Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 102 in total

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  1. del Amo J, Moreno S, Bucher HC, Furrer H, Logan R, Sterne J, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2012 May;54(9):1364-72.
    PMID: 22460971 DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis203
    BACKGROUND: The lower tuberculosis incidence reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is difficult to interpret causally. Furthermore, the role of unmasking immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is unclear. We aim to estimate the effect of cART on tuberculosis incidence in HIV-positive individuals in high-income countries.

    METHODS: The HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration consisted of 12 cohorts from the United States and Europe of HIV-positive, ART-naive, AIDS-free individuals aged ≥18 years with baseline CD4 cell count and HIV RNA levels followed up from 1996 through 2007. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for cART versus no cART, adjusted for time-varying CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level via inverse probability weighting.

    RESULTS: Of 65 121 individuals, 712 developed tuberculosis over 28 months of median follow-up (incidence, 3.0 cases per 1000 person-years). The HR for tuberculosis for cART versus no cART was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.72) overall, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.64-1.68) for individuals aged >50 years, and 1.46 (95% CI, 0.70-3.04) for people with a CD4 cell count of <50 cells/μL. Compared with people who had not started cART, HRs differed by time since cART initiation: 1.36 (95% CI, 0.98-1.89) for initiation <3 months ago and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.34-0.58) for initiation ≥3 months ago. Compared with people who had not initiated cART, HRs <3 months after cART initiation were 0.67 (95% CI, 0.38-1.18), 1.51 (95% CI, 0.98-2.31), and 3.20 (95% CI, 1.34-7.60) for people <35, 35-50, and >50 years old, respectively, and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.03-5.14) for people with a CD4 cell count of <50 cells/μL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis incidence decreased after cART initiation but not among people >50 years old or with CD4 cell counts of <50 cells/μL. Despite an overall decrease in tuberculosis incidence, the increased rate during 3 months of ART suggests unmasking IRIS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/drug effects
  2. Kok YY, Chu WL, Phang SM, Mohamed SM, Naidu R, Lai PJ, et al.
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2011 May;12(5):335-45.
    PMID: 21528487 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1000336
    This study aimed to assess the inhibitory activities of methanol extracts from the microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus, and Spirulina platensis against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in three Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell lines, namely Akata, B95-8, and P3HR-1. The antiviral activity was assessed by quantifying the cell-free EBV DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The methanol extracts from Ankistrodesmus convolutus and Synechococcus elongatus displayed low cytotoxicity and potent effect in reducing cell-free EBV DNA (EC(50)<0.01 µg/ml) with a high therapeutic index (>28000). After fractionation by column chromatography, the fraction from Synechococcus elongatus (SEF1) reduced the cell-free EBV DNA most effectively (EC(50)=2.9 µg/ml, therapeutic index>69). Upon further fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the sub-fraction SEF1'a was most active in reducing the cell-free EBV DNA (EC(50)=1.38 µg/ml, therapeutic index>14.5). This study suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds that can be used against EBV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/drug effects
  3. Hejazi N, Rajikan R, Choong CL, Sahar S
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:758.
    PMID: 23947428 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-758
    In the current two decades, dyslipidemia and increased blood glucose as metabolic abnormalities are the most common health threats with a high incidence among HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Scientific investigations and reports on lipid and glucose disorders among HIV infected communities are inadequate especially in those developing such as Malaysia. This cross-sectional survey was mainly aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and associated risk factors among HIV infected population patients on ARV medication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  4. Chiam CW, Chan YF, Loong SK, Yong SS, Hooi PS, Sam IC
    Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2013 Oct;77(2):133-7.
    PMID: 23886793 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.06.018
    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is useful for diagnosis and studying virus replication. We developed positive- and negative-strand qRT-PCR assays to detect nsP3 of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a positive-strand RNA alphavirus that causes epidemic fever, rash, and arthritis. The positive- and negative-strand qRT-PCR assays had limits of quantification of 1 and 3 log10 RNA copies/reaction, respectively. Compared to a published E1 diagnostic assay using 30 laboratory-confirmed clinical samples, the positive-strand nsP3 qRT-PCR assay had higher R(2) and efficiency and detected more positive samples. Peak viral load of 12.9 log(10) RNA copies/mL was reached on day 2 of illness, and RNA was detectable up to day 9, even in the presence of anti-CHIKV IgM. There was no correlation between viral load and persistent arthralgia. The positive-strand nsP3 assay is suitable for diagnosis, while the negative-strand nsP3 assay, which uses tagged primers to increase specificity, is useful for study of active viral replication kinetics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  5. Alhoot MA, Wang SM, Sekaran SD
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2011 Nov;5(11):e1410.
    PMID: 22140591 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001410
    Dengue infection ranks as one of the most significant viral diseases of the globe. Currently, there is no specific vaccine or antiviral therapy for prevention or treatment. Monocytes/macrophages are the principal target cells for dengue virus and are responsible for disseminating the virus after its transmission. Dengue virus enters target cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis after the viral envelope protein E attaches to the cell surface receptor. This study aimed to investigate the effect of silencing the CD-14 associated molecule and clathrin-mediated endocytosis using siRNA on dengue virus entry into monocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  6. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Ray M, Logan R, Sterne JA, Hernández-Díaz S, Robins JM, et al.
    AIDS, 2010 Jan 02;24(1):123-37.
    PMID: 19770621 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283324283
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on mortality among HIV-infected individuals after appropriate adjustment for time-varying confounding by indication.

    DESIGN: A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration) that includes 62 760 HIV-infected, therapy-naive individuals followed for an average of 3.3 years. Inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models was used to adjust for measured confounding by indication.

    RESULTS: Two thousand and thirty-nine individuals died during the follow-up. The mortality hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57) for cART initiation versus no initiation. In analyses stratified by CD4 cell count at baseline, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.29 (0.22-0.37) for less than 100 cells/microl, 0.33 (0.25-0.44) for 100 to less than 200 cells/microl, 0.38 (0.28-0.52) for 200 to less than 350 cells/microl, 0.55 (0.41-0.74) for 350 to less than 500 cells/microl, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for 500 cells/microl or more. The estimated hazard ratio varied with years since initiation of cART from 0.57 (0.49-0.67) for less than 1 year since initiation to 0.21 (0.14-0.31) for 5 years or more (P value for trend <0.001).

    CONCLUSION: We estimated that cART halved the average mortality rate in HIV-infected individuals. The mortality reduction was greater in those with worse prognosis at the start of follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  7. Yun SI, Song BH, Frank JC, Julander JG, Olsen AL, Polejaeva IA, et al.
    Viruses, 2018 08 11;10(8).
    PMID: 30103523 DOI: 10.3390/v10080422
    Zika virus (ZIKV) causes no-to-mild symptoms or severe neurological disorders. To investigate the importance of viral and host genetic variations in determining ZIKV infection outcomes, we created three full-length infectious cDNA clones as bacterial artificial chromosomes for each of three spatiotemporally distinct and genetically divergent ZIKVs: MR-766 (Uganda, 1947), P6-740 (Malaysia, 1966), and PRVABC-59 (Puerto Rico, 2015). Using the three molecularly cloned ZIKVs, together with 13 ZIKV region-specific polyclonal antibodies covering nearly the entire viral protein-coding region, we made three conceptual advances: (i) We created a comprehensive genome-wide portrait of ZIKV gene products and their related species, with several previously undescribed gene products identified in the case of all three molecularly cloned ZIKVs. (ii) We found that ZIKV has a broad cell tropism in vitro, being capable of establishing productive infection in 16 of 17 animal cell lines from 12 different species, although its growth kinetics varied depending on both the specific virus strain and host cell line. More importantly, we identified one ZIKV-non-susceptible bovine cell line that has a block in viral entry but fully supports the subsequent post-entry steps. (iii) We showed that in mice, the three molecularly cloned ZIKVs differ in their neuropathogenicity, depending on the particular combination of viral and host genetic backgrounds, as well as in the presence or absence of type I/II interferon signaling. Overall, our findings demonstrate the impact of viral and host genetic variations on the replication kinetics and neuropathogenicity of ZIKV and provide multiple avenues for developing and testing medical countermeasures against ZIKV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  8. Lian YL, Heng BS, Nissapatorn V, Lee C
    Curr. HIV Res., 2007 Sep;5(5):484-9.
    PMID: 17896968
    Attempts to address the significant impact of HAART on medical variables on the Malaysian HIV/AIDS population have yet to be evaluated. This study aims to analyze the proportions of AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) before and after HAART. A retrospective study was carried out on 128 new cases of HIV infected patients who first commenced HAART in 2004 at the national HIV reference center. Before commencement of HAART, 76 clinical episodes of ADIs were recorded in 52 patients. Most common being pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (28.9%), PCP (27.6%) and disseminated and extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (11.8%). During HAART, 8 clinical episodes of ADIs were documented in 7 patients with a median time of onset of 10 weeks after initiation of HAART (range, 4-36 weeks). The median CD4 count at the time of the commencement of HAART for these patients was 11 cells/mm(3). ADIs reported include PCP (2 episodes), disseminated and extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2 episodes), extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (1 episode), esophageal candidiasis (1 episode), recurrent pneumonia (1 episode) and disseminated or extrapulmonary histoplasmosis (1 episode). Three (37.5%) of these occurred despite a reduction of viral load by at least 2 log(10) and an increased in the CD4 cell count. In conclusion, ADIs can still present after the initiation of successful HAART especially in those with CD4 counts below 100 cells/mm(3). In Malaysia, ADIs are the major causes of HIV/AIDS associated morbidity and mortality, thus increased awareness on the management of these illnesses is warranted especially in the months following HAART.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  9. Yee PTI, Mohamed RAH, Ong SK, Tan KO, Poh CL
    Virus Res., 2017 06 15;238:243-252.
    PMID: 28705680 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2017.07.010
    One of the leading causes of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), displaying symptoms such as fever and ulcers in children but some strains can produce cardiopulmonary oedema which leads to death. There is no FDA-approved vaccine for prevention of severe HFMD. The molecular determinants of virulence for EV-A71 are unclear. It could be a single or a combination of amino acids that determines virulence in different EV-A71 genotype/sub-genotypes. Several EV-A71 strains bearing single nucleotide (nt) mutations were constructed and the contribution of each mutation to virulence was evaluated. The nt(s) that contributed to significant reduction in virulence in vitro were selected and each mutation was introduced separately into the genome to construct the multiply mutated EV-A71 strain (MMS) which carried six substitutions of nt(s) at the 5'-NTR (U700C), VP1-145 (E to G), VP1-98E, VP1-244K and G64R in the vaccine seed strain that had a partial deletion within the 5'-NTR region (nt. 475-485) of Δ11bp. In comparison to the wild type strain, the MMS showed low virulence as it produced very low RNA copy number, plaque count, VP1 and had 105-fold higher TCID50, indicative of a promising LAV candidate that should be further evaluated in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  10. Vignesh R, Swathirajan CR, Solomon SS, Shankar EM, Murugavel KG
    Indian J Med Microbiol, 2017 Apr-Jun;35(2):279-281.
    PMID: 28681821 DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_163
    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) continues to be a complication in HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing IRIS to identify a possible biomarker to predict or diagnose IRIS in patients initiating HAART. A total of 175 HIV/TB co-infected patients initiating HAART were followed up longitudinally during September 2010 to May 2013 attending a HIV care clinic in Chennai. Patients were followed up longitudinally after HAART initiation and baseline demographic, laboratory parameters and treatment characteristics between patients with IRIS events and those without IRIS events were compared. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and a Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables were performed using SPSS, version 12.0 software. Patients with IRIS had a significantly lower median baseline CD4+ T-cell count (P = 0.0039). There were no differences in terms of sex, CD4 T-cell %, plasma viral load, time interval between initiating ATT and HAART between the IRIS and non-IRIS patients. Low CD4+ T-cell count (<100 cells/μL) could be used as a marker to screen and monitor patients initiating HAART.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  11. Loeliger KB, Altice FL, Desai MM, Ciarleglio MM, Gallagher C, Meyer JP
    Lancet HIV, 2018 02;5(2):e96-e106.
    PMID: 29191440 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30209-6
    BACKGROUND: Incarceration provides an opportunity for engagement in HIV care but is associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes after release. We aimed to assess post-release linkage to HIV care (LTC) and the effect of transitional case management services.

    METHODS: To create a retrospective cohort of all adults with HIV released from jails and prisons in Connecticut, USA (2007-14), we linked administrative custody and pharmacy databases with mandatory HIV/AIDS surveillance monitoring and case management data. We examined time to LTC (defined as first viral load measurement after release) and viral suppression at LTC. We used generalised estimating equations to show predictors of LTC within 14 days and 30 days of release.

    FINDINGS: Among 3302 incarceration periods for 1350 individuals between 2007 and 2014, 672 (21%) of 3181 periods had LTC within 14 days of release, 1042 (34%) of 3064 had LTC within 30 days of release, and 301 (29%) of 1042 had detectable viral loads at LTC. Factors positively associated with LTC within 14 days of release are intermediate (31-364 days) incarceration duration (adjusted odds ratio 1·52; 95% CI 1·19-1·95), and transitional case management (1·65; 1·36-1·99), receipt of antiretroviral therapy during incarceration (1·39; 1·11-1·74), and two or more medical comorbidities (1·86; 1·48-2·36). Reincarceration (0·70; 0·56-0·88) and conditional release (0·62; 0·50-0·78) were negatively associated with LTC within 14 days. Hispanic ethnicity, bonded release, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with LTC within 30 days but reincarceration was not.

    INTERPRETATION: LTC after release is suboptimal but improves when inmates' medical, psychiatric, and case management needs are identified and addressed before release. People who are rapidly cycling through jail facilities are particularly vulnerable to missed linkage opportunities. The use of integrated programmes to align justice and health-care goals has great potential to improve long-term HIV treatment outcomes.

    FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  12. Mire CE, Geisbert JB, Agans KN, Versteeg KM, Deer DJ, Satterfield BA, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2019 06;25(6):1144-1152.
    PMID: 31107231 DOI: 10.3201/eid2506.181620
    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes high case-fatality rates (CFRs) in humans. Two NiV strains have caused outbreaks: the Malaysia strain (NiVM), discovered in 1998-1999 in Malaysia and Singapore (≈40% CFR); and the Bangladesh strain (NiVB), discovered in Bangladesh and India in 2001 (≈80% CFR). Recently, NiVB in African green monkeys resulted in a more severe and lethal disease than NiVM. No NiV vaccines or treatments are licensed for human use. We assessed replication-restricted single-injection recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine NiV vaccine vectors expressing the NiV glycoproteins against NiVB challenge in African green monkeys. All vaccinated animals survived to the study endpoint without signs of NiV disease; all showed development of NiV F Ig, NiV G IgG, or both, as well as neutralizing antibody titers. These data show protective efficacy against a stringent and relevant NiVB model of human infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  13. Ross JL, Teeraananchai S, Lumbiganon P, Hansudewechakul R, Chokephaibulkit K, Khanh TH, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2019 06 01;81(2):e28-e38.
    PMID: 30865173 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002008
    BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) have poorer adherence and clinical outcomes than adults. We conducted a study to assess behavioral risks and antiretroviral therapy outcomes among ALHIV in Asia.

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study among ALHIV and matched HIV-uninfected controls aged 12-18 years was conducted at 9 sites in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam from July 2013 to March 2017. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview at weeks 0, 48, 96, and 144. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as ≥1 viral load (VL) measurement >1000 copies/mL. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictors for VF.

    RESULTS: Of 250 ALHIV and 59 HIV-uninfected controls, 58% were Thai and 51% females. The median age was 14 years at enrollment; 93% of ALHIV were perinatally infected. At week 144, 66% of ALHIV were orphans vs. 28% of controls (P < 0.01); similar proportions of ALHIV and controls drank alcohol (58% vs. 65%), used inhalants (1% vs. 2%), had been sexually active (31% vs. 21%), and consistently used condoms (42% vs. 44%). Of the 73% of ALHIV with week 144 VL testing, median log VL was 1.60 (interquartile range 1.30-1.70) and 19% had VF. Over 70% of ALHIV had not disclosed their HIV status. Self-reported adherence ≥95% was 60% at week 144. Smoking cigarettes, >1 sexual partner, and living with nonparent relatives, a partner or alone, were associated with VF at any time.

    CONCLUSIONS: The subset of ALHIV with poorer adherence and VF require comprehensive interventions that address sexual risk, substance use, and HIV-status disclosure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  14. Okamura T, Tsujimura Y, Soma S, Takahashi I, Matsuo K, Yasutomi Y
    J. Gen. Virol., 2016 Dec;97(12):3413-3426.
    PMID: 27902330 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000641
    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection models in cynomolgus macaques are important for analysis of the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency virus and for studies on the efficacy of new vaccine candidates. However, very little is known about the pathogenesis of SIV or simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in cynomolgus macaques from different Asian countries. In the present study, we analysed the infectivity and pathogenicity of CCR5-tropic SIVmac and those of dual-tropic SHIV89.6P inoculated into cynomolgus macaques in Indonesian, Malaysian or Philippine origin. The plasma viral loads in macaques infected with either SIVmac239 or SHIV89.6P were maintained at high levels. CD4+ T cell levels in macaques infected with SIVmac239 gradually decreased. All of the macaques infected with SHIV89.6P showed greatly reduced CD4+ T-cell numbers within 6 weeks of infection. Eight of the 11 macaques infected with SIVmac239 were killed due to AIDS symptoms after 2-4.5 years, while four of the five macaques infected with SHIV89.6P were killed due to AIDS symptoms after 1-3.5 years. We also analysed cynomolgus macaques infected intrarectally with repeated low, medium or high doses of SIVmac239, SIVmac251 or SHIV89.6P. Infection was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR at more than 5000, 300 and 500 TCID50 for SIVmac239, SIVmac251 and SHIV89.6P, respectively. The present study indicates that cynomolgus macaques of Asian origin are highly susceptible to SIVmac and SHIV infection by both intravenous and mucosal routes. These models will be useful for studies on virus pathogenesis, vaccination and therapeutics against human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  15. Boettiger DC, Nguyen VK, Durier N, Bui HV, Heng Sim BL, Azwa I, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2015 Feb 1;68(2):186-95.
    PMID: 25590271 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000411
    Roughly 4% of the 1.25 million patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Asia are using second-line therapy. To maximize patient benefit and regional resources, it is important to optimize the timing of second-line ART initiation and use the most effective compounds available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  16. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Phillips A, Olson A, Sabin C, Jose S, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2015 Apr 15;60(8):1262-8.
    PMID: 25567330 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu1167
    BACKGROUND: Current clinical guidelines consider regimens consisting of either ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone among their recommended and alternative first-line antiretroviral regimens. However, these guidelines are based on limited evidence from randomized clinical trials and clinical experience.

    METHODS: We compared these regimens with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes using data from prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Europe and the United States in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, 2004-2013. Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started a lopinavir or an atazanavir regimen. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens on each of the outcomes.

    RESULTS: A total of 6668 individuals started a lopinavir regimen (213 deaths, 457 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths), and 4301 individuals started an atazanavir regimen (83 deaths, 157 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths). The adjusted intention-to-treat hazard ratios for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .53-.91) for death, 0.67 (95% CI, .55-.82) for AIDS-defining illness or death, and 0.91 (95% CI, .84-.99) for virologic failure at 12 months. The mean 12-month increase in CD4 count was 8.15 (95% CI, -.13 to 16.43) cells/µL higher in the atazanavir group. Estimates differed by NRTI backbone.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a greater 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for atazanavir compared with lopinavir regimens.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  17. Naftalin CM, Wong NS, Chan DP, Wong KH, Reidpath DD, Lee SS
    Int J STD AIDS, 2015 Oct;26(11):803-9.
    PMID: 25281539 DOI: 10.1177/0956462414553826
    To explore the heterogeneity of CD4 responses following highly active antiretroviral therapy, the patterns of CD4 recovery of HIV-1-infected Chinese patients who have been on their first antiretroviral regimen for ≥5 years were analysed. The CD4 trajectories were traced, smoothed and differentiated into three defined profiles. Half (56.3%) were 'satisfactory responders', with CD4 gain of >100 cells/μL and a peak of >350 cells/μL, plateauing before the end of Year 5. Thirty-three (24.4%) were 'continuing responders' whose CD4 rise persisted at Year 4-5. The remaining 26 (19.3%) were 'poor responders'. Presentation with AIDS before therapy was common not just among 'poor' but also paradoxically the 'continuing' responders. While a majority had responded well to antiretroviral therapy, older patients and those with AIDS diagnosis before initiation of therapy may never achieve a satisfactory level even with effective treatment. Categorization of HIV patients by their CD4 trajectory may support the prediction of immunological outcome over time, and ultimately inform treatment choices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  18. DeBuysscher BL, Scott D, Marzi A, Prescott J, Feldmann H
    Vaccine, 2014 May 07;32(22):2637-44.
    PMID: 24631094 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.02.087
    BACKGROUND: Nipah virus (NiV), a zoonotic pathogen causing severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans, emerged in Malaysia in 1998 with subsequent outbreaks on an almost annual basis since 2001 in parts of the Indian subcontinent. The high case fatality rate, human-to-human transmission, wide-ranging reservoir distribution and lack of licensed intervention options are making NiV a serious regional and potential global public health problem. The objective of this study was to develop a fast-acting, single-dose NiV vaccine that could be implemented in a ring vaccination approach during outbreaks.

    METHODS: In this study we have designed new live-attenuated vaccine vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSV) expressing NiV glycoproteins (G or F) or nucleoprotein (N) and evaluated their protective efficacy in Syrian hamsters, an established NiV animal disease model. We further characterized the humoral immune response to vaccination in hamsters using ELISA and neutralization assays and performed serum transfer studies.

    RESULTS: Vaccination of Syrian hamsters with a single dose of the rVSV vaccine vectors resulted in strong humoral immune responses with neutralizing activities found only in those animals vaccinated with rVSV expressing NiV G or F proteins. Vaccinated animals with neutralizing antibody responses were completely protected from lethal NiV disease, whereas animals vaccinated with rVSV expressing NiV N showed only partial protection. Protection of NiV G or F vaccinated animals was conferred by antibodies, most likely the neutralizing fraction, as demonstrated by serum transfer studies. Protection of N-vaccinated hamsters was not antibody-dependent indicating a role of adaptive cellular responses for protection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The rVSV vectors expressing Nipah virus G or F are prime candidates for new 'emergency vaccines' to be utilized for NiV outbreak management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  19. Rothan HA, Buckle MJ, Ammar YA, Mohammadjavad P, Shatrah O, Noorsaadah AR, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Dec;30(4):681-90.
    PMID: 24522138
    Various clinical symptoms are caused by dengue virus ranging from mild fever to severe hemorrhagic fever while there is no successful anti-dengue therapeutics available. Among different strategies towards identifying and developing anti-dengue therapeutics, testing anti-dengue properties of known drugs could represent an efficient strategy for which information of its medical approval, toxicity and side effects is readily available. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of some medical compounds towards dengue NS2B-NS3 protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) as a target to inhibit dengue virus replication. Mefenamic acid, a non-steroid anti inflammatory drug and doxycycline, a derivative antibiotic of tetracycline both showed significant inhibition potential against DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro Ki values 32 ± 2 μM and 55 ± 5 μM respectively. The effective cytotoxic concentrations of 50% (CC50) against Vero cells were evaluated for mefenamic acid (150 ± 5 μM) and doxycycline (125 ± 4 μM). Concentrations lower than CC50 were used to test the inhibition potential of these compounds against DENV2 replication in Vero cells. The results showed significant reduction in viral load after applying mefenamic acid and doxycyline in concentration dependent manner. Mefenamic acid reduced viral RNA at EC50 of 32 ± 4 μM whilst doxycycline EC50 was 40 ± 3 μM. Mefenamic acid showed higher selectivity against dengue virus replication in vitro compared to doxycycline. These findings underline the need for further experimental and clinical studies on these drugs utilizing its anti-dengue and anti-inflammatory activities to attenuate the clinical symptoms of dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  20. Al-Alimi AA, Ali SA, Al-Hassan FM, Idris FM, Teow SY, Mohd Yusoff N
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Mar;8(3):e2711.
    PMID: 24625456 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002711
    Dengue virus is endemic in peninsular Malaysia. The clinical manifestations vary depending on the incubation period of the virus as well as the immunity of the patients. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is prevalent in Malaysia where the incidence is 3.2%. It has been noted that some G6PD-deficient individuals suffer from more severe clinical presentation of dengue infection. In this study, we aim to investigate the oxidative responses of DENV2-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
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