Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 512 in total

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  1. Zulkifli A, Abidin NZ, Abidin EZ, Hashim Z, Rahman AA, Rasdi I, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(12):4815-21.
    PMID: 24998546
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

  2. Woodward M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(19):8521-6.
    PMID: 25339057
    In many countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), cancer is an increasing problem due to ageing and a transition to Western lifestyles. Governments have been slow to react to the health consequences of these socioeconomic changes, leading to the risk of a cancer epidemic overwhelming the region. A major limitation to motivating change is the paucity of high-quality data on cancer, and its socioeconomic repercussions, in ASEAN. Two initiatives have been launched to address these issues. First, a study of over 9000 new cancer patients in ASEAN - the ACTION study - which records information on financial difficulties, as well as clinical outcomes, subsequent to the diagnosis. Second, a series of roundtable meetings of key stakeholders and experts, with the broad aim of producing advice for governments in ASEAN to take appropriate account of issues relating to cancer, as well as to generate knowledge and interest through engagement with the media. An important product of these roundtables has been the Jakarta Call to Action on Cancer Control. The growth and ageing of populations is a global challenge for cancer services. In the less developed parts of Asia, and elsewhere, these problems are compounded by the epidemiological transition to Western lifestyles and lack of awareness of cancer at the government level. For many years, health services in less developed countries have concentrated on infectious diseases and mother-and-child health; despite a recent wake-up call (United Nations, 2010), these health services have so far failed to allow for the huge increase in cancer cases to come. It has been estimated that, in Asia, the number of new cancer cases per year will grow from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030 (Sankaranarayanan et al., 2014). In the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), corresponding figures are 770 thousand in 2012 (Figure 1), rising to 1.3 million in 2030 (Ferlay et al., 2012). ASEAN consists of Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It, thus, includes low- and middle-income countries where the double whammy of infectious and chronic diseases will pose an enormous challenge in allocating limited resources to competing health issues. Cancer statistics, even at the sub-national level, only tell part of the story. Many individuals who contract cancer in poor countries have no medical insurance and no, or limited, expectation of public assistance. Whilst any person who has a family member with cancer can expect to bear some consequential burden of care or expense, in a poor family in a poor environment the burden will surely be greater. This additional burden from cancer is rarely considered, and even more rarely quantified, even in developed nations.
  3. Wan Abdul Rahman WF, Fauzi MH, Jaafar H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(19):8441-5.
    PMID: 25339043
    BACKGROUND: Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) is another new marker in breast carcinoma since hypermethylation at P2 promoter of this gene was noted to be associated with poor prognosis. We investigated the expression of PITX2 protein using immunohistochemistry in invasive ductal carcinoma and its association with the established growth receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2).

    METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study using 100 samples of archived formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of invasive ductal carcinoma and stained them with immunohistochemistry for PITX2, ER, PR and HER2. All HER2 with scoring of 2+ were confirmed with chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH).

    RESULTS: PITX2 protein was expressed in 53% of invasive ductal carcinoma and lack of PITX2 expression in 47%. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between PITX2 expression with PR (p=0.001), ER (p=0.006), gland formation (p=0.044) and marginal association with molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma (p=0.051). Combined ER and PR expression with PITX2 was also significantly associated (p=0.003) especially in double positive cases. Multivariate analysis showed the most significant association between PITX2 and PR (RR 4.105, 95% CI 1.765-9.547, p=0.001).

    CONCLUSION: PITX2 is another potential prognostic marker in breast carcinoma adding significant information to established prognostic factors of ER and PR. The expression of PITX2 together with PR may carry a very good prognosis.

  4. Al-Kubaisy WA, Obaid KJ, Noor NA, Ibrahim NS, Al-Azawi AA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7725-30.
    PMID: 25292053
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause for cancer death in the world, now being especially linked to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This case-control study consisting of 65 HCC patients and 82 patients with other malignant tumours as controls was conducted to determine the association of HCV markers with HCC. Serum of each participant was obtained for detection of HCV Ab and RNA by DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA). Twenty six per cent (26.0%) of HCC patients had positive anti-HCV which was significantly greater than the control group (p=0.001). HCC patients significantly have a risk of exposure to HCV infection almost 3 times than the control group (OR=2.87, 95% C.I=1.1-7). Anti-HCV seropositive rate was significantly (p=0.03) higher among old age HCC patients and increases with age. Males with HCC significantly showed to have more than 9 times risk of exposure to HCV infection (OR=9.375, 95 % CI=1.299-67.647) than females. HCV-RNA seropositive rate was (70.8%) significantly higher among HCC patients compared to (22.2%) the control group (p=0.019). The most prevalent genotype (as a single or mixed pattern of infection) was HCV- 1b. This study detected a significantly higher HCV seropositive rate of antibodies and RNA in HCC patients.
  5. Saravanan C, Heidhy I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7629-34.
    PMID: 25292039
    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers.

    RESULTS: The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.

  6. Ng CH, Pathy NB, Taib NA, Ho GF, Mun KS, Rhodes A, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7959-64.
    PMID: 25292095
    The significance of the single hormone receptor positive phenotype of breast cancer is still poorly understood. The use of hormone therapy has been found to be less effective for this type, which has a survival outcome midway between double positive and double negative phenotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in patient and tumor characteristics and survival between double-receptor positive (ER+PR+), double receptor negative (ER-PR-) and single receptor positive (ER+PR- and ER-PR+) breast cancer in an Asian setting. A total of 1,992 patients with newly diagnosed stage I to IV breast cancer between 2003 and 2008, and where information on ER and PR were available, were included in this study. The majority of patients had ER+PR+ tumors (n=903: 45.3%), followed by 741 (37.2%) ER-PR-, 247 (12.4%) ER+PR-, and 101 (5.1%) ER-PR+ tumors. Using multivariate analysis, ER+PR- tumors were 2.4 times more likely to be grade 3 compared to ER+PR+ tumors. ER+PR- and ER-PR+ tumors were 82% and 86% respectively less likely to be grade 3 compared with ER-PR- tumors. ER-PR+ tumours were associated with younger age. There were no survival differences between patients with ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors. However, ER+PR- tumors have poorer survival compared with ER+PR+ tumours. ER-PR- tumours had the worst survival. Adjuvant hormonal therapy with tamoxifen was found to have identical survival advantage in patients with ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors whereas impact was slightly lower in patients with ER+PR- tumors. In conclusion, we found ER+PR- tumors to be more aggressive and have poorer survival when compared to ER+PR+ tumors, while patients with ER-PR+ tumours were younger, but had a similar survival to their counterparts with ER+PR+ tumours.
  7. Subramaniam S, Rahmat J, Rahman NA, Ramasamy S, Bhoo-Pathy N, Pin GP, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7863-7.
    PMID: 25292078
    BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is a rare type of cancer that usually develops in early childhood. If left untreated it can cause blindness and even death. The aim of this study is to determine sociodemographic and clinical features of retinoblastoma patients and also to determine the treatment pattern and outcome in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for this study were retrieved from the Retinoblastoma Registry of the National Eye Database (NED) in Malaysia. Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Hospital Umum Kuching, Sarawak and Hospital Queen Elizabeth, Kota Kinabalu were the major source data providers for this study. Data collected in the registry cover demography, clinical presentation, modes of treatment, outcomes and complications.

    RESULTS: The study group consisted of 119 patients (162 eyes) diagnosed with retinoblastoma between 2004 and 2012. There were 68 male (57.1%) and 51 (42.9%) female. The median age at presentation was 22 months. A majority of patients were Malays (54.6%), followed by Chinese (18, 5%), Indians (8.4%), and indigenous races (15.9%). Seventy six (63.8%) patients had unilateral involvement whereas 43 patients had bilateral disease (36.1%). It was found that most children presented with leukocoria (110 patients), followed by strabismus (19), and protopsis (12). Among the 76 with unilateral involvement (76 eyes), enucleation was performed for a majority (79%). More than half of these patients had extraocular extension. Of the 40 who received chemotherapy, 95% were given drugs systemically. Furthermore, in 43 patients with bilateral involvement (86 eyes), 35 (41%) eyes were enucleated and 17 (49%) showed extraocular extension. Seventy-two percent of these patients received systemic chemotherapy. The patients were followed up 1 year after diagnosis, whereby 66 were found to be alive and 4 dead. Sixteen patients defaulted treatment and were lost to follow-up, whereas follow-up data were not available in 33 patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with retinoblastoma in this middle-income Asian setting are presenting at late stages. As a result, a high proportion of patients warrant aggressive management such as enucleation. We also showed that a high number of patients default follow-up. Therefore, reduction in refusal or delay to initial treatment, and follow-up should be emphasized in order to improve the survival rates of retinoblastoma in this part of the world.
  8. Kavitha N, Vijayarathna S, Jothy SL, Oon CE, Chen Y, Kanwar JR, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7489-97.
    PMID: 25292018
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs of 20-24 nucleotides that play important roles in carcinogenesis. Accordingly, miRNAs control numerous cancer-relevant biological events such as cell proliferation, cell cycle control, metabolism and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and concepts concerning the biogenesis of miRNAs, miRNA roles in cancer and their potential as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis including the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle control and miRNA dysregulation. Moreover, microRNA molecules are already receiving the attention of world researchers as therapeutic targets and agents. Therefore, in-depth knowledge of microRNAs has the potential not only to identify their roles in cancer, but also to exploit them as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and identify therapeutic targets for new drug discovery.
  9. Magaji BA, Moy FM, Roslani AC, Law CW
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(15):6059-64.
    PMID: 25124558
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second most frequent cancer in Malaysia. Nevertheless, there is little information on treatment and outcomes nationally. We aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics of colorectal cancer patients treated at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) as part of a larger project on survival and quality of life outcomes.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 1,212 patients undergoing treatment in UMMC between January 2001 and December 2010 were reviewed. A retrospective-prospective cohort study design was used. Research tools included the National Cancer Patient Registration form. Statistical analysis included means, standard deviations (SD), proportions, chi square, t-test/ ANOVA. P-value significance was set at 0.05.

    RESULTS: The male: female ratio was 1.2:1. The mean age was 62.1 (SD12.4) years. Patients were predominantly Chinese (67%), then Malays (18%), Indians (13%) and others (2%). Malays were younger than Chinese and Indians (mean age 57 versus 62 versus 62 years, p<0.001). More females (56%) had colon cancers compared to males (44%) (p=0.022). Malays (57%) had more rectal cancer compared to Chinese (45%) and Indians (49%) (p=0.004). Dukes' stage data weres available in 67%, with Dukes' C and D accounting for 64%. Stage was not affected by age, gender, ethnicity or tumor site. Treatment modalities included surgery alone (40%), surgery and chemo/radiotherapy 32%, chemo and radiotherapy (8%) and others (20%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Significant ethnic differences in age and site distribution, if verified in population-based settings, would support implementation of preventive measures targeting those with the greatest need, at the right age.
  10. Wong YP, Shah SA, Shaari N, Mohamad Esa MS, Sagap I, Isa NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(4):1725-30.
    PMID: 24641399
    Management of patients with stage II colorectal carcinomas remains challenging as 20 - 30% of them will develop recurrence. It is postulated that these patients may harbour nodal micrometastases which are imperceptible by routine histopathological evaluation. The aims of our study were to evaluate (1) the feasibility of multilevel sectioning method utilizing haematoxylin and eosin stain and immunohistochemistry technique with cytokeratin AE1/AE3, in detecting micrometastases in histologically-negative lymph nodes, and (2) correlation between nodal micrometastases with clinicopathological parameters. Sixty two stage I and II cases with a total of 635 lymph nodes were reviewed. Five-level haematoxylin and eosin staining and one-level cytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunostaining were performed on all lymph nodes retrieved. The findings were correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Two (3.2%) lymph nodes in two patients (one in each) were found to harbour micrometastases detected by both methods. With cytokeratin AE1/AE3, we successfully identified four (6.5%) patients with isolated tumour cells, but none through the multilevel sectioning method. Nodal micrometastases detected by both multilevel sectioning and immunohistochemistry methods were not associated with larger tumour size, higher depth of invasion, poorer tumour grade, disease recurrence or distant metastasis. We conclude that there is no difference between the two methods in detecting nodal micrometastases. Therefore it is opined that multilevel sectioning is a feasible and yet inexpensive method that may be incorporated into routine practice to detect nodal micrometastases in centres with limited resources.
  11. Gan GG, Subramaniam R, Bee PC, Chin EF, Abdul-Halim H, Tai MC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(4):1703-6.
    PMID: 24641394
    BACKGROUND: The current standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP). A significant number of patients were not treated with recommended dose of rituximab due to limited financial resources in Malaysia. This study evaluates the efficacy of R-CHOP like chemotherapy in Malaysian patients with DLBCL.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised a retrospective analysis of patients with DLBCL treated at a single centre. The outcome was compared with patients who were treated with R-CHOP like and CHOP like chemotherapy. Patients who were treated with lower dose of rituximab was subanalysed for outcome.

    RESULTS: A total of 86 patients who had CHOP-like chemotherapy were included. Only 39 (45%) patients had rituximab and only 12 (29%) patients had the recommended dose. The overall response (OR) and complete response (CR) rates were 88% and 81% respectively. There was no significant difference in OR and CR in patients who had rituximab and those without rituxmab. Those with International Prognostic Index (IPI) score of ≤ 2 had significant higher CR rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The lack of significant improvement in CR and DFS in our patients may be due to an inadequate dose of rituximab.

  12. Ramanathan A, Mahmoud HA, Hui LP, Mei NY, Valliappan V, Zain RB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(4):1633-7.
    PMID: 24641380
    BACKGROUND: Lymphoma is a malignant neoplasm of lymphoid tissue classified into Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's types. It mostly affects lymph nodes although a considerable proportion of Non-Hodgkin's cases occur in extranodal sites.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected cases diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) during the period of 1980 to 2012 were retrieved from the archives of the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The sections from the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks were stained with H and E as well as with LCA, CD20, and CD3.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 41.6 years with a male: female ratio of 1.3:1. Out of the forty two cases, nineteen were Malays, eighteen were Chinese, followed by Indians (3) and Indonesians (2). The most common site of involvement was the mandible (22.2%), followed by the maxilla and palate (19.4% each). Most of the lesions presented as a painless progressive swelling. Only thirty six cases were further subdivided into B or T cell types. The majority were B-cell type (26 cases), of these 6 cases were Burkitt's lymphomas. Only ten cases were T-cell lymphoma, with three cases of NK/T-cell lymphoma.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this series of 42 patients diagnosed as extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the lesions appeared as painless swellings, mostly in men with the mandible as the most frequent site of involvement. Majority were B-cell lymphomas with Malays and Chinese being equally affected whereas lymphomas were rare in the Indian ethnicity. T-cell lymphomas were found to be common in the Chinese ethnic group.

  13. Saleh A, Kong YH, Vengu N, Badrudeen H, Zain RB, Cheong SC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(1):229-37.
    PMID: 24528031
    BACKGROUND: Dentists are typically the first professionals who are approached to treat ailments within the oral cavity. Therefore they should be well-equipped in detecting suspicious lesions during routine clinical practice. This study determined the levels of knowledge on early signs and risk factors associated with oral cancer and identified which factors influenced dentist participation in prevention and early detection of oral cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey on dentists' knowledge and their practices in prevention and early detection of oral cancer was conducted using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A response rate of 41.7% was achieved. The level of knowledge on early signs and risk habits associated with oral cancer was high and the majority reported to have conducted opportunistic screening and advised patients on risk habit cessation. Factors that influenced the dentist in practising prevention and early detection of oral cancer were continuous education on oral cancer, age, nature of practice and recent graduation. Notably, dentists were receptive to further training in the area of oral cancer detection and cessation of risk habits. Taken together, the study demonstrated that the dental clinic is a good avenue to conduct programs on opportunistic screening, and continuous education in these areas is necessary to adequately equip dentists in running these programs. Further, this study also highlighted knowledge deficits and practice shortcomings which will help in planning and developing programs that further encourage better participation of dentists in prevention and early detection of oral cancer.

  14. Liam CK, Leow HR, How SH, Pang YK, Chua KT, Lim BK, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(1):321-6.
    PMID: 24528049
    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are predictive of response to EGFR-targeted therapy in advanced stages of disease. This study aimed to determine the frequency of EGFR mutations in NSCLCs and to correlate their presence with clinical characteristics in multiethnic Malaysian patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of consecutive NSCLC patients were asessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: EGFR mutations were detected in NSCLCs from 55 (36.4%) of a total of 151 patients, being significantly more common in females (62.5%) than in males (17.2%) [odds ratio (OR), 8.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.77-16.98; p<0.001] and in never smokers (62.5%) than in ever smokers (12.7%) (OR, 11.50; 95%CI, 5.08-26.03; p<0.001). Mutations were more common in adenocarcinoma (39.4%) compared to non-adenocarcinoma NSCLCs (15.8%) (p=0.072). The mutation rates in patients of different ethnicities were not significantly different (p=0.08). Never smoking status was the only clinical feature that independently predicted the presence of EGFR mutations (adjusted OR, 5.94; 95%CI, 1.94- 18.17; p=0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: In Malaysian patients with NSCLC, the EGFR mutation rate was similar to that in other Asian populations. EGFR mutations were significantly more common in female patients and in never smokers. Never smoking status was the only independent predictor for the presence of EGFR mutations.

  15. Othman N, Othman NH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(5):2245-9.
    PMID: 24716964
    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus is a well-established cause of the development of a variety of epithelial lesions in the cervix. However, as yet, incorporation of HPV testing into cervical cancer screening either as an adjunct or stand alone test is limited due to its cost. We therefore here ascertained the presence and type specificity of human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA in routine cervical scrapings.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cervical scrapings were collected from women attending clinics for routine Pap smear screening. HPV-DNA was detected by PCR using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ primer sets and genotyping was accomplished by cycle-sequencing.

    RESULTS: A total of 635 women were recruited into the study with mean ± SD age of 43 ± 10.5 years. Of these 92.6% (588/635) were reported as within normal limits (WNL) on cytology. The presence of HPV infection detected by nested MY/GP+-PCR was 4.4% (28/635). The overall prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) in abnormal Pap smears was 53.8% (7/13). HPVs were also seen in 3.1% (18/588) of smears reported as WNL by cytology and 5.9% (2/34) in smears unsatisfactory for evaluation.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall percentage of HPV positivity in routine cervical screening samples is comparable with abnormal findings in cytology. Conventional Pap smear 'missed' a few samples. Since HPV testing is expensive, our results may provide valuable information for strategising implementation of effective cervical cancer screening in a country with limited resources like Malaysia. If Pap smear coverage could be improved, HPV testing could be used as an adjunct method on cases with ambiguous diagnoses.

  16. Chan SW, Kallarakkal TG, Abraham MT
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(5):2145-52.
    PMID: 24716948
    BACKGROUND: The survival rate for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has remained generally unchanged in the past three decades, underlining the need for more biomarkers to be developed to aid prognostication and effective management. The prognostic potential of E-cadherin expression in OSCCs has been variable in previous studies while galectin-9 expression has been correlated with improved prognosis in other cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of galectin-9 and E-cadherin in OSCC and their potential as prognostic biomarkers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: E-cadherin and Galectin-9 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 32 cases of OSCC of the buccal mucosa (13 with and 19 without lymph node metastasis), as well as 6 samples of reactive lesions and 5 of normal buccal mucosa.

    RESULTS: The expression of E-cadherin in OSCC was significantly lower than the control tissues but galectin-9 expression was conversely higher. Median E-cadherin HSCOREs between OSCCs positive and negative for nodal metastasis were not significantly different. Mean HSCOREs for galectin-9 in OSCC without lymph node metastasis (127.7 ± 81.8) was higher than OSCC with lymph node metastasis (97.9 ± 62.9) but this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: E-cadherin expression is reduced whilst galectin-9 expression is increased in OSCC. However, the present results suggest that E-cadherin and galectin-9 expression may not be useful as prognostic markers for OSCC.

  17. Mohamad Ashari ZS, Sulong S, Hassan R, Husin A, Sim GA, Abdul Wahid SF
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(4):1863-9.
    PMID: 24641422
    The amplification of telomerase component (TERC) gene could play an important role in generation and treatment of haematological malignancies. This present study was aimed to investigate copy number amplification status of TERC gene in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients who were being treated with imatinib mesylate (IM). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of CML-IM Resistant (n=63), CML-IM Respond (n=63) and healthy individuals (n=30). TERC gene copy number predicted (CNP) and copy number calculated (CNC) were determined based on Taqman® Copy Number Assay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed to confirm the normal signal pattern in C4 (calibrator) for TERC gene. Nine of CML patients showed TERC gene amplification (CNP=3), others had 2 CNP. A total of 17 CML patients expressed CNC>2.31 and the rest had 2.31>CNC>1.5. TERC gene CNP value in healthy individuals was 2 and their CNC value showed in range 1.59-2.31. The average CNC TERC gene copy number was 2.07, 1.99 and 1.94 in CML- IM Resistant patients, CML-IM Respond and healthy groups, respectively. No significant difference of TERC gene amplification observed between CML-IM Resistant and CML-IM Respond patients. Low levels of TERC gene amplification might not have a huge impact in haematological disorders especially in terms of resistance towards IM treatment.
  18. Asmaa MJ, Al-Jamal HA, Ang CY, Asan JM, Seeni A, Johan MF
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(1):475-81.
    PMID: 24528077
    BACKGROUND: Pereskia sacharosa is a genus of cacti widely used in folk medicine for cancer-related treatment. Anti-proliferative effects have been studied in recent years against colon, breast, cervical and lung cancer cell lines, with promising results. We here extended study of anti-proliferative effects to a blood malignancy, leukemia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two leukemic cell lines, MV4-11 (acute myeloid leukemia) and K562 (chronic myeloid leukemia), were studied. IC50 concentrations were determined and apoptosis and cell cycle regulation were studied by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle related regulatory proteins was assessed by Western blotting.

    RESULTS: P sacharosa inhibited growth of MV4-11 and K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of cell death was via induction of intrinsic apoptotic pathways and cell cycle arrest. There was profound up-regulation of cytochrome c, caspases, p21 and p53 expression and repression of Akt and Bcl-2 expression in treated cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that P sacharosa induces leukemic cell death via apoptosis induction and changes in cell cycle checkpoint, thus deserves further study for anti-leukemic potential.

  19. Yaw YH, Shariff ZM, Kandiah M, Weay YH, Saibul N, Sariman S, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(1):39-44.
    PMID: 24528062
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide an overview of lifestyle changes after breast cancer diagnosis and to examine the relationship between dietary and physical activity changes with weight changes in breast cancer patients. Women with breast carcinomas (n=368) were recruited from eight hospitals and four breast cancer support groups in peninsular Malaysia. Dietary and physical activity changes were measured from a year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to study entry. Mean duration since diagnosis was 4.86±3.46 years. Dietary changes showed that majority of the respondents had decreased their intake of high fat foods (18.8-65.5%), added fat foods (28.3-48.9%), low fat foods (46.8-80.7%), red meat (39.7%), pork and poultry (20.1-39.7%) and high sugar foods (42.1-60.9%) but increased their intake of fish (42.7%), fruits and vegetables (62.8%) and whole grains (28.5%). Intake of other food groups remained unchanged. Only a small percentage of the women (22.6%) had increased their physical activity since diagnosis where most of them (16.0%) had increased recreational activities. Age at diagnosis (β= -0.20, p= 0.001), and change in whole grain (β= -0.15, p= 0.003) and fish intakes (β= 0.13, p= 0.013) were associated with weight changes after breast cancer diagnosis. In summary, the majority of the women with breast cancer had changed their diets to a healthier one. However, many did not increase their physical activity levels which could improve their health and lower risk of breast cancer recurrence.
  20. Azlin AH, Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(9):3959-63.
    PMID: 24935581
    The tumour suppressor genes, p53 and pRb, are known to play important roles in neoplastic transformation. While molecular routes to the uncontrolled growth of hepatocytes, leading to primary liver cancer have generated considerable interest, the roles of p53 and pRb mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatoblastoma (HB) remain to be clarified. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of p53 and pRb gene products in 26 HCC and 9 HB, sampled into tissue microarray blocks. 10 (38%) of 26 HCC showed > 10% tumour nuclear staining for p53 protein, 3 of these also being HbsAg positive. Conversely, none of 9 HB expressed nuclear p53 immunopositivity. Some 24 (92%) HCC and 8 (89%) HB showed loss of pRb nuclear expression. Two of the 26 HCC and one of the 9 HB showed >10% tumour nuclear staining for pRb protein. Our results suggest that p53 does not have an important role in the development of HB but may contribute in HCC. There is also loss of pRb expression in the majority of HCC and HB, supporting loss of pRb gene function in the hepatocarcinogenesis pathway. However, a comparison of the staining profiles of p53 and pRb proteins in HCC and HB did not reveal a consistent pattern to differentiate between the two types of tumours immunohistochemically. Hence the use of p53 and pRB protein expression has no contribution in the situation where there is a diagnostic difficulty in deciding between HCC and HB.
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