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  1. Ferreira CWS, Atan IK, Martin A, Shek KL, Dietz HP
    Int Urogynecol J, 2017 Oct;28(10):1499-1505.
    PMID: 28285396 DOI: 10.1007/s00192-017-3297-4
    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Female pelvic organ prolapse is highly prevalent and childbirth has been shown to be an important risk factor. The study was carried out to observe if pelvic organ support deteriorates over time following a first birth.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective review using archived data sets of women seen in the context of two prospective perinatal imaging studies. All subjects had undergone a standardised interview, a clinical examination and 4D translabial ultrasound, 3 months and 2-5 years post-partum. Main outcome measures were pelvic organ descent and hiatal area at maximum Valsalva manoeuvre. Means at the two time points were compared using paired Student's t test. Predictors of change over time in continuous variables were explored using linear modelling methods.

    RESULTS: A total of 300 women had at least two postnatal follow-ups. They were first seen on average 0.39 (SD 0.2, range 0.2-2.1) years and again 3.1 (SD 1.5, range 1.4-8) years after the index delivery, with a mean interval of 2.71 (SD 1.5, range 0.7-7.7) years, providing a total of 813 (300 × 2.71) woman-years of observation. On univariate analysis, there was a significant decrease in mobility over time of the bladder neck, bladder, and rectal ampulla (P = < 0.004) and hiatal area (P = 0.012). The degree of improvement was less marked in women with levator avulsion.

    CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in pelvic organ descent and hiatal area was noted over a mean of 2.7 years after a first birth.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Ali A, Yeoh WK, Forney C, Siddiqui MW
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2018;58(15):2632-2649.
    PMID: 29072844 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1339180
    Minimally processed fresh produce is one of the fastest growing segments of the food industry due to consumer demand for fresh, healthy, and convenient foods. However, mechanical operations of cutting and peeling induce the liberation of cellular contents at the site of wounding that can promote the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, rates of tissue senescence can be enhanced resulting in reduced storage life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Chlorine has been widely adopted in the disinfection and washing procedures of fresh-cut produce due to its low cost and efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Continuous replenishment of chlorine in high organic wash water can promote the formation of carcinogenic compounds such as trihalomethanes, which threaten human and environmental health. Alternative green and innovative chemical and physical postharvest treatments such as ozone, electrolyzed water, hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, high pressure processing, and ultrasound can achieve similar reduction of microorganisms as chlorine without the production of harmful compounds or compromising the quality of fresh-cut produce.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Rahman AM, Jamayet NB, Nizami MMUI, Johari Y, Husein A, Alam MK
    J Prosthodont, 2019 Jan;28(1):36-48.
    PMID: 30043482 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12950
    PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to identify and interpret results of studies that evaluated the changes in the physical properties of maxillofacial prosthetic materials (1) without aging, (2) after natural or artificial accelerated aging, and (3) after outdoor weathering.

    METHODS: Relevant articles written in English only, before January 15, 2017, were identified using an electronic search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Furthermore, a manual search of the related major journals was also conducted to identify more pertinent articles. The relevancy of the articles was verified by screening the title, abstract, and full text if they met the inclusion criteria. A total of 37 articles satisfied the criteria, from which data were extracted for qualitative synthesis.

    RESULTS: Among the 37 included articles, 14 were without aging, 15 were natural or artificial accelerated aging, 7 were outdoor weathering, and 1 contained both artificial aging and outdoor weathering. Only 4 studies out of the 14 without aging had significant observations; whereas 9 articles with natural or artificial aging published significant results, and 3 out of 7 outdoor weathering articles showed significant changes in the evaluated silicone elastomers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the varying research, it seems that the single "ideal" maxillofacial prosthetic material that can provide sufficient resistance against different aging conditions is yet to be identified. Therefore, it is imperative for standardization organizations, the scientific community, and academia to develop modified prosthetic silicones possessing improved physical properties and color stability, limiting the clinical problems regarding degradation of maxillofacial prostheses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Alyessary AS, Yap AUJ, Othman SA, Ibrahim N, Rahman MT, Radzi Z
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2018 Aug;154(2):260-269.
    PMID: 30075928 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.11.031
    INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the effect of bone-borne accelerated expansion protocols on sutural separation and sutural bone modeling using a microcomputed tomography system. We also determined the optimum instant sutural expansion possible without disruption of bone modeling.

    METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits, 20 to 24 weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups. Modified hyrax expanders were placed across their interfrontal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants located bilaterally in the frontal bone. The hyrax appliances were activated as follows: group 1 (control), 0.5-mm per day expansion for 12 days; group 2, 1-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 10 days; group 3, 2.5-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days, and group 4, 4-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 4 days. After 6 weeks of retention, sutural separation and sutural bone modeling were assessed by microcomputed tomography and quantified. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the Spearman rho correlation (P <0.05).

    RESULTS: Median amounts of sutural separation ranged from 2.84 to 4.41 mm for groups 1 and 4, respectively. Median bone volume fraction ranged from 59.96% to 69.15% for groups 4 and 3, respectively. A significant correlation (r = 0.970; P <0.01) was observed between the amounts of instant expansion and sutural separation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pending histologic verifications, our findings suggest that the protocol involving 2.5 mm of instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days is optimal for accelerated sutural expansion. When 4 mm of instant expansion was used, the sutural bone volume fraction was decreased.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Farh HMH, Eltamaly AM, Othman MF
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(11):e0206171.
    PMID: 30388119 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206171
    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is widely used in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from two main problems in the case of partial shading conditions (PSCs). The first problem is that PSO is a time invariant optimization technique that cannot follow the dynamic global peak (GP) under time variant shading patterns (SPs) and sticks to the first GP that occurs at the beginning. This problem can be solved by dispersing the PSO particles using two new techniques introduced in this paper. The two new proposed PSO re-initialization techniques are to disperse the particles upon the SP changes and the other one is upon a predefined time (PDT). The second problem is regarding the high oscillations around steady state, which can be solved by using fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to fine-tune the output power and voltage from the PV system. The new contribution of this paper is the hybrid PSO-FLC with two PSO particles dispersing techniques that is able to solve the two previous mentioned problems effectively and improve the performance of the PV system in both normal and PSCs. A detailed list of comparisons between hybrid PSO-FLC and original PSO using the two proposed methodologies are achieved. The results prove the superior performance of hybrid PSO-FLC compared to PSO in terms of efficiency, accuracy, oscillations reduction around steady state and soft tuning of the GP tracked.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Harihar A, Chanchani P, Borah J, Crouthers RJ, Darman Y, Gray TNE, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(11):e0207114.
    PMID: 30408090 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207114
    With less than 3200 wild tigers in 2010, the heads of 13 tiger-range countries committed to doubling the global population of wild tigers by 2022. This goal represents the highest level of ambition and commitment required to turn the tide for tigers in the wild. Yet, ensuring efficient and targeted implementation of conservation actions alongside systematic monitoring of progress towards this goal requires that we set site-specific recovery targets and timelines that are ecologically realistic. In this study, we assess the recovery potential of 18 sites identified under WWF's Tigers Alive Initiative. We delineated recovery systems comprising a source, recovery site, and support region, which need to be managed synergistically to meet these targets. By using the best available data on tiger and prey numbers, and adapting existing species recovery frameworks, we show that these sites, which currently support 165 (118-277) tigers, have the potential to harbour 585 (454-739) individuals. This would constitute a 15% increase in the global population and represent over a three-fold increase within these specific sites, on an average. However, it may not be realistic to achieve this target by 2022, since tiger recovery in 15 of these 18 sites is contingent on the initial recovery of prey populations, which is a slow process. We conclude that while sustained conservation efforts can yield significant recoveries, it is critical that we commit our resources to achieving the biologically realistic targets for these sites even if the timelines are extended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin, Noor Zalina Mahmood, Noorlidah Abdullah
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1445-1450.
    Vermicomposting for 140 days by using Lumbricus rubellus was conducted after 21 days of natural pre-composting. Five treatments in different ratio of goat manure: spent mushroom substrate were prepared as feed materials with four replicates for each treatment namely; 20:80 (TA), 40:60 (TB), 50:50 (TC), 60:40 (TD) and 80:20 (TE). As for control, each treatment without earthworm was prepared. On the basis of nutrient elements, goat manure and spent mushroom substrate can be decomposed through both methods of vermicomposting and natural composting. Findings of this study indicated that the higher usage of goat manure with longer duration resulted in the production of improved organic fertilizer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Mohd Radi MF, Hashim JH, Jaafar MH, Hod R, Ahmad N, Mohammed Nawi A, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2018 05;98(5):1281-1295.
    PMID: 29532771 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0922
    Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted an observational ecological study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed. A total of 1,229 leptospirosis cases were notified within the three study periods where incidence doubled in the postflood period. Twelve of 66 subdistricts recorded incidence rates of over 100 per 100,000 population in the postflood period, in comparison with only four subdistricts in the preflooding period. Average nearest neighborhood analysis indicated that the cases were more clustered in the postflood period as compared with the preflood period, with observed mean distance of 1,139 meters and 1,666 meters, respectively (both at P < 0.01). Global Moran's I was higher in the postflood period (0.19; P < 0.01) as compared with the preflood period (0.06; P < 0.01). Geographic weighted regression showed that living close to water bodies increased the risk of contracting the disease. Postflooding hotspots were concentrated in areas where garbage cleanup occurred and the incidence was significantly associated with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and river levels. Postflooding leptospirosis outbreak was associated with several factors. Understanding the spatial distribution and associated factors of leptospirosis can help improve future disease outbreak management after the floods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Mohd Said N, Othman J, Hairi F
    MyJurnal
    Malaysia's healthcare delivery system in Vision 2020 will be recognized as one of the world’s best. Putrajaya Health Clinic is our first paperless health clinic in Malaysia that incorporates the Health Information System (HIS). This system cuts across programmes and sections in the operational work process in the clinic with the ultimate aim of achieving a paperless status. This clinic provides a comprehensive health care service at the point of contact and focuses on wellness, clientfriendly, seamless and borderless care with e]§‘icient use of resources and towards high a quality of service. This health clinic which seesthe majority of the attendance being well persons, through the immunization programme, antenatal, postnatal, family planning, school health, and well clinics for child and adult, will continue to extend and further expand its services to include geriatric, ill mental, occupational and rehabilitative care. The e-government within Putrajaya will facilitate the use of an
    appointment system, which can be done through e—mail, fax, telephone or walk-in. Information and
    communication technology will also facilitate the promotion of health education for individuals and communities. To facilitate efective streaming or screening of clients/attendees, a simple triage system is introduced. Prompt, short and accurate is the rule for triaging, thus providing timely and ejfective care. New information and communication technologies will allow healthcare providers to adopt a more virtual, more integrated and more distributed approach in the delivery of health services. It was documented that the average contact time at the triage counter in Putrajaya Health Clinic was 1.16 minutes, i.e. the shortest among other services provided here.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors*
  10. Guo P, Chiew YS, Shaw GM, Shao L, Green R, Clark A, et al.
    Intensive Crit Care Nurs, 2016 Dec;37:52-61.
    PMID: 27401048 DOI: 10.1016/j.iccn.2016.05.003
    Monitoring clinical activity at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU) can provide useful information to evaluate nursing care and patient recovery. However, it is labour intensive to quantify these activities and there is a need for an automated method to record and quantify these activities. This paper presents an automated system, Clinical Activity Tracking System (CATS), to monitor and evaluate clinical activity at the patient's bedside. The CATS uses four Microsoft Kinect infrared sensors to track bedside nursing interventions. The system was tested in a simulated environment where test candidates performed different motion paths in the detection area. Two metrics, 'Distance' and 'Dwell time', were developed to evaluate interventions or workload in the detection area. Results showed that the system can accurately track the intervention performed by individual or multiple subjects. The results of a 30-day, 24-hour preliminary study in an ICU bed space matched clinical expectations. It was found that the average 24-hour intervention is 22.0minutes/hour. The average intervention during the day time (7am-11pm) is 23.6minutes/hour, 1.4 times higher than 11pm-7am, 16.8minutes/hour. This system provides a unique approach to automatically collect and evaluate nursing interventions that can be used to evaluate patient acuity and workload demand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors*
  11. Kalid N, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Salman OH, Hashim M, Muzammil H
    J Med Syst, 2017 Dec 29;42(2):30.
    PMID: 29288419 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-017-0883-4
    The growing worldwide population has increased the need for technologies, computerised software algorithms and smart devices that can monitor and assist patients anytime and anywhere and thus enable them to lead independent lives. The real-time remote monitoring of patients is an important issue in telemedicine. In the provision of healthcare services, patient prioritisation poses a significant challenge because of the complex decision-making process it involves when patients are considered 'big data'. To our knowledge, no study has highlighted the link between 'big data' characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process, as well as the inherent challenges involved. Thus, we present comprehensive insights into the elements of big data characteristics according to the six 'Vs': volume, velocity, variety, veracity, value and variability. Each of these elements is presented and connected to a related part in the study of the connection between patient prioritisation and real-time remote healthcare monitoring systems. Then, we determine the weak points and recommend solutions as potential future work. This study makes the following contributions. (1) The link between big data characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process is described. (2) The open issues and challenges for big data used in the patient prioritisation process are emphasised. (3) As a recommended solution, decision making using multiple criteria, such as vital signs and chief complaints, is utilised to prioritise the big data of patients with chronic diseases on the basis of the most urgent cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors*
  12. Rusli MU, Booth DT, Joseph J
    J. Exp. Biol., 2016 05 15;219(Pt 10):1505-13.
    PMID: 27207954 DOI: 10.1242/jeb.134742
    A potential advantage of group movement in animals is increased locomotion efficiency. This implies a reduced energetic cost for individuals that occur in larger groups such as herds, flocks and schools. When chelonian hatchlings hatch in the underground nest with finite energy for their post-hatching dispersal phase, they face the challenge of minimizing energetic expenditure while escaping the nest. The term 'social facilitation' has been used to describe the combined digging effort of sea turtle hatchlings during nest escape. Given that in a normal clutch, a substantial part of the energy reserve within the residual yolk is used by hatchlings in the digging out process, a decreased cohort size may reduce the energy reserve available to cross the beach and sustain the initial swimming frenzy. This hypothesis was experimentally tested by varying cohort size in hatchling green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and measuring energy expenditure during the nest escape process using open-flow respirometry. The energetic cost of escaping through 40 cm of sand was calculated to vary between 4.4 and 28.3 kJ per individual, the cost decreasing as the number of individuals in the cohort increased. This represents 11-68% of the energy contained in a hatchling's residual yolk at hatching. The reduced energetic cost associated with large cohorts resulted from both a lower metabolic rate per individual and a shortened nest escape time. We conclude that synchronous digging activity of many hatchlings during nest escape evolved not only to facilitate rapid nest emergence but also to reduce the energetic cost to individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Chan SW, Liew LH, Wong GR, Kallarakkal TG, Abraham MT, Ramanathan A, et al.
    Int. J. Surg. Pathol., 2016 Aug;24(5):401-9.
    PMID: 27006298 DOI: 10.1177/1066896916639372
    BACKGROUND: Turnaround time (TAT) is the benchmark to assess the performance of a laboratory, pathologists, and pathology services, but there are few articles on TAT of surgical pathology, particularly in relation to oral or head and neck specimens. This study investigates the TAT for oral histopathology reporting in an academic institution's training laboratory and offers recommendations to achieve better overall quality of diagnostic services.

    METHODS: This study examined data obtained from biopsy request forms for specimens received from the Oro-Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Klang in the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, over a period of 3 years between January 2012 and October 2014.

    RESULTS: TAT for surgical and decalcified specimens were increased significantly compared to biopsies. Additional special handling did not influence TAT, but increased specimen volume resulted in greater TAT. Slide interpretation was the most time-consuming stage during histopathology reporting. Overall, mean TAT was acceptable for most specimens, but the TAT goals were less than satisfactory.

    CONCLUSION: A TAT goal appropriate for this laboratory may hence be established based on this study. Collective efforts to improve the TAT for various specimens are essential for better laboratory performance in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Wright SJ, Sun IF, Pickering M, Fletcher CD, Chen YY
    Ecology, 2015 Oct;96(10):2748-57.
    PMID: 26649395
    The importance of lianas through time and their effect on tree reproduction are evaluated for the first time in a Southeast Asian Dipterocarp forest. We quantified flower and seed production by lianas and trees for 13 years, assessed liana loads in the crowns of all trees larger than 30 cm in diameter at breast height (1.3 m) in 2002 and 2014, and assessed levels of reproduction for the same trees during a strong general flowering event in 2014 for the 50-ha forest dynamics plot at the Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. General flowering refers to synchronous reproduction by hundreds of plant species at irregular, multiyear intervals and only occurs in Southeast Asian Dipterocarp forests. Overall, lianas were present in 50% of tree crowns and comprised 31% of flower production and 46% of seed production. Lianas reduced growth, survival, and reproduction by their host trees. Lianas were less frequent in canopy- emergent trees, Dipterocarps comprised a disproportionately large proportion of canopy emergents, and, as a consequence, lianas were less frequent in Dipterocarps than in trees from other plant families. Lianas infested the crowns of significantly fewer trees in 2014 (47.9%) than in 2002 (52.3%); however, the decrease was restricted to trees with the lightest liana loads and sample sizes and statistical power were enormous. Lianas comprised a stable proportion of flower production and a highly variable proportion of seed production from 2002 through 2013. We conclude lianas have a huge impact on trees in this forest and were a stable component of the forest between 2002 and 2014. The emergent habit and associated ability to avoid lianas might contribute to the success of the Dipterocarpaceae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Chanakit T, Low BY, Wongpoowarak P, Moolasarn S, Anderson C
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2014 Nov 15;78(9):161.
    PMID: 26056400 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe789161
    To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Kumssa DB, Joy EJ, Ander EL, Watts MJ, Young SD, Walker S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:10974.
    PMID: 26098577 DOI: 10.1038/srep10974
    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita(-1) d(-1) (± SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Uddin MJ, Khan WA, Ismail AI
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(5):e0122663.
    PMID: 25933066 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122663
    Taking into account the effect of constant convective thermal and mass boundary conditions, we present numerical solution of the 2-D laminar g-jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of water-based nanofluids. The governing transport equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically by an implicit finite difference method with quasi-linearization technique. The skin friction decreases with time, buoyancy ratio, and thermophoresis parameters while it increases with frequency, mixed convection and Brownian motion parameters. Heat transfer rate decreases with time, Brownian motion, thermophoresis and diffusion-convection parameters while it increases with the Reynolds number, frequency, mixed convection, buoyancy ratio and conduction-convection parameters. Mass transfer rate decreases with time, frequency, thermophoresis, conduction-convection parameters while it increases with mixed convection, buoyancy ratio, diffusion-convection and Brownian motion parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper on this topic and hence the results are new. We believe that the results will be useful in designing and operating thermal fluids systems for space materials processing. Special cases of the results have been compared with published results and an excellent agreement is found.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Al-Ameen Z, Sulong G
    Interdiscip Sci, 2015 Sep;7(3):319-25.
    PMID: 26199211 DOI: 10.1007/s12539-015-0022-1
    In computed tomography (CT), blurring occurs due to different hardware or software errors and hides certain medical details that are present in an image. Image blur is difficult to avoid in many circumstances and can frequently ruin an image. For this, many methods have been developed to reduce the blurring artifact from CT images. The problems with these methods are the high implementation time, noise amplification and boundary artifacts. Hence, this article presents an amended version of the iterative Landweber algorithm to attain artifact-free boundaries and less noise amplification in a faster application time. In this study, both synthetic and real blurred CT images are used to validate the proposed method properly. Similarly, the quality of the processed synthetic images is measured using the feature similarity index, structural similarity and visual information fidelity in pixel domain metrics. Finally, the results obtained from intensive experiments and performance evaluations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, which has potential as a new approach in medical image processing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  19. Loke SR, Sing KW, Teoh GN, Lee HL
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Mar;32(1):76-83.
    PMID: 25801256 MyJurnal
    Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240 ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m³. Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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