Marital and sexual counselling is an important aspect of the work of a primary care physician or family practitioner. The preventive aspect of this counselling is fairly obvious in the practice of family planning. The medical practitioners have to be aware of the socio-cultural background of his patients or refer to qualified allied health professionals.
Various key aspects needing consideration in primary health care services for children are described. These include the need for basic curative facilities, a dyodic approach, concentration on major issues, use of appropriate technology and cultural appropriateness.
BACKGROUND: The role of community pharmacists is very important due to their access to primary care patients and expertise. For this reason, the interaction level between pharmacists and patients should be optimized to ensure enhanced delivery of pharmacy services.
OBJECTIVE: To gauge perceptions and expectations of the public on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
METHODS: Twenty five individuals were invited to participate in 4 separate focus group discussions. Individuals came from different racial groups and socio-economic backgrounds. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Using thematic analysis, two reviewers coded all transcripts to identify emerging themes. Appropriate measures were taken to ensure study rigor and validity.
RESULTS: All facilitators and barriers that were identified were grouped into 5 distinct themes. The pharmacist as a healthcare professional in the public mind was the most prominent theme that was discussed in all 4 focus groups. Other themes identified were, in decreasing order of prevalence, psychological perceptions towards pharmacists, important determinants of a pharmacist, the pharmacy as a unique healthcare provider, and control over pharmacies by health authorities.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provided insight into the way that the public looks at the role of community pharmacists in Dubai. Determinants that influence their perception are the media, health authorities, pharmacist's knowledge level, attire, nationality, age, and pharmacy location.
KEYWORDS: Community Pharmacy Services; Consumer Satisfaction; Focus Groups; Pharmacies; Professional Practice; United Arab Emirates
Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) is a debilitating illness commonly encountered in primary care. Its prevalence in developing countries is rising as a result of an ageing population, and an escalating epidemic of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. CHF can be specifically diagnosed as Heart Failure with Reduced Systolic Function (HF-RSF) or Heart Failure with Preserved Systolic Function (HF-PSF). This paper illustrates a common presentation of HF-PSF in primary care; and critically appraises the evidence in support of its diagnosis, prognosis and management. Regardless of the specific diagnosis, long term management of CHF is intricate as it involves a complex interplay between medical, psychosocial, and behavioural factors. Hence, there is a pressing need for a multidisciplinary team management of CHF in primary care, and this usually takes place within the broader context of an integrated chronic disease management programme. Primary care physicians are ideally suited to lead multidisciplinary teams to ensure better co-ordination, continuity and quality of care is delivered for patients with chronic conditions across time and settings. Given the rising epidemic of cardiovascular risk factors in the Malaysian population, preventive strategies at the primary care level are likely to offer the greatest promise for reducing the growing burden of CHF.
Citation: Rajakumar MK. The family physician in Asia: looking to the 21st century. Family Medicine Education in the Asia-Pacific Region. Core Curriculum for Residency/Vocational Training and Core Content for Specialty Qualifying Examination. The Philippine Academy of Family Medicine, 1993. [Originally published in the Filipino Family Physician in 1993]
1. Republished in: Teng CL, Khoo EM, Ng CJ (editors). Family Medicine, Healthcare and Society: Essays by Dr M K Rajakumar, Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 2019: 40-45
2. An Uncommon Hero. p354-360
Citation: Mohamad Noh K, Jaafar S. Health in all policies: The primary health care approach in Malaysia. 50-years experience in addressing social determinants of health through Intersectoral Action for Health. World Conference on Social Determinants of Health. 19-21 October 2011, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
At Independence in 1957, Malaysia inherited a rural urban divide and racial identification of specific economic functions. Thus, the government’s welfarist policy was on growth with equity. This entailed the formulation of national social policies to reduce poverty and at the same time to restructure society by addressing economic imbalances and eventually eliminating racial identification of specific economic functions. The poverty reduction approaches placed a strong emphasis on rural socio-economic development addressing the social determinants of health. This approach has served Malaysia well over the decades but since the 1990s Malaysia has been caught in a middle income trap. Realising that achieving a high income nation status by 2020 is not possible at the present economic trajectory, Malaysia has now embarked on a national transformation agenda based on the four pillars of inculcating the cultural and societal values under the 1Malaysia Concept and the twin commitments of people first in all policies & projects and performance now; a government transformation programme (GTP); macroeconomic policies under the economic transformation programme (ETP); and the operationalisation of these policies through the 10th Malaysia Plan. The highest political commitment is given to the implementation of these national policies by the various agencies, orchestrated and coordinated by a central planning process which cascades down to the state and district administrative levels of the government machinery. The health policies follow these national policies and the thrust of the Malaysian health care system is primary health care, supported by an inclusive referral system to decentralized secondary care and regionalized tertiary care. This model of comprehensive public primary health care delivers promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative care across the life course. The network of static health facilities is organized into a two-tier system which includes outreach services for remote areas. Community participation is encouraged through village health promoters, health volunteers and advisory panels. The primary health care approach has delivered increased access to health care at a relatively low-cost. This has translated into health gains for the Malaysian population comparable with countries of similar economic development. As Malaysia moves towards a high income nation status, as demographic and epidemiological transitions continue, and as new health technology develops, the demand for health care by the - Draft Background Paper 7 - 2 population will continue to rise with increasing expectations for more care of even higher quality, and at ever increasing cost. This is especially challenging as Malaysia’s open economy is yet to recover fully from the Asian financial crisis of 1997. The government transformation programme, with its focus on a whole-of-government approach, is a natural progression for the primary health care approach to addressing the social determinants of health as a vehicle for social justice to reduce health inequalities.
Public health nursingis a specialized nursing combining both nursing and public health principles with the primary focus of improving the health of the whole community rather than just an individual. Its documented history started in the 1800s and has evolved from home visiting to the varied settings that public health nurses find themselves working in as members of public health teams in clinics, schools, workplaces and government health departments.Public health nursing has been a critical component of the country’s health care system, uplifting of the health status of Malaysians and playing a dominant role in the fight against communicable diseases, and is set to face the challenges of the 21st century with public health nurses practising to the full capacity of their training in a restructured Malaysian health system – 1Care for 1Malaysia. The health sector reform allows for optimisation of scarce health care resources to deliver expansion of quality services based on needs, appropriateness, equity &allocative efficiency. The proposed model will be better than the current system, preserving the strengths of the current system but able to respond to increasing population health needs and expectations. There will be increased autonomy for healthcare providers with incentives in place for greater performance. Some of the implications of reform include allowing public- private integration, a slimmer Ministry of Health with a stronger governance role, enhancing the gatekeeping role of the primary care providers and the autonomous management of the public healthcare providers. In this restructured health system, the roles of the public health nurses are no less important than in the current one. In fact, with the increasing emphasis placed on prevention and primary care as the hub of community care with nurses as part of the primary care team delivering continuous comprehensive person-centered care,public health nurses in the future will be able to meet the challenge of refocusing on the true mission of public health: to look at the health problems of a community as a whole and work with the community in alleviating those problems by applying the nursing process to improve health, not just as providers of personal care only.
Citation: Sherina Mohd Sidik. Chapter 36: Primary Care Research in Malaysia. In: Goodyear-Smith F, Mash B (editors). International Perspectives on Primary Care Research. Boca Raton, Florida, United States of America: CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group), World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA); 2016, p199-201
Citation: A case study on institutional development in the water and sanitation sectors and integration of PHC with rural water supply and sanitation in Malaysia. Manila: World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific; 1985
Khoo EM, Sararaks S, Lee WK, Liew SM, Abdul Samad A, Cheong AT, et al.
Citation: Khoo EM, Sararaks S, Lee WK, Liew SM, Abdul Samad A, Cheong AT, et al. Patient Safety in MOH Primary Care Clinics - A Community Trial. Kuala Lumpur: Institute for Health Systems Research; 2010
Citation: Savedoff WD, Smith AL. Achieving Universal Health Coverage: Learning from Chile, Japan, Malaysia and Sweden. Maine, United States: Result for Development Institute; 2011
Over the last hundred years, most countries have made substantial progress toward universal health coverage. The shared trends includes rising incomes, increasing total health expenditures and an expanding role for government in improving access to health care. Despite this, countries vary significantly in their particular routes to universal health coverage. These routes are shaped by prominent leaders and strong popular movements and framed by particular moral claims and world views. They are affected by unpredictable events related to economic cycles, wars, epidemics and initiatives in other public policy spheres. They are also influenced by a country’s own institutional development and experiences in other countries. As a result of these highly contingent paths, countries reach universal health coverage at different income levels and with disparate institutional arrangements for expanding health care access and mitigating financial risk. This paper examines the histories of attaining universal health coverage in four countries – Sweden, Japan, Chile and Malaysia. It shows that domestic pressures for universalizing access to health care are extremely varied, widespread, and persistent. Secondly, universal health coverage is everywhere accompanied by a large role for government, although that role takes many forms. Third, the path to universal health coverage is contingent, emerging from negotiation rather than design. Finally, universal health coverage is attained incrementally and over long periods of time. These commonalities are shared by all four cases despite substantial differences in income, political regimes, cultures, and health sector institutions. Attention to these commonalities will help countries seeking to expand health coverage today.