinical evidences of Krachaidum in all identified indications. Of 683 records identified, 7 studies were included. From current clinical trials, Krachaidum showed positive benefits but remained inconclusive since small studies were included. Even though results found that Krachaidum significantly increased hand grip strength and enhanced sexual erotic stimuli, these were based on only 2 studies and 1 study, respectively. With regard to harmful effects, we found no adverse events reported even when Krachaidum 1.35 g/day was used. Therefore, future studies of Krachaidum are needed with regards to both safety and efficacy outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  10. Chan EW, Wong SK, Chan HT
    J Integr Med, 2016 Jul;14(4):269-84.
    PMID: 27417173 DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60261-3
    Apocynaceae is a large family of tropical trees, shrubs and vines with most species producing white latex. Major metabolites of species are triterpenoids, iridoids, alkaloids and cardenolides, which are known for a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimalarial properties. Prompted by their anticancer and antimalarial properties, the current knowledge on ten genera (Allamanda, Alstonia, Calotropis, Catharanthus, Cerbera, Dyera, Kopsia, Nerium, Plumeria and Vallaris) is updated. Major classes of metabolites are described using some species as examples. Species with antiproliferative (APF) and/or antiplasmodial (APM) properties have been identified. With the exception of the genus Dyera, nine genera of 22 species possess APF activity. Seven genera (Alstonia, Calotropis, Catharanthus, Dyera, Kopsia, Plumeria and Vallaris) of 13 species have APM properties. Among these species, Alstonia angustiloba, Alstonia macrophylla, Calotropis gigantea, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Plumeria alba and Vallaris glabra displayed both APF and APM properties. The chemical constituents of these seven species are compiled for assessment and further research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  11. Alshagga MA, Alshawsh MA, Seyedan A, Alsalahi A, Pan Y, Mohankumar SK, et al.
    Ann Nutr Metab, 2016;69(3-4):200-211.
    PMID: 27871070 DOI: 10.1159/000452895
    BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant that is deeply rooted in the cultural life of East African and Southwestern Arabian populations. Prevalent traditional beliefs about khat are that the plant has an effect on appetite and body weight.

    SUMMARY: This review assesses the accumulated evidences on the mutual influence of monoamines, hormones and neuropeptides that are linked to obesity. A few anti-obesity drugs that exert their mechanisms of action through monoamines are briefly discussed to support the notion of monoamines being a critical target of drug discovery for new anti-obesity drugs. Subsequently, the review provides a comprehensive overview of central dopamine and serotonin changes that are associated with the use of khat or its alkaloids. Then, all the studies on khat that describe physical, biochemical and hormonal changes are summarised and discussed in depth.

    CONCLUSION: The reviewed studies provide relatively acceptable evidence that different khat extracts or cathinone produces changes in terms of weight, fat mass, appetite, lipid biochemistry and hormonal levels. These changes are more pronounced at higher doses and long durations of intervention. The most suggested mechanism of these changes is the central action that produces changes in the physiology of dopamine and serotonin. Nonetheless, there are a number of variations in the study design, including species, doses and durations of intervention, which makes it difficult to arrive at a final conclusion about khat regarding obesity, and further studies are necessary in the future to overcome these limitations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  12. Salehi B, Albayrak S, Antolak H, Kręgiel D, Pawlikowska E, Sharifi-Rad M, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Sep 19;19(9).
    PMID: 30235891 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19092843
    Aloe genus plants, distributed in Old World, are widely known and have been used for centuries as topical and oral therapeutic agents due to their health, beauty, medicinal, and skin care properties. Among the well-investigated Aloe species are A. arborescens, A. barbadensis, A. ferox, and A. vera. Today, they account among the most economically important medicinal plants and are commonly used in primary health treatment, where they play a pivotal role in the treatment of various types of diseases via the modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways, besides being a rich source of valuable phytochemicals. In the present review, we summarized the recent advances in botany, phytochemical composition, ethnobotanical uses, food preservation, and the preclinical and clinical efficacy of Aloe plants. These data will be helpful to provide future directions for the industrial and medicinal use of Aloe plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  13. Lim V, Schneider E, Wu H, Pang IH
    Nutrients, 2018 Oct 26;10(11).
    PMID: 30373159 DOI: 10.3390/nu10111580
    Cataract is an eye disease with clouding of the eye lens leading to disrupted vision, which often develops slowly and causes blurriness of the eyesight. Although the restoration of the vision in people with cataract is conducted through surgery, the costs and risks remain an issue. Botanical drugs have been evaluated for their potential efficacies in reducing cataract formation decades ago and major active phytoconstituents were isolated from the plant extracts. The aim of this review is to find effective phytoconstituents in cataract treatments in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. A literature search was synthesized from the databases of Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus using different combinations of keywords. Selection of all manuscripts were based on inclusion and exclusion criteria together with analysis of publication year, plant species, isolated phytoconstituents, and evaluated cataract activities. Scientists have focused their attention not only for anti-cataract activity in vitro, but also in ex vivo and in vivo from the review of active phytoconstituents in medicinal plants. In our present review, we identified 58 active phytoconstituents with strong anti-cataract effects at in vitro and ex vivo with lack of in vivo studies. Considering the benefits of anti-cataract activities require critical evaluation, more in vivo and clinical trials need to be conducted to increase our understanding on the possible mechanisms of action and the therapeutic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  14. Khan TM, Wu DB, Dolzhenko AV
    Phytother Res, 2018 Mar;32(3):402-412.
    PMID: 29193352 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5972
    A systematic review and network-meta analysis (NMA) were performed to test significance of the galactagogue effect of fenugreek administrated to lactating women versus other comparators (i.e., placebo/control/other galactagogues). A pairwise comparison for the treatment effect was carried out to generate the forest plot for the NMA. League tables were generated using treatment effect, weighted mean difference (WMD; 95% confidence interval, CI) for all pairwise comparisons, where WMD > 0 favors the column-defining treatment. Five studies were identified with 122 participants receiving treatment with fenugreek. The NMA results of 4 studies indicated that consumption of fenugreek significantly increased amount of the produced breast milk [11.11, CI 95% 6.77, 15.46] versus placebo. The pairwise comparison revealed that fenugreek was effective as a galactagogue compared to placebo, control, and reference groups WMD 17.79 [CI 11.71, 23.88]. However, the effect of fenugreek was substantially inferior to Coleus amboinicus Lour and palm date. The NMA using pairwise comparison demonstrated the effect of C. amboinicus and palm date in the stimulation of the breast milk production was comparable and superior to all comparators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  15. Zahidin NS, Saidin S, Zulkifli RM, Muhamad II, Ya'akob H, Nur H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 31;207:146-173.
    PMID: 28647509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.019
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acalypha indica is an herbal plant that grows in wet, temperate and tropical region, primarily along the earth's equator line. This plant is considered by most people as a weed and can easily be found in these regions. Although this plant is a weed, Acalypha indica has been acknowledged by local people as a useful source of medicine for several therapeutic treatments. They consume parts of the plant for many therapeutics purposes such as anthelmintic, anti-ulcer, bronchitis, asthma, wound healing, anti-bacterial and other applications. As this review was being conducted, most of the reports related to ethnomedicinal practices were from Asian and African regions.

    THE AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the current studies on ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry, pharmacological studies and a potential study of Acalypha indica in different locations around the world. This review updates related information regarding the potential therapeutic treatments and also discusses the toxicity issue of Acalypha indica.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was performed through a systematic search related to Acalypha indica including the ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies around the world. The data was collected from online journals, magazines, and books, all of which were published in English, Malay and Indonesian. Search engine websites such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Researchgate and other online collections were utilized in this review to obtain information.

    RESULTS: The links between ethnomedicinal practices and scientific studies have been discussed with a fair justification. Several pharmacological properties exhibited certain potentials based on the obtained results that came from different related studies. Based on literature studies, Acalypha indica has the capability to serve as anthelmintic, anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-obesity, anti-venom, hepatoprotective, hypoxia, and wound healing medicine. For the traditional practices, the authors also mentioned several benefits of consuming the raw plant and decoction.

    CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the current studies of Acalypha indica collected from many regions. This review hopefully will provide a useful and basic knowledge platform for anyone interested in gaining information regarding Acalypha indica.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  16. Ang HH, Sim MK
    Arch Pharm Res, 1998 Dec;21(6):779-81.
    PMID: 9868556
    The aim of this study is to provide evidence on the aphrodisiac property of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. An electric grid was used as an obstruction in the electrical copulation cage in order to determine how much an aversive stimulus the sexually naive male rat for both the treated with E. longifolia Jack and control groups were willing to overcome to reach the estrous receptive female in the goal cage. The intensity of the grid current was maintained at 0.12 mA and this was the intensity in which the male rats in the control group failed to crossover to reach the goal cage. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack continued to enhance and also maintain a high level of both the total number of successful crossovers, mountings, intromissions and ejaculations during the 9-12th week observation period. In conclusion, these results further enhanced and strengthened the aphrodisiac property of E. longifolia Jack.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  17. Ismail CAM, Deris ZZ, Bakar RA, Ismail N
    PMID: 33802184 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18062834
    Despite modern medicine, there is an increasing trend for cases of the bacterial infection leptospirosis, and this has led to the exploration of alternative medicines from various sources including plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-leptospiral activity of Phyllanthus amarus extracts alone and combined with penicillin G, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the microdilution broth technique upon methanol extract (ME), aqueous extract (AE), and antibiotics against the Leptospira interrogans serovars Australis, Bataviae, Canicola, and Javanica, to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The results were analyzed using an ELISA microplate reader combined with microscopic analysis. Synergy testing using a checkerboard assay was performed to determine the fractional inhibitory concentration index values of extracts combined with antibiotics against leptospires. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate morphological changes of leptospires caused by potential anti-leptospiral agents alone and combined with antibiotics. The MICs and MBCs for P. amarus extracts ranged from 100 to 400 µg/mL for AEs and from 400 to 800 µg/mL for MEs. Penicillin G was the most effective anti-leptospiral drug, with MICs and MBCs ranging from <0.01 to 0.78 and <0.01 to 3.13 µg/mL, respectively, followed by ceftriaxone, with both MICs and MBCs ranging from 0.05 to 0.78 µg/mL, and doxycycline, with MICs and MBCs ranging from 0.39 to 3.13 µg/mL and 12.5 to 25 µg/mL, respectively. Combinations of P. amarus extracts and antibiotics did not show synergistic effects on all tested Leptospira serovars, with some combinations demonstrating antagonistic effects. SEM analysis, however, showed distorted Leptospira surfaces. P. amarus AE performed better anti-leptospiral activity than P. amarus ME. The morphological effects of P. amarus extract alone and its combination with antibiotic on Leptospira cells revealed promising anti-leptospiral properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  18. Abdul Rahim R, Jayusman PA, Muhammad N, Mohamed N, Lim V, Ahmad NH, et al.
    PMID: 33805420 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073532
    Oxidative stress and inflammation are two common risk factors of various life-threatening disease pathogenesis. In recent years, medicinal plants that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were extensively studied for their potential role in treating and preventing diseases. Spilanthes acmella (S. acmella), which has been traditionally used to treat toothache in Malaysia, contains various active metabolites responsible for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anesthetic bioactivities. These bioactivities were attributed to bioactive compounds, such as phenolic, flavonoids, and alkamides. The review focused on the summarization of in vitro and in vivo experimental reports on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of S. acmella, as well as how they contributed to potential health benefits in lowering the risk of diseases that were related to oxidative stress. The molecular mechanism of S. acmella in reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory targets, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB family (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were discussed. Besides, the antioxidant potential of S. acmella was measured by total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and superoxide anion radical scavenging (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. This review revealed that S. acmella might have a potential role as a reservoir of bioactive agents contributing to the observed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and health beneficial effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  19. Chia WY, Kok H, Chew KW, Low SS, Show PL
    Bioengineered, 2021 12;12(1):1226-1237.
    PMID: 33858291 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2021.1910432
    The world at large is facing a new threat with the emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Though imperceptible by the naked eye, the medical, sociological and economical implications caused by this newly discovered virus have been and will continue to be a great impediment to our lives. This health threat has already caused over two million deaths worldwide in the span of a year and its mortality rate is projected to continue rising. In this review, the potential of algae in combating the spread of COVID-19 is investigated since algal compounds have been tested against viruses and algal anti-inflammatory compounds have the potential to treat the severe symptoms of COVID-19. The possible utilization of algae in producing value-added products such as serological test kits, vaccines, and supplements that would either mitigate or hinder the continued health risks caused by the virus is prominent. Many of the characteristics in algae can provide insights on the development of microalgae to fight against SARS-CoV-2 or other viruses and contribute in manufacturing various green and high-value products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  20. Saleh MSM, Siddiqui MJ, Mediani A, Ahmed QU, Mat So'ad SZ, Saidi-Besbes S, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2020 11;137:109547.
    PMID: 33233172 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109547
    Fruit of salak (Salacca zalacca) is traditionally used and commercialized as an antidiabetic agent. However, the scientific evidence to prove this traditional use is lacking. This research was aimed to evaluate the metabolic changes of obese-diabetic (OBDC) rats treated with S. zalacca fruit extract using proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomics approach. This research presents the first report on the in vitro antidiabetic effect of S. zalacca fruits extract using this approach. The obtained results indicated that the administration of 400 mg/kg bw of 60% ethanolic S. zalacca extract for 6 weeks significantly decreased the blood glucose level and normalized the blood lipid profile of the OBDC rats. The potential biomarkers in urine were 2-oxoglutarate, alanine, leucine, succinate 3-hydroxybutyrate, taurine, betaine, allantoin, acetate, dimethylamine, creatine, creatinine, glucose, phenyl-acetylglycine, and hippurate. Based on the data obtained, the 60% ethanolic extract could not fully improved the metabolic complications of diabetic rats. The extract of S. zalacca fruit was able to decrease the ketones bodies as 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. It also improved energy metabolism, involving glucose, acetate, lactate, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, and succinate. Moreover, it decreased metabolites from gut microflora, including choline. This extract had significant effect on amino acid metabolism, metabolites from gut microflora, bile acid metabolism and creatine. The result can further support the traditional claims of S. zalacca fruits in management of diabetes. This finding might be valuable in understanding the molecular mechanism and pharmacological properties of this medicinal plant for managing diabetes mellitus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
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