Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 516 in total

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  1. Samah AA, Ahmadian M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2717-20.
    PMID: 22938447
    BACKGROUND: The rates of breast cancer have increased over the past two decades, and this raises concern about physical, psychological and social well-being of women with breast cancer. Further, few women really want to do breast cancer screening. We here investigated the socio-demographic correlates of mammography participation among 400 asymptomatic Iranian women aged between 35 and 69.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the four outpatient clinics of general hospitals in Tehran during the period from July through October, 2009. Bi-variate analyses and multi-variate binary logistic regression were employed to find the socio- demographic predictors of mammography utilization among participants.

    RESULTS: The rate of mammography participation was 21.5% and relatively high because of access to general hospital services. More women who had undergone mammography were graduates from university or college, had full-time or part-time employment, were insured whether public or private, reported a positive family history of breast cancer, and were in the middle income level (P <0.01).The largest number of participating women was in the age range of 41 to 50 years. The results of multivariate logistic regression further showed that education (95%CI: 0.131-0.622), monthly income (95%CI: 0.038-0.945), and family history of breast cancer (95%CI: 1.97-9.28) were significantly associated (all P <0.05)with mammography participation.

    CONCLUSIONS: The most important issue for a successful screening program is participation. Using a random sample, this study found that the potential predictor variables of mammography participation included a higher education level, a middle income level, and a positive family history of breast cancer for Iranian women after adjusting for all other demographic variables in the model.

  2. Hamizah S, Roslida AH, Fezah O, Tan KL, Tor YS, Tan CI
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2533-9.
    PMID: 22938417
    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05) as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the AMLE-treated group. Interestingly, At 100 and 300 mg/ kg, AMLE completely inhibited the tumor development in all stages. Histopathological study revealed that tumor growth from the AMLE-treated groups showed only slight hyperplasia and absence of keratin pearls and rete ridges. The results, thus suggest that the A.muricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.
  3. Norsa' adah B, Nur-Zafira A, Knight A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2857-60.
    PMID: 22938473
    Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.
  4. Yehya AH, Yusoff NM, Khalid IA, Mahsin H, Razali RA, Azlina F, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(5):1869-72.
    PMID: 22901138
    BACKGROUND: To assess the diagnostic potential of tumor-associated high molecular weight DNA in stool samples of 32 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients compared to 32 healthy Malaysian volunteers by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    METHODS: Stool DNA was isolated and tumor-associated high molecular weight DNA (1.476 kb fragment including exons 6-9 of the p53 gene) was amplified using PCR and visualized on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels.

    RESULTS: Out of 32 CRC patients, 18 were positive for the presence of high molecular weight DNA as compared to none of the healthy individuals, resulting in an overall sensitivity of 56.3% with 100% specificity. Out of 32 patients, 23 had tumor on the left side and 9 on the right side, 16 and 2 being respectively positive. This showed that high molecular weight DNA was significantly (p=0.022) more detectable in patients with left side tumor (69.6% vs 22.2%). Out of 32 patients, 22 had tumors larger than 1.0 cm, 18 of these (81.8%) being positive for long DNA as compared to not a single patient with tumor size smaller than 1.0 cm (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: We detected CRC-related high molecular weight p53 DNA in stool samples of CRC patients with an overall sensitivity of 56.3% with 100% specificity, with a strong tumor size dependence.

  5. Ahmadian M, Samah AA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(5):2419-23.
    PMID: 22901232
    CONTEXT: Genuine community participation does not denote taking part in an action planned by health care professionals in a medical or top-down approach. Further, community participation and health education on breast cancer prevention are not similar to other activities incorporated in primary health care services in Iran.

    OBJECTIVE: To propose a model that provides a methodological tool to increase women's participation in the decision making process towards breast cancer prevention. To address this, an evaluation framework was developed that includes a typology of community participation approaches (models) in health, as well as five levels of participation in health programs proposed by Rifkin (1985 and 1991).

    METHOD: This model explains the community participation approaches in breast cancer prevention in Iran. In a 'medical approach', participation occurs in the form of women's adherence to mammography recommendations. As a 'health services approach', women get the benefits of a health project or participate in the available program activities related to breast cancer prevention. The model provides the five levels of participation in health programs along with the 'health services approach' and explains how to implement those levels for women's participation in available breast cancer prevention programs at the local level.

    CONCLUSION: It is hoped that a focus on the 'medical approach' (top-down) and the 'health services approach' (top-down) will bring sustainable changes in breast cancer prevention and will consequently produce the 'community development approach' (bottom-up). This could be achieved using a comprehensive approach to breast cancer prevention by combining the individual and community strategies in designing an intervention program for breast cancer prevention.

  6. Ibrahim NI, Dahlui M, Aina EN, Al-Sadat N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(5):2213-8.
    PMID: 22901196
    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women. However, the survival rate varies across regions at averages of 73%and 57% in the developed and developing countries, respectively.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the survival rate of breast cancer among the women of Malaysia and characteristics of the survivors.

    METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on secondary data obtained from the Breast Cancer Registry and medical records of breast cancer patients admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 2005 to 2009. Survival data were validated with National Birth and Death Registry. Statistical analysis applied logistic regression, the Cox proportional hazard model, the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 868 women were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2005 and December 2009, comprising 58%, 25% and 17% Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. The overall survival rate was 43.5% (CI 0.573-0.597), with Chinese, Indians and Malays having 5 year survival rates of 48.2% (CI 0.444-0.520), 47.2% (CI 0.432-0.512) and 39.7% (CI 0.373-0.421), respectively (p<0.05). The survival rate was lower as the stages increased, with the late stages were mostly seen among the Malays (46%), followed by Chinese (36%) and Indians (34%). Size of tumor>3.0cm; lymph node involvement, ERPR, and HER 2 status, delayed presentation and involvement of both breasts were among other factors that were associated with poor survival.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall survival rate of Malaysian women with breast cancer was lower than the western figures with Malays having the lowest because they presented at late stage, after a long duration of symptoms, had larger tumor size, and had more lymph nodes affected. There is an urgent need to conduct studies on why there is delay in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer women in Malaysia.

  7. Rashwan HH, Saat NZ, Abd Manan DN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(5):2279-83.
    PMID: 22901207
    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and oncogenic HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. However, HPV vaccination is already available as the primary preventive method against cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of HPV vaccination among Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) students. This study was conducted from March until August 2009. Pre-tested and validated questionnaires were filled by the third year UKM (n=156) and UM (n=149) students from medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculties. The results showed that the overall level of knowledge on HPV infection, cervical cancer and its prevention among respondents was high and the majority of them had positive attitude towards HPV vaccination. Medical students had the highest level of knowledge (p<0.05). Very few students (3.6%) had already taken the vaccine with no significant difference between the two Universities (p=0.399). In conclusion, the knowledge and attitude of the respondents were high and positive, respectively. Only few students took HPV vaccination. Thus, more awareness campaigns and HPV vaccination services should be provided at universities' campuses with the price of the HPV vaccine reduced for the students.
  8. Harmy MY, Norwati D, Noor NM, Amry AR
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):1957-60.
    PMID: 22292632
    Colorectal cancer is the commonest cancer among males and the third commonest cancer among women in Malaysia. However, almost 80% of patients sought treatment for cancer only when they were already in late stage due to lack of awareness. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge and attitude of colorectal cancer screening among moderate risk patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2009 till April 2010 in 44 health clinics with Family Medicine Specialists in West Malaysia. Stratified multistage random sampling was applied and a validated Malay version of the questionnaire with the Cronbach' alpha of 0.65 to 0.82 was used. Data were entered using SPSS 12.0 and analysed with STATA 8.0. A total of 1,905 (93.8%) patients responded. The mean (SD) knowledge and attitude score among moderate risk patients were 69.5 (6.11%) and 66.5 (7.07%), whereas, the percentages for good knowledge and attitude were 4.1% and 3.3% respectively. Less than 1% had undergone colorectal cancer screening and the main reasons were not bothered, busy and embarrassment. The majority of patients who had moderate risk for colorectal cancer had extremely low knowledge and attitude towards colorectal cancer screening. As a result, the majority did not undergo any form of colorectal cancer screening.
  9. Mooi LY, Yew WT, Hsum YW, Soo KK, Hoon LS, Chieng YC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1177-82.
    PMID: 22799301
    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in carcinogenesis and displays variable expression profiles during cancer progression. Studies of dietary phytochemicals on cancer signalling pathway regulation have been conducted to search for potent signalling regulatory agents. The present study was designed to evaluate any suppressive effect of maslinic acid on PKC expression in human B-lymphoblastoid cells (Raji cells), and to identify the PKC isoforms expressed. Effects of maslinic acid on PKC activity were determined using a PepTag assay for non-radioactive detection of PKC. The highest expression in Raji cells was obtained at 20 nM PMA induced for 6 hours. Suppressive effects of maslinic acid were compared with those of four PKC inhibitors (H- 7, rottlerin, sphingosine, staurosporine) and two triterpenes (oleanolic acid and ursolic acid). The IC₅₀ values achieved for maslinic acid, staurosporine, H-7, sphingosine, rottlerin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were 11.52, 0.011, 0.767, 2.45, 5.46, 27.93 and 39.29 μM, respectively. Four PKC isoforms, PKC βI, βII, δ, and ζ, were identified in Raji cells via western blotting. Maslinic acid suppressed the expression of PKC βI, δ, and ζ in a concentration-dependent manner. These preliminary results suggest promising suppressive effects of maslinic acid on PKC activity in Raji cells. Maslinic acid could be a potent cancer chemopreventive agent that may be involved in regulating many downstream signalling pathways that are activated through PKC receptors.
  10. Cheah YK, Naidu BM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1125-30.
    PMID: 22799293
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia.

    METHOD: Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking.

    RESULTS: Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  11. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Alabsi AM, Abdul Manaf MR, Ijaz S, Kassim S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1627-32.
    PMID: 22799379
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Barriers for practicing breast self examination (BSE) await exploration.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the practice of BSE and its correlated factors and particularly barriers amongst urban women in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 222 Malaysian women using a self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 28.5 (±9.2) years, 59.0% were university graduates. Of the total, 81.1% were aware of breast cancer and 55% practiced BSE. Amongst 45% of respondents who did not practice BSE, 79.8% did not know how to do it, 60.6% feared being diagnosed with breast cancer, 59.6% were worried about detecting breast cancer, 22% reported that they should not touch their bodies, 44% and 28% reported BSE is embarrassing or unpleasant, 29% time consuming, 22% thought they would never have breast cancer or it is ineffective and finally 20% perceived BSE as unimportant. Logistic regression modeling showed that respondents aged ≥45 years, being Malay, married and having a high education level were more likely to practice BSE (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: In this study sample, a significant proportion of respondents was aware of breast cancer but did not practice BSE. Knowledge, psychological, cultural, perception and environmental factors were identified as barriers. BSE practice was associated significantly with socio-demographic factors and socioeconomic status.

  12. Saleh A, Yang YH, Wan Abd Ghani WM, Abdullah N, Doss JG, Navonil R, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1217-24.
    PMID: 22799308
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Less than 50% of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at early stages of the disease and this is in part due to poor awareness and lack of knowledge on the signs and symptoms of oral cancer. This study sought to measure the baseline awareness of oral cancer in Malaysia and aimed to increase public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer using a mass media campaign.

    METHODS: Baseline awareness and impact of the campaign was measured using self-administered questionnaires sent via email to individuals. The campaign was aired on two national television channels and the reach was monitored through an independent programme monitoring system.

    RESULTS: 78.2% of respondents had heard of oral cancer, and this increased significantly after the campaign. However, the ability to recognize signs and symptoms remains unchanged. We found that the level of awareness differed between the distinct ethnic subgroups and the reach of the campaign was not uniform across all ethnicities.

    CONCLUSION: This substantial study to measure the oral cancer awareness in Malaysia provides important baseline data for the planning of public health policies. Despite encouraging evidence that a mass media campaign could increase the awareness of oral cancer, further research is required to address the acceptability, comprehensiveness and effectiveness. Furthermore, different campaign approaches may be required for specific ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic country such as Malaysia.

  13. Wen CT, Hussein SZ, Abdullah S, Karim NA, Makpol S, Mohd Yusof YA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1605-10.
    PMID: 22799375
    Gelam and Nenas monofloral honeys were investigated in this study for their chemopreventive effects against HT 29 colon cancer cells. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H- tetrazolim) assays showed more effective inhibition of colon cancer cells proliferation by Gelam honey with IC₅₀ values of 39.0 mg/ml and 85.5 mg/ml respectively after 24 hours of treatment. Alkali comet assays revealed both honeys increased DNA damage significantly in a dose dependent manner. In addition, annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry demonstrated that at IC₅₀ concentrations and above, both Gelam and Nenas honeys induced apoptosis significantlyat values higher than for necrosis (p<0.05). Measurement of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) confirmed that Gelam and Nenas honeys reduced its production in H₂O₂ inflammation-induced colon cancer cells. In conclusion, our study indicated and confirmed that both Gelam and Nenas honeys are capable of suppressing the growth of HT 29 colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and suppressing inflammation.
  14. Ng CH, Pathy NB, Taib NA, Mun KS, Rhodes A, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1111-3.
    PMID: 22799290
    The ER-/PR+ breast tumor may be the result of a false ER negative result. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in patient and tumor characteristics of the ER-/PR+ phenotype in an Asian setting. A total of 2629 breast cancer patients were categorized on the basis of their age, ethnicity, tumor hormonal receptor phenotype, grade and histological type. There were 1230 (46.8%) ER+/PR+, 306 (11.6%) ER+/PR-, 122 (4.6%) ER-/PR+ and 972 (37%) ER-/PR-. ER-/PR+ tumors were 2.5 times more likely to be younger than 50 years at diagnosis (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.72-3.67). Compared to ER+/PR+ tumors, the ER-/ PR+ phenotype was twice more likely to be associated with grade 3 tumors (OR:2.02; 95%CI: 1.00-4.10). In contrast, compared to ER-/PR- tumors, the ER-/PR+ phenotype was 90% less likely to be associated with a grade 3 tumor (OR: 0.12; 95%CI:0.05-0.26), and more likely to have invasive lobular than invasive ductal histology (OR: 3.66; 95%CI: 1.47-9.11). These results show that the ER-/PR+ phenotype occurs in a younger age group and is associated with intermediate histopathological characteristics compared to ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- tumors. This may imply that it is a distinct entity and not a technical artifact.
  15. Jaafar H, Sharif SE, Murtey MD
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1305-10.
    PMID: 22799323
    Breast cancer cells undergo transformation when they spread into surrounding tissues. Studies have shown that cancer cells undergo surface alterations and interact with the surrounding microenvironment during the invasion process. The aim of the present study was to analyse these cancer cell surface alterations and interactions of cancer cells and stroma. Twenty 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced breast cancer samples taken from five rats were fixed in McDowell-Trump fixative and then washed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The samples were then treated with osmium tetroxide before being washed in distilled water and subsequently dehydrated through graded ethanols. The dehydrated samples were immersed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then following removal of excess HMDS, the samples were air dried at room temperature in a dessicator. The dried samples were mounted onto specimen stubs and coated with gold coater before being viewed under a scanning electron microscope. We detected the presence of membrane ruffles on the surface of cancer cells and the formation of unique surface membrane protrusions to enhance movement and adhesion to the surrounding stroma during the process of invasion. Advancing cancer cells demonstrated formation of lamellipodia and invadopodia. The stroma at the advancing edge was desmoplastic with many collagen fibres laid down near the cancer cells. Our data suggest that all of these abnormalities could act as hallmarks of invasiveness for breast cancer.
  16. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Teoh KH, Mun KS, Nazarina AR
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(2):469-72.
    PMID: 22524808
    The present study was conducted to assess utility of p16(INK4a) immunopositivity as a surrogate marker for genomic integration of high-risk human papillomavirus infection (hrHPV). A total of 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 27 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and 53 invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), histologically-diagnosed between 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2008 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre were stained for p16(INK4a) (CINtec Histology Kit (REF 9511, mtm laboratories AG, Heidelberg, Germany). Immunopositvity was defined as diffuse staining of the squamous cell cytoplasm and or nucleus (involving > 75% of the intraepithelial lesions or SCCs). Staining of basal and parabasal layers of intraepithelial lesions was pre-requisite. One (3.4%) LSIL, 24 (88.9%) HSIL and 46 (86.8%) SCC were p16(INK4a) immunopositive. All normal squamous epithelium did not express p16(INK4). p16(INK4a) expression was significantly lower (p<0.05) in LSIL compared with HSIL and SCC with no difference in expression between HSIL and SCC.The increased p16(INK4a) immunopositivity in HSIL and SCC appears in line with the integrated existence of the hrHPV and may provide more insightful information on risk of malignant transformation of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions than mere hrHPV detection.
  17. Jan S, Kimman M, Kingston D, Woodward M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(2):407-9.
    PMID: 22524798
    The ACTION (Asean CosTs In ONcology) Study will be one of the largest observational studies of the burden of cancer ever conducted in Asia. The study will involve 10,000 newly diagnosed patients with cancer and will be carried out across eight low- and middle income countries within the ASEAN region (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and the Philippines). Patients will be interviewed three times over 12 months to assess their health, use of health care services, out of pocket costs related to their illness, social and quality of life issues. The project is a collaboration between the George Institute for Global Health, the ASEAN Foundation and Roche. The aim of the study is to assess the health and socioeconomic impact of cancer on patients in ASEAN communities, and the factors that may impact on these outcomes.
  18. Natrah MS, Ezat S, Syed MA, Rizal AM, Saperi S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(3):957-62.
    PMID: 22631679
    OBJECTIVE: Rapidly increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in Malaysia and the introduction of cutting edge new treatments, which prolong survival, mean that treatment outcome measures meed to be evaluated, including consideration of patient's quality of life (QoL) assessment. There are limited data on QoL in CRC patients, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this study was performed focusing on cancer stages and age groups.

    METHODS: The cross sectional study was conducted from June to September 2011 at three public tertiary hospitals with the EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire in addition to face to face interview and review of medical records of 100 respondents.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 57.3 (SD 11.9) years with 56.0% are males and 44.0% females, 62% of Malay ethnicity, 30% Chinese, 7% Indian and 1% Sikh. Majority were educated up to secondary level (42%) and 90% respondents had CRC stages III and IV. Mean global health status (GHS) score was 79.1 (SD 21.4). Mean scores for functional status (physical, emotional, role, cognitive, social) rangeds between 79.5 (SD 26.6) to 92.2 (SD 13.7). Mean symptom scores (fatigue, pain, nausea/vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, insomnia, dyspnoea, loss of appetite) ranged between 4.00 (SD 8.58) to 20.7 (SD 30.6). Respondents role function significantly deteriorates with increasing stage of the disease (p=0.044). Females had worse symptoms of pain (p=0.022), fatigue (p=0.031) and dyspnoea (p=0.031). Mean insomnia (p=0.006) and diarrhea (p=0.024) demonstrated significant differences between age groups.

    CONCLUSION: QOL in CRC patients in this study was comparable to that in other studies done in developed countries. Pain, fatigue and dyspnoea are worse among female CRC patients. Given that functions deteriorates with advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis, a systematic screening programme to detect cases as early as possible is essential nationwide.

  19. Alsaad MA, Shamsuddin K, Fadzil F
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(3):879-83.
    PMID: 22631665
    Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infection and can be prevented by early vaccination.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Syrian women's level of knowledge and determinants of good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV infection and its vaccines.

    METHODS: A cross sectional survey was undertaken among mothers with daughters in sixth grade classes enrolled in primary schools in Aleppo city, Syria. Samples were selected through cluster sampling and data collected using a self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Less than a third of the mothers had heard of HPV infection and vaccines against cervical cancer and levels of knowledge were generally low. Good knowledge was associated with high education level, higher family monthly income, having few--less than four children, positive history of cervical cancer screening, and working or having relatives working in the medical field. The main source of information was television and few reported health care providers as a source of knowledge on HPV infection and vaccine.

    CONCLUSION: Since knowledge of HPV infection and its connection with cervical cancer and its vaccine are low, more efforts must be made to educate Syrians prior to introduction of any HPV vaccination programme. Public health efforts must focus on educating mothers, the public as well as health care providers.

  20. Ahmadian M, Samah AA, Redzuan M, Emby Z
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(3):969-74.
    PMID: 22631681
    Mammography utilization is low in Iran compared with other countries. Here a cross-sectional survey design was used to investigate psycho-social and individual factors associated with mammography among 400 women asymptomatic of breast cancer. The study was carried out at the four outpatient clinics of Tehran during the period from July through October, 2009. We found that mammography screening was related to higher self-efficacy and women's occupation. Future tailored interventions on potential psycho-social determinants and specific demographic factors are critical in increasing mammography screening rates among Iranian women.
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