METHODS: One hundred and thirty four NPC cases confirmed by histopathology in Hospital USM between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2007 that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were retrospectively reviewed. Survival time of NPC patients were estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare survival of cases among presenting symptoms, WHO type, TNM classification and treatment modalities.
RESULTS: The overall five-year survival rate of NPC patients was 38.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.1, 46.9). The overall median survival time of NPC patients was 31.30 months (95%CI: 23.76, 38.84). The significant factors that altered the survival rate and time were age (p=0.041), cranial nerve involvement (p=0.012), stage (p=0.002), metastases (p=0.008) and treatment (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The median survival of NPC patients is significantly longer for age≤50 years, no cranial nerve involvement, and early stage and is dependent on treatment modalities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTG and SRM was analyzed for their reducing power ability, ABTS radical inhibition and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazylfree radicals scavenging activities. Furthermore, the antiproliferation efficacy was evaluated using MTT assay on K 562 and HCT116 cancer cell lines versus NIH/3T3 and CCD18-Co normal cell lines respectively.
RESULTS: SRM and MTG demonstrate moderate antioxidant value with ABTS assay (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC): 2.25±0.02 mmol trolox / mmol and 1.96±0.04 mmol trolox / mmol respectively) and DPPH (IC50=3.75±0.04 mg/mL and IC50=2.28±0.02 mg/mL respectively). Both MTG and SRM demonstrate equal potency (IC50=25.20±1.53 and IC50= 22.19±1.06 respectively) towards K 562 cell lines, comparable to control, betulinic acid (BA) (IC5024.40±1.26). Both compounds showed concentration-dependent cytototoxicity effects and exert profound antiproliferative efficacy at concentration > 100 μM towards HCT 116 and K 562 cancer cell lines, comparable to those of BA and 5-FU (5-Fluorouracil). Furthermore, both MTG and SRM exhibit high selectivity towards HCT 116 cell lines with selective indexes of 3.14 and 2.93 respectively compared to 5-FU (SI=0.60).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that the medicinal and nutitional values of mitragynine obtained from ketum leaves that growth in tropical forest of Southeast Asia and its analogues does not limited to analgesic properties but could be promising antioxidant and anticancer or chemopreventive compounds.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with dietary carbohydrate, fiber and sugar intake.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population based case-control study was conducted in Malaysia with 382 breast cancer patients and 382 controls. Food intake pattern was assessed via an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad range of potential confounders were included in analysis.
RESULTS: A significant two fold increased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal (OR Q4 to Q1=1.93, 95%CI: 1.53-2.61, p-trend=0.001) and postmenopausal (OR Q4 to Q1=1.87, 95%CI: 1.03-2.61, p-trend=0.045) women was observed in the highest quartile of sugar. A higher intake of dietary fiber was associated with a significantly lower breast cancer risk among both premenopausal (OR Q4 to Q1=0.31, 95%CI: 0.12-0.79, p-trend=0.009) and postmenopausal (OR Q4 to Q1=0.23, 95%CI: 0.07-0.76, p-trend=0.031) women.
CONCLUSIONS: Sugar and dietary fiber intake were independently related to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. However, no association was observed for dietary carbohydrate intake.
AIM: The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding pain among nurses working in tertiary care in a local setting and the factors that may be associated with this.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional research study used a modified version of the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (NKAS) regarding pain. Basic demographic data were obtained for further correlation with the level of pain knowledge.
RESULTS: A total of 566 nurses, 34 male and 532 female, volunteered to participate in this study. The response rate (RR) was 76%, with an overall mean percentage score of 42.7±10.9 (range: 5-92.5). The majority of participants were younger nurses below 40 years of age and more than 70% had worked for less than 10 years (6.6±4.45). Up to 92% had never had any formal education in pain management in general. The total mean score of correct answers was 58.6±9.58, with oncology nursing staff scoring a higher percentage when compared with nurses from other general and critical care wards (63.52±9.27, p<0.045). Only 2.5% out of all participants obtained a score of 80% or greater. The majority of the oncology nurses achieved the expected competency level (p<0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings give further support for the universal concern about poor knowledge and attitudes among nurses related to the optimal management of pain. The results indicated that neither number of years working nor age influenced the level of knowledge or attitudes of the practising nurses. Oncology nursing staff consistently scored better than the rest of the cohort. This reflects that clinical experience helps to improve attitudes and knowledge concerning better pain management.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire.
RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8).
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty five female Sprague Dawley rats at age 21-day old were divided into 4 groups; Group 1 (control, n=10), Group 2 (PF4, n=5), Group 3 (rapamycin, n=10) and Group 4 (rapamycin+PF4, n=10). MNU was administered intraperitionally, dosed at 70 mg/kg body weight. The rats were treated when the tumors reached the size of 14.5 ± 0.5 mm and subsequently sacrificed after 5 days. Rapamycin and PF4 were administered as focal intralesional injections at the dose of 20 μg/lesion. The tumor tissue was then subjected to histopathological examinations for morphological appraisal and immunohistochemical assessment of the pro-apoptotic marker, Bax and anti-apoptotic markers, Bcl-2 and survivin.
RESULTS: The histopathological pattern of the untreated control cohort showed that the severity of the malignancy augments with mammary tumor growth. Tumors developing in untreated groups were more aggressive whilst those in treated groups demonstrated a transformation to a less aggressive subtype. Combined treatment resulted in a significant reduction of tumor size without phenotypic changes. Bax, the pro-apoptotic marker, was significantly expressed at higher levels in the rapamycin-treated and rapamycin+PF4-treated groups compared to controls (p<0.05). Consequently, survivin was also significantly downregulated in the rapamycin-treated and rapamycin+PF4-treated group and this was significantly different when compared to controls (p).
CONCLUSIONS: In our rat model, it could be clearly shown that rapamycin specifically affects Bax and survivin signaling pathways in activation of apoptosis. We conclude that rapamycin plays a critical role in the induction of apoptosis in MNU-induced mammary carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data were extracted from the pharmacy database of University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) responsible for dispensing records of patients stored in the pharmacy's Medication Management and Use System (Ascribe). We analyzed the use of psychotropics in patients from the oncology ward and cardiology from 2008 to 2012. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity.
RESULTS: A total of 3,345 oncology patients and 8,980 cardiology patients were included. Oncology patients were significantly more often prescribed psychotropic drugs (adjusted OR: anxiolytic/hypnotic=5.55 (CI: 4.64-6.63); antidepressants=6.08 (CI: 4.83-7.64) and antipsychotics=5.41 (CI: 4.17-7.02). Non-Malay female cancer patients were at significantly higher risk of anxiolytic/hypnotic use.
CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic drugs prescription is common in cancer patients. Anxiolytic/hypnotic prescription rates are significantly higher in non-Malay female patients in Malaysia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ER+ MCF7 and ER- MDA-MB-231 cell lines were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and spots of interest were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of- flight/time- of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis after downregulation of RhoGDIα using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and upregulated using GFP-tagged ORF clone of RhoGDIα.
RESULTS: The results showed a total of 35 proteins that were either up- or down-regulated in these cells. Here we identifed 9 and 15 proteins differentially expressed with silencing of RhoGDIα in MCF-7 and the MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. In addition, 10 proteins were differentially expressed in the upregulation of RhoGDIα in MCF7, while only one protein was identified in the upregulation of RhoGDIα in MDA-MB-231. Based on the biological functions of these proteins, the results revealed that proteins involved in cell migration are more strongly altered with RhoGDI-α activity. Although several of these proteins have been previously indicated in tumorigenesis and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, some ohave not been previously reported to be involved in breast cancer migration. Hence, these proteins may serve as useful candidate biomarkers for tumorigenesis and invasiveness of breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Future studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate cell migration. The combination of RhoGDIα with other potential biomarkers may be a more promising approach in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the determinants of surgery choice in Asian patients with early breast cancer in a middle-income country.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 184 patients with early breast cancer treated between Jan 2008 and Dec 2010 were recruited to complete a questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association between surgery choice and demographic and tumour factors, surgeon recommendation, family member and partner opinions, fear of recurrence, avoidance of second surgery, fear of disfigurement, interference with sex life, fear of radiation and loss of femininity.
RESULTS: 85 (46%) had BCS while 99 (54%) had mastectomy. Age >60, Chinese ethnicity, lower education level, and larger tumour size were significantly associated with mastectomy. Surgeon recommendation was important in surgery choice. Although both groups did not place much importance on interference with sex life, 14.1% of the BCS group felt it was very important compared to 5.1% in the mastectomy group and this was statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the other factors. When analyzed by ethnicity, significantly more Malay and Indian women considered partner and family member opinions very important and were more concerned about loss of femininity compared to Chinese women. There were no statistical differences between the three ethnic groups in terms of the other factors.
CONCLUSIONS: When counseling on surgical options, the surgeon has to take into account the ethnicity, social background and education level, age and reliance on partner and family members. Decision-making is usually a collective effort rather than just between the patient and surgeon, and involving the whole family into the process early is important.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected cases diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) during the period of 1980 to 2012 were retrieved from the archives of the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The sections from the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks were stained with H and E as well as with LCA, CD20, and CD3.
RESULTS: The mean age was 41.6 years with a male: female ratio of 1.3:1. Out of the forty two cases, nineteen were Malays, eighteen were Chinese, followed by Indians (3) and Indonesians (2). The most common site of involvement was the mandible (22.2%), followed by the maxilla and palate (19.4% each). Most of the lesions presented as a painless progressive swelling. Only thirty six cases were further subdivided into B or T cell types. The majority were B-cell type (26 cases), of these 6 cases were Burkitt's lymphomas. Only ten cases were T-cell lymphoma, with three cases of NK/T-cell lymphoma.
CONCLUSIONS: In this series of 42 patients diagnosed as extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the lesions appeared as painless swellings, mostly in men with the mandible as the most frequent site of involvement. Majority were B-cell lymphomas with Malays and Chinese being equally affected whereas lymphomas were rare in the Indian ethnicity. T-cell lymphomas were found to be common in the Chinese ethnic group.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised a retrospective analysis of patients with DLBCL treated at a single centre. The outcome was compared with patients who were treated with R-CHOP like and CHOP like chemotherapy. Patients who were treated with lower dose of rituximab was subanalysed for outcome.
RESULTS: A total of 86 patients who had CHOP-like chemotherapy were included. Only 39 (45%) patients had rituximab and only 12 (29%) patients had the recommended dose. The overall response (OR) and complete response (CR) rates were 88% and 81% respectively. There was no significant difference in OR and CR in patients who had rituximab and those without rituxmab. Those with International Prognostic Index (IPI) score of ≤ 2 had significant higher CR rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The lack of significant improvement in CR and DFS in our patients may be due to an inadequate dose of rituximab.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey on dentists' knowledge and their practices in prevention and early detection of oral cancer was conducted using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A response rate of 41.7% was achieved. The level of knowledge on early signs and risk habits associated with oral cancer was high and the majority reported to have conducted opportunistic screening and advised patients on risk habit cessation. Factors that influenced the dentist in practising prevention and early detection of oral cancer were continuous education on oral cancer, age, nature of practice and recent graduation. Notably, dentists were receptive to further training in the area of oral cancer detection and cessation of risk habits. Taken together, the study demonstrated that the dental clinic is a good avenue to conduct programs on opportunistic screening, and continuous education in these areas is necessary to adequately equip dentists in running these programs. Further, this study also highlighted knowledge deficits and practice shortcomings which will help in planning and developing programs that further encourage better participation of dentists in prevention and early detection of oral cancer.