With less than 3200 wild tigers in 2010, the heads of 13 tiger-range countries committed to doubling the global population of wild tigers by 2022. This goal represents the highest level of ambition and commitment required to turn the tide for tigers in the wild. Yet, ensuring efficient and targeted implementation of conservation actions alongside systematic monitoring of progress towards this goal requires that we set site-specific recovery targets and timelines that are ecologically realistic. In this study, we assess the recovery potential of 18 sites identified under WWF's Tigers Alive Initiative. We delineated recovery systems comprising a source, recovery site, and support region, which need to be managed synergistically to meet these targets. By using the best available data on tiger and prey numbers, and adapting existing species recovery frameworks, we show that these sites, which currently support 165 (118-277) tigers, have the potential to harbour 585 (454-739) individuals. This would constitute a 15% increase in the global population and represent over a three-fold increase within these specific sites, on an average. However, it may not be realistic to achieve this target by 2022, since tiger recovery in 15 of these 18 sites is contingent on the initial recovery of prey populations, which is a slow process. We conclude that while sustained conservation efforts can yield significant recoveries, it is critical that we commit our resources to achieving the biologically realistic targets for these sites even if the timelines are extended.
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is widely used in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from two main problems in the case of partial shading conditions (PSCs). The first problem is that PSO is a time invariant optimization technique that cannot follow the dynamic global peak (GP) under time variant shading patterns (SPs) and sticks to the first GP that occurs at the beginning. This problem can be solved by dispersing the PSO particles using two new techniques introduced in this paper. The two new proposed PSO re-initialization techniques are to disperse the particles upon the SP changes and the other one is upon a predefined time (PDT). The second problem is regarding the high oscillations around steady state, which can be solved by using fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to fine-tune the output power and voltage from the PV system. The new contribution of this paper is the hybrid PSO-FLC with two PSO particles dispersing techniques that is able to solve the two previous mentioned problems effectively and improve the performance of the PV system in both normal and PSCs. A detailed list of comparisons between hybrid PSO-FLC and original PSO using the two proposed methodologies are achieved. The results prove the superior performance of hybrid PSO-FLC compared to PSO in terms of efficiency, accuracy, oscillations reduction around steady state and soft tuning of the GP tracked.
Malaysia's healthcare delivery system in Vision 2020 will be recognized as one of the world’s best. Putrajaya Health Clinic is our first paperless health clinic in Malaysia that incorporates the Health Information System (HIS). This system cuts across programmes and sections in the operational work process in the clinic with the ultimate aim of achieving a paperless status. This clinic provides a comprehensive health care service at the point of contact and focuses on wellness, clientfriendly, seamless and borderless care with e]§‘icient use of resources and towards high a quality of service. This health clinic which seesthe majority of the attendance being well persons, through the immunization programme, antenatal, postnatal, family planning, school health, and well clinics for child and adult, will continue to extend and further expand its services to include geriatric, ill mental, occupational and rehabilitative care. The e-government within Putrajaya will facilitate the use of an
appointment system, which can be done through e—mail, fax, telephone or walk-in. Information and
communication technology will also facilitate the promotion of health education for individuals and communities. To facilitate efective streaming or screening of clients/attendees, a simple triage system is introduced. Prompt, short and accurate is the rule for triaging, thus providing timely and ejfective care. New information and communication technologies will allow healthcare providers to adopt a more virtual, more integrated and more distributed approach in the delivery of health services. It was documented that the average contact time at the triage counter in Putrajaya Health Clinic was 1.16 minutes, i.e. the shortest among other services provided here.
Monitoring clinical activity at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU) can provide useful information to evaluate nursing care and patient recovery. However, it is labour intensive to quantify these activities and there is a need for an automated method to record and quantify these activities. This paper presents an automated system, Clinical Activity Tracking System (CATS), to monitor and evaluate clinical activity at the patient's bedside. The CATS uses four Microsoft Kinect infrared sensors to track bedside nursing interventions. The system was tested in a simulated environment where test candidates performed different motion paths in the detection area. Two metrics, 'Distance' and 'Dwell time', were developed to evaluate interventions or workload in the detection area. Results showed that the system can accurately track the intervention performed by individual or multiple subjects. The results of a 30-day, 24-hour preliminary study in an ICU bed space matched clinical expectations. It was found that the average 24-hour intervention is 22.0minutes/hour. The average intervention during the day time (7am-11pm) is 23.6minutes/hour, 1.4 times higher than 11pm-7am, 16.8minutes/hour. This system provides a unique approach to automatically collect and evaluate nursing interventions that can be used to evaluate patient acuity and workload demand.
The growing worldwide population has increased the need for technologies, computerised software algorithms and smart devices that can monitor and assist patients anytime and anywhere and thus enable them to lead independent lives. The real-time remote monitoring of patients is an important issue in telemedicine. In the provision of healthcare services, patient prioritisation poses a significant challenge because of the complex decision-making process it involves when patients are considered 'big data'. To our knowledge, no study has highlighted the link between 'big data' characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process, as well as the inherent challenges involved. Thus, we present comprehensive insights into the elements of big data characteristics according to the six 'Vs': volume, velocity, variety, veracity, value and variability. Each of these elements is presented and connected to a related part in the study of the connection between patient prioritisation and real-time remote healthcare monitoring systems. Then, we determine the weak points and recommend solutions as potential future work. This study makes the following contributions. (1) The link between big data characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process is described. (2) The open issues and challenges for big data used in the patient prioritisation process are emphasised. (3) As a recommended solution, decision making using multiple criteria, such as vital signs and chief complaints, is utilised to prioritise the big data of patients with chronic diseases on the basis of the most urgent cases.
Taking into account the effect of constant convective thermal and mass boundary conditions, we present numerical solution of the 2-D laminar g-jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of water-based nanofluids. The governing transport equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically by an implicit finite difference method with quasi-linearization technique. The skin friction decreases with time, buoyancy ratio, and thermophoresis parameters while it increases with frequency, mixed convection and Brownian motion parameters. Heat transfer rate decreases with time, Brownian motion, thermophoresis and diffusion-convection parameters while it increases with the Reynolds number, frequency, mixed convection, buoyancy ratio and conduction-convection parameters. Mass transfer rate decreases with time, frequency, thermophoresis, conduction-convection parameters while it increases with mixed convection, buoyancy ratio, diffusion-convection and Brownian motion parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper on this topic and hence the results are new. We believe that the results will be useful in designing and operating thermal fluids systems for space materials processing. Special cases of the results have been compared with published results and an excellent agreement is found.
Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240 ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m³. Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.
Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita(-1) d(-1) (± SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.
In computed tomography (CT), blurring occurs due to different hardware or software errors and hides certain medical details that are present in an image. Image blur is difficult to avoid in many circumstances and can frequently ruin an image. For this, many methods have been developed to reduce the blurring artifact from CT images. The problems with these methods are the high implementation time, noise amplification and boundary artifacts. Hence, this article presents an amended version of the iterative Landweber algorithm to attain artifact-free boundaries and less noise amplification in a faster application time. In this study, both synthetic and real blurred CT images are used to validate the proposed method properly. Similarly, the quality of the processed synthetic images is measured using the feature similarity index, structural similarity and visual information fidelity in pixel domain metrics. Finally, the results obtained from intensive experiments and performance evaluations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, which has potential as a new approach in medical image processing.
A potential advantage of group movement in animals is increased locomotion efficiency. This implies a reduced energetic cost for individuals that occur in larger groups such as herds, flocks and schools. When chelonian hatchlings hatch in the underground nest with finite energy for their post-hatching dispersal phase, they face the challenge of minimizing energetic expenditure while escaping the nest. The term 'social facilitation' has been used to describe the combined digging effort of sea turtle hatchlings during nest escape. Given that in a normal clutch, a substantial part of the energy reserve within the residual yolk is used by hatchlings in the digging out process, a decreased cohort size may reduce the energy reserve available to cross the beach and sustain the initial swimming frenzy. This hypothesis was experimentally tested by varying cohort size in hatchling green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and measuring energy expenditure during the nest escape process using open-flow respirometry. The energetic cost of escaping through 40 cm of sand was calculated to vary between 4.4 and 28.3 kJ per individual, the cost decreasing as the number of individuals in the cohort increased. This represents 11-68% of the energy contained in a hatchling's residual yolk at hatching. The reduced energetic cost associated with large cohorts resulted from both a lower metabolic rate per individual and a shortened nest escape time. We conclude that synchronous digging activity of many hatchlings during nest escape evolved not only to facilitate rapid nest emergence but also to reduce the energetic cost to individuals.
Gait events detection allows clinicians and biomechanics researchers to determine timing of gait events, to estimate duration of stance phase and swing phase and to segment gait data. It also aids biomedical engineers to improve the design of orthoses and FES (functional electrical stimulation) systems. In recent years, researchers have resorted to using gyroscopes to determine heel-strike (HS) and toe-off (TO) events in gait cycles. However, these methods are subjected to significant delays when implemented in real-time gait monitoring devices, orthoses, and FES systems. Therefore, the work presented in this paper proposes a method that addresses these delays, to ensure real-time gait event detection. The proposed algorithm combines the use of heuristics and zero-crossing method to identify HS and TO. Experiments involving: (1) normal walking; (2) walking with knee brace; and (3) walking with ankle brace for overground walking and treadmill walking were designed to verify and validate the identified HS and TO. The performance of the proposed method was compared against the established gait detection algorithms. It was observed that the proposed method produced detection rate that was comparable to earlier reported methods and recorded reduced time delays, at an average of 100 ms.
The life-cycle of Malaysian Spirometra spp. was studied under experimental conditions in the laboratory. The Cyclops were reared as the first intermediate host, the hamster as the experimental second intermediate host and cat as the definitive host. Maturation and hatching of eggs took 6 to 12 days by incubation at temperature 30 ºC. The hatched coracidium measured 46 x 34 μm. The Cyclops used were susceptible to the coracidial infection. The procercoid older than 5 days in the Cyclop body cavity had minute spines at the anterior end, calcium corpuscles in the body parenchyma and the cercomer at the posterior end. Procercoids 10 to 14 days old were infective to hamster. The plerocercoids from the hamster after 30 days were long and slender and were infective to cats. The plerocercoids experimentally inoculated to cats developed to adult worms and began to produce eggs between 10 to 60 days. Based on the results that have been obtained, a complete life-cycle was successfully elucidated in the laboratory and hamster was identified to be a good laboratory model for a second intermediate host of Spirometra sp.
The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm).
Objectives: Warfarin use in atrial fibrillation has been established for preventing occurrence of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, safety and clinical monitoring of warfarin use is crucial due to its risk of bleeding complications. This study aims to compare and establish relation of time in therapeutic range (TTR) of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation in the first 6 months and 6 month thereafter of anticoagulation therapy.
Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary-care hospital with anticoagulation clinic in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Data collected included patients’ demographics, co-morbidities, and international normalized ratio (INR). TTR were determined using Rosendaal method based on records found in database (INR Desk 4.0 system) and patients’ hemorrhage events were also recorded. Samples of the study were patient who started warfarin from January 2009 until March 2013.
Results: A total of 167 patients with atrial fibrillation were enrolled and only 6% (n=10) achieved TTR of more than 75% for the first 6 months of warfarin use as compared to 16.8% (n=28) of TTR more than 75% 6 months thereafter. As for bleeding incidences, 29% (n=45) of patients in the group of TTR less than 75% in the first 6 months had bleeding complications as compared to 18.7% (n=26) in patients of TTR less than 75% 6 months after.
Conclusions: A more regular follow up is necessary during the first 6 months of new warfarin users as they tend to be out of the TTR and have a higher bleeding risk.
Study site: tertiary-care hospital with anticoagulation clinic in the state of Selangor, Malaysia
Medical malpractice cases are a matter of much concern in many countries including Malaysia where several cases caught the attention of the public and authorities. Although comprehensive annual statistics on medical negligence claims are not available in Malaysia since such data are not collected systematically in this country there are indications of an upward trend. Medical malpractice cases have been publicized by the media, academic researchers and in government annual reports prompting government policy makers, oversight agencies and the medical profession itself to take appropriate action. The increasing dissatisfaction with the current tort litigation system requires exploring alternatives and new approaches for handling medical malpractice cases. This study aims to examine the difficulties inherent in the tort system in Malaysia for solving medical malpractice claims and evaluates the structure of this system from the perspective of effectiveness, fairness, compensation, accessibility, and accountability.
This paper focuses on the study of the change of various types of riding behaviour, such as speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, when they ride across the speed table. An instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensor, on-board camera, and data logger was used in acquiring the traffic data in the research. Riders were instructed to ride across two speed tables and the riding data were then analyzed to study the behaviour change from different riders. The results from statistical analysis showed that the riding characteristics such as speed, brake force, and throttle force applied are influenced by distance from hump, riding experience, and travel mileage of riders. Riders tend to apply higher brake intensity at distance point 50 m before the speed table and release the braking at point -10 m after the hump. In short, speed table has different rates of influence towards riding behaviour on different factors, such as distance from hump and different riders' attributes.
The importance of lianas through time and their effect on tree reproduction are evaluated for the first time in a Southeast Asian Dipterocarp forest. We quantified flower and seed production by lianas and trees for 13 years, assessed liana loads in the crowns of all trees larger than 30 cm in diameter at breast height (1.3 m) in 2002 and 2014, and assessed levels of reproduction for the same trees during a strong general flowering event in 2014 for the 50-ha forest dynamics plot at the Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. General flowering refers to synchronous reproduction by hundreds of plant species at irregular, multiyear intervals and only occurs in Southeast Asian Dipterocarp forests. Overall, lianas were present in 50% of tree crowns and comprised 31% of flower production and 46% of seed production. Lianas reduced growth, survival, and reproduction by their host trees. Lianas were less frequent in canopy- emergent trees, Dipterocarps comprised a disproportionately large proportion of canopy emergents, and, as a consequence, lianas were less frequent in Dipterocarps than in trees from other plant families. Lianas infested the crowns of significantly fewer trees in 2014 (47.9%) than in 2002 (52.3%); however, the decrease was restricted to trees with the lightest liana loads and sample sizes and statistical power were enormous. Lianas comprised a stable proportion of flower production and a highly variable proportion of seed production from 2002 through 2013. We conclude lianas have a huge impact on trees in this forest and were a stable component of the forest between 2002 and 2014. The emergent habit and associated ability to avoid lianas might contribute to the success of the Dipterocarpaceae.
The advent of web-based applications and services has created such diverse and voluminous web log data stored in web servers, proxy servers, client machines, or organizational databases. This paper attempts to investigate the effect of temporal attribute in relational rule mining for web log data. We incorporated the characteristics of time in the rule mining process and analysed the effect of various temporal parameters. The rules generated from temporal relational rule mining are then compared against the rules generated from the classical rule mining approach such as the Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms. The results showed that by incorporating the temporal attribute via time, the number of rules generated is subsequently smaller but is comparable in terms of quality.