Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 206 in total

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  1. Tiong TS, Selva KS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):624-8.
    PMID: 16515114
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Malaysia. The clinical presentation in Sarawak has not been well documented. A retrospective review of 213 selected NPC cases was undertaken on the clinical records in Sarawak General Hospital, Sarawak, from June 1999 to June 2003. There were 116 patients in Kuching and 97 in Serian. There were twice as many males as females. The youngest patient was 16 and the oldest 88 years old with a mean age of 51 years. The four most common symptoms in order of frequencies were cervical lymphadenopathy, epistaxis, hearing loss and diplopia. 80.8% of the patients presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and about 85% of the patients presented in the advanced stages. Very small percentages of the patients were found to have single presenting symptoms of epistaxis (2.4%) and hearing loss (0.5%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  2. Hisham AN, Yip CH
    Asian J Surg, 2004 Apr;27(2):130-3.
    PMID: 15140665
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. There is a marked geographical difference in the worldwide incidence of breast cancer, with a higher incidence in developed countries compared to developing countries. From 1998 to 2001, new cases of breast cancer presenting to the breast clinics at Hospital Kuala Lumpur and University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, were reviewed; the race, age and stage at presentation were analysed. Of 774 cases seen in Hospital Kuala Lumpur, only 5.2% (40/774) were impalpable breast cancers diagnosed on mammography. The prevalent age group was 40 to 49 years, and the median age was 50 years. The average size of the tumour was 5.4 cm in diameter. Malay women appear to have larger tumours and a later stage at presentation than other ethnic groups; 50% to 60% were in late stages (Stages 3 and 4). During the same period, 752 new cases of breast cancer were seen in the University Malaya Medical Centre. The average tumour size was 4.2 cm, and 30% to 40% were in late stages. The age incidence was similar. The delay in presentation of breast cancer was attributed to a strong belief in traditional medicine, the negative perception of the disease, poverty and poor education, coupled with fear and denial. A prospective, population-based study is required to determine the demographic pattern of breast cancer and the factors delaying presentation. These findings will have important implications in future programmes to promote the early detection of breast cancer, as well as in understanding geographical as well as racial variations in the incidence of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  3. Ong TA, Peh SC, Goh KSK, Naicker MS, Khan AF, Chua BC, et al.
    Asian J Surg, 2003 Jan;26(1):31-6.
    PMID: 12527492 DOI: 10.1016/S1015-9584(09)60212-8
    To study the incidence of p53 oncoprotein overexpression and its relationship to tumour grade, stage and clinical prognosis in a cohort of local Malaysian patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  4. Biswal BM, Rath GK, Joshi RC, Mohanti BK, Ganesh T, Singh R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):30-6.
    PMID: 10968134
    Radical radiotherapy is considered as the treatment of choice in locally advanced cancer cervix. In late stages radiotherapy produce optimum palliation and to some extent cure. Three hundred cases of cancer cervix (stage I-IV) comprising stage-I (7), stage-II (144), stage-III (145) and stage IV (4) were evaluated and treated with radiotherapy between April 1990 to July 1994. FIGO stage IB, IIA and IIB (early), were treated with predominant intracavitary radiotherapy (34 Gy X 2 fractions; within one week) followed by external pelvic radiotherapy to a dose of 36 Gy in 18 fractions; treating 200 cGy per fraction, 5 days a week. The late stage (stage-IIB, IIIA and IIIB, IVA) of disease were managed with initial external radiotherapy to a dose of 50 Gy, followed by a single intracavitary dose of 30 Gy to point-A. The median follow up was 33 months (range 12-72 months). The tumor volume less than 100 cc were associated with better survival than volume more than 100 cc (p < 0.05). The five year actuarial survival was 83%, 68% and 58% respectively in FIGO stage I-III disease. There were 0.33% and 2.6% late grade-III bladder and rectal complications. Our experience shows effectiveness of radiotherapy in the management of locally advanced cancer of the cervix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  5. Yip CH, bt Mohd Taib NA, Lau PC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008 Jan-Mar;9(1):63-5.
    PMID: 18439076
    INTRODUCTION: An important risk factor for developing breast cancer is a positive family history of breast cancer. In Malaysia, there is no population-based breast screening programme, but the clinical practice guidelines suggest increased surveillance for those with a positive family history ie mammography for those 40 years old and above, breast self-examination and clinical breast examination yearly.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine if women with a family history of breast cancer present with earlier stages of disease.
    METHODOLOGY: From Jan 2001 to Dec 2006, 1553 women with breast cancer presenting to the University Malaya, where family history was recorded, were eligible for this study. Women with a first or second degree relative with breast cancer were compared with those who have no family history with regard to their race, age, stage, size and duration of symptoms. The Chi Square test of significance was used for analysis.
    RESULTS: Out of 1553 patients, 252 (16.2%) were found to have a relative with breast cancer out of which 174 (11.2%) had at least one affected first degree relative. There were no significant difference in the incidence of positive family history between the Malays, Chinese and Indians. 20% below the age of 40 years old had a positive family history compared with 12.6% in women with no family history. (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in stage at diagnosis between those with and without family history, ie 24.2% late stages (Stage 3 and 4) in the group with no family history compared with 21.8% in the group with family history. (p>0.05). The mean size in the group with no family history was 4.4 cm compared to 4.1 cm in the group with family history. There was a significant difference in screen-detected cancers in the women with family history, 10.7% compared with 5.1% of screen-detected cancers in the group without a family history. However there was no difference in the duration of symptoms between the 2 groups--25.8% in the women without a family history presented after 1 year of symptoms compared with 22.4% in the group with a family history (p>0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Having a family history of breast cancer does not appear to have much impact on the health-seeking behavior of women. Even though there were more screen detected cancers, these comprised only 10% of the group with family history. Public education should target women at risk ie with family history to encourage these women to present earlier and to undergo screening for breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  6. Sivanesratnam V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1991 Sep;46(3):205-11.
    PMID: 1839913
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  7. Sinniah D, Narasimha G, Prathap K
    Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh), 1980 Oct;58(5):819-24.
    PMID: 7211270
    Twenty children with retinoblastoma are reviewed who were treated at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 10-year-period. They constitute 6.6% of childhood malignancies and without exception all presented with advanced disease. Hereditary cases were notably absent in the the series probably because past cases have almost invariably succumbed without an opportunity to transmit the gene. With enucleation and radiotherapy six of the patients have survived from 2 to 12 years. The addition of vincristine and cyclophosphamide has not been associated with improved survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  8. Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Norin Rahayu Samsuddin, Sharifah Noor Akmal Syed Hussain, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):13-22.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 10 August 2011.
    Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most prevalent female cancer in Malaysia. Almost 70% of its’ causal factors are attributable to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18 and other risk factors. HPV genotypes distributions are also noted to differ by geographical area.
    Methods This was cross sectional study conducted in 2007, to determine the influencing factors of HPV positivity and prevalence of HPV infections among patients with cervical cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Patients’ paraffin-embedded cervical tissues kept in the Pathology Department from 1999 to 2007 were randomly selected. A total of 81 medical records with complete information were chosen as samples and patients were contacted for consent. Tissue samples were further derived for PCR DNA for HPV genotyping. Analyses included descriptive statistics; bivariate χ2 test and correlation were used to determine relationship between factors and HPV positivity. Significance level of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.
    Results Mean age of cancer diagnosis was at 52 ± 12.2 years. Women of Chinese ethnicity was the highest ethnicity to be HPV positive at 65.4% and squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly found (59.3%) compared with other types of cancers. The prevalence of HPV positivity was 92.6% with type 16 being the most common (74.1%), followed by type 33 (30.9%) and 18 (22.2%). Multiple HPV infections were a common finding at 54.3%. Factors thought to influence positivity i.e. age of intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of parity, smoking status of patients and their partners, oral contraceptive usage, presence of chronic illnesses and cancer stage were not significantly associated with HPV positivity. Increased CC severity level was not associated with increased number of HPV infections (Pearson correlation 0.58; p =0.607).
    Conclusions High HPV positivity at 92.6% was found among ICC patients. Factors thought to influence HPV positivity were not significant. The top three HPV genotypes were type 16 followed by type 33 and 18. However, local women HPV serotypes findings need to be replicated in a larger population sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  9. Goense L, van Rossum PS, Kandioler D, Ruurda JP, Goh KL, Luyer MD, et al.
    Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2016 10;1381(1):50-65.
    PMID: 27384385 DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13113
    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, and the incidence of esophageal carcinoma is rapidly increasing. With the advent of new staging and treatment techniques, esophageal cancer can now be managed through various strategies. A good understanding of the advances and limitations of new staging techniques and how these can guide in individualizing treatment is important to improve outcomes for esophageal cancer patients. This paper outlines the recent progress in staging and treatment of esophageal cancer, with particularly attention to endoscopic techniques for early-stage esophageal cancer, multimodality treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer, assessment of response to neoadjuvant treatment, and the role of cervical lymph node dissection. Furthermore, advances in robot-assisted surgical techniques and postoperative recovery protocols that may further improve outcomes after esophagectomy are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  10. Lau TP, Roslani AC, Lian LH, Chai HC, Lee PC, Hilmi I, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2014;4(8):e004930.
    PMID: 25107436 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004930
    To characterise the mRNA expression patterns of early and advanced stage colorectal adenocarcinomas of Malaysian patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  11. Bhoo-Pathy N, Subramaniam S, Taib NA, Hartman M, Alias Z, Tan GH, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2014 Apr 29;110(9):2187-94.
    PMID: 24736587 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2014.183
    Within a setting without organised breast cancer screening, the characteristics and survival of very early breast cancer were determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  12. Norsa'adah B, Nurhazalini-Zayani CG
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6955-9.
    PMID: 24377632
    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively high in Southeast Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to review the epidemiology and survival of HCC patients at a tertiary centre in north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects were adult HCC patients diagnosed by histopathology or radio-imaging. Secondary liver carcinoma was excluded. Kaplan Meier and multiple Cox proportional hazard survival analyses were used. Only 210 HCC cases from years 1987-2008, were included in the final analysis. The number of cases was increasing annually. The mean age was 55.0 (SD 13.9) years with male:female ratio of 3.7:1. Approximately 57.6% had positive hepatitis B virus, 2.4% hepatitis C virus, 20% liver cirrhosis and 8.1% chronic liver disease. Only 2.9% had family history and 9.0% had frequently consumed alcohol. Most patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort and had hepatomegaly, 47.9% had an elevated α-fetoprotein level of 800 IU/ml or more, 51.9% had multiple tumors and 44.8% involved multiple liver lobes. Approximately 63.3% were in stage 3 and 23.4% in stage 4, and 82.9% did not receive any treatment. The overall median survival time was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.3). The 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 71.8%, 23.3%, 13.0% and 7.3% respectively. Significant prognostic factors were Malay ethnicity [Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0, 2.5; p=0.030], no chemotherapy [AHR 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.5; p=0.017] and Child-Pugh class C [AHR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.9; p=0.002]. HCC in our study affected a wide age range, mostly male, in advanced stage of disease, with no treatment and very low survival rates. Primary prevention should be advocated in view of late presentation and difficulty of treatment. Vaccination of hepatitis virus and avoidance of liver toxins are to be encouraged.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  13. Hatta JM, Doss JG, Rogers SN
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2014 Feb;43(2):147-55.
    PMID: 24074487 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2013.08.006
    The feasibility of using the Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) to identify oral cancer patient concerns during consultation in oral and maxillofacial specialist clinics in Malaysia was assessed. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a consecutive clinical sampling technique of all new and follow-up oral cancer patients. Surgeons and counter staff were also recruited. Two-thirds of patients were elderly, 63.9% female, 55.6% Indian, 63.9% of lower-level education, and half had the lowest level household income. Patient status was mostly post-treatment (87.5%) and most were at cancer stage III/IV (63.9%); 59.7% had surgery. Patients took an average 5.9 min (95% CI 5.1-6.7 min) to complete the PCI. Physical domain appeared highest (94.4%); social/family relationship issues (4.2%) were lowest. Significant associations included patient age-personal function (P=0.02); patient education level-emotional status (P=0.05) and social/family relationship issues (P=0.04), and patient TNM staging-personal function (P=0.03). The patients' mean feasibility score for the PCI was 5.3 (95% CI 5.1-5.5) out of 6. Patients (93.1%) and surgeons (90%) found the PCI to be feasible. Only 57.1% of counter staff agreed on the use of the PCI during patient registration. Overall, the PCI was considered feasible, thus favouring its future use in routine oral cancer patient management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  14. Ganesh S, Lye MS, Lau FN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(4):1677-84.
    PMID: 27221837
    BACKGROUND: Among the factors reported to determine the quality of life of breast cancer patients are socio- demographic background, clinical stage, type of treatment received, and the duration since diagnosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the quality of life (QOL) scores among breast cancer patients at a Malaysian public hospital.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study of breast cancer patients was conducted between March to June 2013. QOL scores were determined using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23). Both the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 assess items from functional and symptom scales. The QLQ-C30 in addition also measures the Global Health Status (GHS). Systematic random sampling was used to recruit patients.

    RESULTS: 223 breast cancer patients were recruited with a response rate of 92.1%. The mean age of the patients was 52.4 years (95% CI = 51.0, 53.7, SD=10.3). Majority of respondents are Malays (60.5%), followed by Chinese (19.3%), Indians (18.4%), and others (1.8%). More than 50% of respondents are at stage III and stage IV of malignancy. The mean Global Health Status was 65.7 (SD = 21.4). From the QLQ-C30, the mean score in the functioning scale was highest for 'cognitive functioning' (84.1, SD=18.0), while the mean score in the symptom scale was highest for 'financial difficulties' (40.1, SD=31.6). From the QLQ-BR23, the mean score for functioning scale was highest for 'body image' (80.0, SD=24.6) while the mean score in the symptom scale was highest for 'upset by hair loss' (36.2, SD=29.4). Two significant predictors for Global Health Status were age and employment. The predictors explained 10.6% of the variation of global health status (R2=0.106).

    CONCLUSIONS: Age and employment were found to be significant predictors for Global Health Status (GHS). The Quality of Life among breast cancer patients reflected by the GHS improves as age and employment increases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  15. Tan T, Ong WS, Rajasekaran T, Nee Koo K, Chan LL, Poon D, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(5):e0156008.
    PMID: 27231951 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156008
    PURPOSE: Elderly cancer patients are at increased risk for malnutrition. We aim to identify comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) based clinical factors associated with increased nutritional risk and develop a clinical scoring system to identify nutritional risk in elderly cancer patients.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: CGA data was collected from 249 Asian patients aged 70 years or older. Nutritional risk was assessed based on the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to assess the association between patient clinical factors together with domains within the CGA and moderate to high nutritional risk. Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Internal validation was performed using simulated datasets via bootstrapping.

    RESULTS: Among the 249 patients, 184 (74%) had moderate to high nutritional risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified stage 3-4 disease (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.54; 95% CI, 1.14-5.69), ECOG performance status of 2-4 (OR 3.04; 95% CI, 1.57-5.88), presence of depression (OR 5.99; 95% CI, 1.99-18.02) and haemoglobin levels <12 g/dL (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54-5.84) as significant independent factors associated with moderate to high nutritional risk. The model achieved good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test's p = 0.17) and discrimination (AUC = 0.80). It retained good calibration and discrimination (bias-corrected AUC = 0.79) under internal validation.

    CONCLUSION: Having advanced stage of cancer, poor performance status, depression and anaemia were found to be predictors of moderate to high nutritional risk. Early identification of patients with these risk factors will allow for nutritional interventions that may improve treatment tolerance, quality of life and survival outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  16. Eng LG, Dawood S, Sopik V, Haaland B, Tan PS, Bhoo-Pathy N, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 2016 11;160(1):145-152.
    PMID: 27628191
    PURPOSE: To evaluate breast cancer-specific survival at 10 years in patients who present with primary stage IV breast cancer, and to determine whether survival varies with age of diagnosis.

    METHODS: We retrieved the records of 25,323 women diagnosed with primary stage IV breast cancer in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database from 1990 to 2012. For each case, we extracted information on age at diagnosis, tumour size, nodal status, oestrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, ethnicity, cause of death and date of death. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death due to stage IV breast cancer, according to age group.

    RESULTS: Among 25,323 women with stage IV breast cancer, 2542 (10.0 %) were diagnosed at age 40 or below, 5562 (22.0 %) were diagnosed between ages 41 and 50 and 17,219 (68.0 %) were diagnosed between ages 51 and 70. After a mean follow-up of 2.2 years, 16,387 (64.7 %) women died of breast cancer (median survival 2.3 years). The ten-year actuarial breast cancer-specific survival rate was 15.7 % for women ages 40 and below, 14.9 % for women ages 41-50 and 11.7 % for women ages 51 to 70 (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  17. Miao H, Hartman M, Verkooijen HM, Taib NA, Wong HS, Subramaniam S, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2016 10 21;16(1):820.
    PMID: 27769212
    BACKGROUND: CancerMath is a set of web-based prognostic tools which predict nodal status and survival up to 15 years after diagnosis of breast cancer. This study validated its performance in a Southeast Asian setting.

    METHODS: Using Singapore Malaysia Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, clinical information was retrieved from 7064 stage I to III breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 and underwent surgery. Predicted and observed probabilities of positive nodes and survival were compared for each subgroup. Calibration was assessed by plotting observed value against predicted value for each decile of the predicted value. Discrimination was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95 % confidence interval (CI).

    RESULTS: The median predicted probability of positive lymph nodes is 40.6 % which was lower than the observed 43.6 % (95 % CI, 42.5 %-44.8 %). The calibration plot showed underestimation for most of the groups. The AUC was 0.71 (95 % CI, 0.70-0.72). Cancermath predicted and observed overall survival probabilities were 87.3 % vs 83.4 % at 5 years after diagnosis and 75.3 % vs 70.4 % at 10 years after diagnosis. The difference was smaller for patients from Singapore, patients diagnosed more recently and patients with favorable tumor characteristics. Calibration plot also illustrated overprediction of survival for patients with poor prognosis. The AUC for 5-year and 10-year overall survival was 0.77 (95 % CI: 0.75-0.79) and 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.76).

    CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination and calibration of CancerMath were modest. The results suggest that clinical application of CancerMath should be limited to patients with better prognostic profile.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  18. Wong EHC, Liew YT, Abu Bakar MZ, Lim EYL, Prepageran N
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2017 Jan;274(1):275-281.
    PMID: 27520568 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-016-4248-2
    Endoscopic endonasal nasopharyngectomy (EEN) has become increasingly used for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) due to reduced functional and cosmetic morbidities compared to conventional external approach. Majority of the existing studies on EEN focused on patients with lower recurrent staging of rT1 and rT2. The aims of this study were to provide a preliminary report on the outcome of EEN performed in patients with advanced (rT3 and rT4) rNPC, and to determine the prognostic factors for patients' survival. All patients who underwent EEN for rNPC between January 2003 and December 2015 inclusive were analyzed. All surgeries were performed in University Malaya Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur and Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Sabah, by a single surgeon. We reported the 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) and any related complications and significant prognostic factors. Fifteen patients with recurrent NPC (2 rT3 and 13 rT4 tumours) underwent EEN over the 13 years period. The mean age was 50.4 years (range 30-65) and the mean follow-up period was 28.7 months (range 9-81 weeks). The 2-year OS, DFS and DSS were 66.7 % (mean 19.4 months), 40 % (mean 15.7 months) and 73.3 % (mean 20.2 months), respectively. No severe operative complications were encountered. No independent prognostic factors for survival outcome were identified. This is the first preliminary report in English that exclusively looked at the use of EEN in advanced rT3 and rT4 NPCs, showing favourable patient outcome. However, further long-term follow-up of patients is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  19. Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Buckland G, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Weiderpass E, Amiano P, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2017 Mar 14;116(6):811-820.
    PMID: 28170373 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.14
    BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a means for cancer prevention, but little evidence has been accrued regarding its potential to prevent pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association between the adherence to the MD and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: Over half a million participants from 10 European countries were followed up for over 11 years, after which 865 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted score without the alcohol component (arMED) to discount alcohol-related harmful effects. Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by age, sex and centre, and adjusted for energy intake, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake and diabetes status at recruitment, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with pancreatic cancer and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: Adherence to the arMED score was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR high vs low adherence=0.99; 95% CI: 0.77-1.26, and HR per increments of two units in adherence to arMED=1.00; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06). There was no convincing evidence for heterogeneity by smoking status, body mass index, diabetes or European region. There was also no evidence of significant associations in analyses involving microscopically confirmed cases, plausible reporters of energy intake or other definitions of the MD pattern.

    CONCLUSIONS: A high adherence to the MD is not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
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