Flavokawain A is a chalcone that can be found in the kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) extract. The kava-kava plant has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The state of the immune system, and the inflammatory process play vital roles in the progression of cancer. The immunomodulatary effects and the anti-inflammatory effects of flavokawain A in a breast cancer murine model have not been studied yet. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the basic mechanism as to how flavokawain A regulates and enhance the immune system as well as impeding the inflammatory process in breast cancer-challenged mice. Based on our study, it is interesting to note that flavokawain A increased the T cell population; both Th1 cells and CTLs, aside from the natural killer cells. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 were also elevated in the serum of flavokawain A-treated mice. Apart from that, flavokawain A also decreased the weight and volume of the tumor, and managed to induce apoptosis in them. In terms of inflammation, flavokawain A-treated mice had reduced level of major pro-inflammatory mediators; NO, iNOS, NF-KB, ICAM and COX-2. Overall, flavokawain A has the potential to not only enhance antitumor immunity, but also prevents the inflammatory process in a cancer-prone microenvironment.
Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/therapeutic use
Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in terms of incidence and the fourth in terms of mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents almost 90% of primary liver cancer and has become a major health problem globally. Cardamonin (CADMN) is a natural bioactive chalcone found in several edible plants such as cardamom and Alpinia species. Previous studies have shown that CADMN possesses anticancer activities against breast, lung, prostate and colorectal cancer. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CADMN were investigated against HepG2 cells. The results demonstrated that CADMN has anti-proliferative effects and apoptotic action on HepG2 cells. CADMN showed potent cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells with an IC50 of 17.1 ± 0.592 μM at 72 h. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that CADMN arrests HepG2 cells in G1 phase and induces a significant increase in early and late apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. The mechanism by which CADMN induces apoptotic action was via activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Moreover, the findings of this study showed the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which inhibit the NF-κB pathway and further enhance the apoptotic process. Together, our findings further support the potential anticancer activity of CADMN as an alternative therapeutic agent against HCC.
We investigate induction of apoptosis by xanthohumol on Ca Ski cervical cancer cell line. Xanthohumol is a prenylated chalcone naturally found in hop plants, previously reported to be an effective anticancer agent in various cancer cell lines. The present study showed that xanthohumol was effective to inhibit proliferation of Ca Ski cells based on IC50 values using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Furthermore, cellular and nuclear morphological changes were observed in the cells using phase contrast microscopy and Hoechst/PI fluorescent staining. In addition, 48-hour long treatment with xanthohumol triggered externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells. Additionally, xanthohumol mediated S phase arrest in cell cycle analysis and increased activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. On the other hand, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of cleaved PARP, p53, and AIF increased, while Bcl-2 and XIAP decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings indicate that xanthohumol-induced cell death might involve intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as downregulation of XIAP, upregulation of p53 proteins, and S phase cell cycle arrest in Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. This work suggests that xanthohumol is a potent chemotherapeutic candidate for cervical cancer.