MATERIALS AND METHODS: All newly diagnosed patients with NPC referred for treatment to the Oncology unit at UMMC from 2004-2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment outcomes were 5 years overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), loco- regional control (LRC) and radiotherapy-related late effects. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and differences in survival according to AJCC stage was compared using the log-rank test.
RESULTS: A total of 176 patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated in UMMC during this period. Late presentation was common, with 33.5% presenting with T3-4 disease, 84.7% with N1-3 disease and 75.6% with AJCC stage 3-4 disease. Radical RT was given to 162 patients with 22.7% having RT alone and 69.3% having CCRT. The stipulated OTT was 7 weeks and 72.2% managed to complete their RT within this time period. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 14.8% while adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 16.5%. The 5 years OS was 51.6% with a median follow up of 58 months. The 5 years OS according to stage were 81.8% for stage I, 77.9% for stage II, 47.4% for stage III and 25.9% for stage IV. The 5 years overall CSS, DFS and LRC were 54.4%, 48.4% and 70.6%, respectively. RT related late effects were documented in 80.2%. The commonest was xerostomia (66.7%). Other documented late effects were hearing deficit (17.3%), visual deficit (3.1%), neck stiffness (3.1%) , dysphagia (3.4%), cranial nerve palsy (2.5%), pneumonitis (0.6%) and hypothyroidism (1.2%).
CONCLUSIONS: The 5 years OS and LRC in this study are low compared to the latest studies especially those utilizing IMRT. Implementation of IMRT for NPC treatment should be strongly encouraged.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 202 Malaysian Road Police Traffic officers. Inclusion criteria were those officers who work wearing white uniform regulating traffic. The survey took place at the Police Traffic Station, Jln Tun H.S. Lee, Kuala Lumpur, the main Head Quarters of Malaysian's Traffic Department where almost 600 police traffic officers are employed. The police traffic officers are given the task to take care of the traffic from the main office of the police station, then, according to the task, the officers drive to their given location for their duty. Each task is approved by the Chief Traffic Inspector of Kuala Lumpur. Data collected in this study were analyzed using SPSS 13, with the T-test for univariate analysis and multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 202 road traffic police officers participated. The majority were older than 30 years of age, male, Malay, married, with secondary education, with monthly income more than 2000 Ringgit Malaysia (66.3%, 91.1%, 86.6%, 84.7%, 96%, 66.3%; respectively). Regarding the practice of skin cancer prevention, 84.6% of the study participants were found to wear hats, 68.9% sunglasses and 85.6% clothing that covering most of the body but only 16.9% used a sunscreen when they were outdoors. When analysis of the factors that influenced the practice of skin cancer prevention was performed, univariate analysis revealed that gender, age and monthly income significantly influenced the practice of skin cancer prevention. For multivariate analysis, gender, monthly income and race significantly influenced the practice of using sunscreen among road traffic police officers (p<0.001, p=0.019, p=0.027; respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The practice of skin cancer prevention among the traffic police officers showed good practices in terms of wearinga hat, sun glasses and clothing that covers most of the body. However, the study revealed a poor practice of the use of sunscreen. The factors that influence the practice of sunscreen use were found to be gender, income, and race. The study suggests that more awareness campaign among traffic police officers is needed. Providing sunscreen for free for police traffic officers should be considered by the Police authorities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey using the Colorectal Cancer Awareness Measure was initiated in Perak, Malaysia. A total of 2,379 respondents aged 18 years and above were recruited using a multi-stage sampling in five locations. Analysis of covariance was used to examine independent sociodemographic predictors of scores for symptom awareness.
RESULTS: Younger age, being female, a higher education, and higher income were significantly associated with better scores for both recall and recognition of warning symptoms. Among the ethnic groups, Malays had better recognition of symptoms whereas Chinese recalled the most symptoms. Passing bloody stool was associated with the least anticipated delay and unexplained anal pain had the highest anticipated delay.
CONCLUSIONS: The level of awareness across all ethnicities in Malaysia is generally low, especially among minorities. Targeted public education, which is culturally and linguistically appropriate, should be developed to encourage early help-seeking and improve clinical outcomes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study adopting the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was conducted. All cancer patients attending Penang General Hospital between August-November 2011 were approached. Descriptive statistics were used to assess demographic and disease related characteristics of the patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS v 16.0.
RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety three cancer patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 53.9 (SD±13) years. The cohort was dominated by females (n=260, 66.2%). Nearly half (n=190, 48.3%) of the participants were of Malay ethnicity, practicing Islam as their religion (n=194, 49.4%). Two hundred and ninety six (n=296, 75.3%) had beene diagnosed with cancer within six months to 3 years previously. The most common primary cancer site was breast (n=143, 36.4%). The mean Global Health Status (GHS) score was 60.7 (SD=21.3). Females (mean GHS score of 62.3, p=0.035) with Malay ethnicity (mean GHS score of 63.8, p=0.047), practicing Islam as their religion (mean GHS score of 63.0, p=0.011) had better GHS scores. Patients having medical insurance had good scores (mean 65.6, p=0.021). Marital status was significantly associated with GHS scores (p=0.022). Bone cancer patientshad the lowest mean GHS score of 49.2 (p=0.044). Patients at very advanced stages of cancer featured a low GHS mean score of 52.2 (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified many demographic and disease related factors which may contribute to the HRQoL of cancer patients, pointing to the necessity for improved management of disease symptoms and provision of psychological and financial support.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 equal groups with 12 rats in each group. For cancer induction two intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) were given at 15 mg/kg bodyweight over a 2-weeks period. During the post initiation phase, two different concentrations of PA, 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) were administered in the diet.
RESULTS: Results of β-catenin, COX-2 expressions and cell proliferation of Ki-67 showed a significant contribution in colonic cancer progression. For β-catenin and COX-2 expression, there was a significant difference between groups at p<0.05. With Ki-67, there was a statistically significant lowering the proliferating index as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) was noted between COX-2 expression and proliferation. Total β-catenin also demonstrated a significant positive linear relationship with total COX-2 (p=0.044).
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated potential value of PA extracted from rice bran in reducing colonic cancer risk in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross sectional study looked at prostate cancer patients seen in the Urology Departments in 2 tertiary centres over the 11 year period starting from January 2000 to May 2011. Patient demographic data, levels of PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score for the biopsy core, T-staging as well as the lymph node status were recorded and analysed.
RESULTS: 258 men were included. The mean age of those 90 men (34.9%) with bone metastasis was 69.2 ± 7.3 years. Logistic regression found that PSA level (P=0.000) at diagnosis and patient's nodal-stage (P=0.02) were the only two independent variables able to predict the probability of bone metastasis among the newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Among those with a low PSA level less than 20 ng/ml, and less than 10 ng/ml, bone metastasis were detected in 10.3% (12 out of 117) and 9.7% (7 out of 72), respectively. However, by combining PSA level of 10 ng/ml or lower, and nodal negative as the two criteria to predict negative bone scan, a relatively high negative predictive value of 93.8% was obtained. The probability of bone metastasis in prostate cancer can be calculated with this formula: -1.069+0.007(PSA value, ng/ml) +1.021(Nodal status, 0 or 1)=x Probability of bone metastasis=2.718 x/1+2.718 x.
CONCLUSION: Newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients with a PSA level of 10 ng/ml or lower and negative nodes have a very low risk of bone metastasis (negative predictive value 93.8%) and therefore bone scans may not be necessary.
AIM: To investigate the genotype frequencies of MLH1 promoter polymorphism -93G>A and to determine whether it could play any role in modulating familial and sporadic CRC susceptibility risk.
METHODS: A case-control study comprising of 104 histopathologically confirmed CRC patients as cases (52 sporadic CRC and 52 Lynch syndrome patients) and 104 normal healthy individuals as controls was undertaken. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the polymorphism was genotyped employing PCR-RFLP methods. The genotypes were categorized into homozygous wild type, heterozygous and homozygous variants. The risk association between these polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility risk was calculated using binary logistic regression analysis and deriving odds ratios (ORs).
RESULTS: When risk association was investigated for all CRC patients as a single group, the heterozygous (G/A) genotype showed a significantly higher risk for CRC susceptibility with an OR of 2.273, (95%CI: 1.133-4.558 and p-value=0.021). When analyzed specifically for the 2 types of CRC, the heterozygous (G/A) genotype showed significantly higher risk for sporadic CRC susceptibility with and OR of 3.714, (95%CI: 1.416-9.740 and p-value=0.008). Despite high OR value was observed for Lynch syndrome (OR: 1.600, 95%CI: 0.715-3.581), the risk was not statistically significant (P=0.253).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an influence of MLH1 promoter polymorphism -93G>A in modulating susceptibility risk in Malaysian CRC patients, especially those with sporadic disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve respondents from three major ethnicities in Malaysia were selected from the quantitative study on dietary pattern and colorectal cancer carried out earlier in this study. In-depth interviews (IDI), conducted from April until June 2012, were mainly in the Malay language with additional use of English and continued until the saturation point was reached. All interviews were autorecorded so that verbatim transcriptions could be created.
RESULTS: Causes of colorectal cancer were categorized into internal and external factors. The majority of respondents agreed that there is an association between Western foods and colorectal cancer. Malaysian traditional diet was not related to colorectal cancer as less preservative agents were used. Malaysian diet preparation consisting of taste of cooking (spicy, salty and sour foods) plus type of cooking (fry, grilled and smoked) were considered causes of colorectal cancer. All respondents changed their dietary pattern to healthy food after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Advice from doctors regarding suitable food for colorectal cancer was useful in this regard.
CONCLUSIONS: Eating outside, use of food flavoring ingredients and preservative agents were considered to be the main factors causing colorectal cancer. All respondents admitted that they changed to a healthy diet after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer.
METHODS: One hundred and twenty cervical cancer patients diagnosed between 1st July 1995 and 30th June 2007 were identified. Data were obtained from medical records. The survival probability was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was applied to compare the survival distribution between groups.
RESULTS: The overall five-year survival was 39.7% [95%CI (Confidence Interval): 30.7, 51.3] with a median survival time of 40.8 (95%CI: 34.0, 62.0) months. The log-rank test showed that there were survival differences between the groups for the following variables: stage at diagnosis (p=0.005); and primary treatment (p=0.0242). Patients who were diagnosed at the latest stage (III-IV) were found to have the lowest survival, 18.4% (95%CI: 6.75, 50.1), compared to stage I and II where the five-year survival was 54.7% (95%CI: 38.7, 77.2) and 40.8% (95%CI: 27.7, 60.3), respectively. The five-year survival was higher in patients who received surgery [52.6% (95%CI: 37.5, 73.6)] as a primary treatment compared to the non-surgical group [33.3% (95%CI: 22.9, 48.4)].
CONCLUSION: The five-year survival of cervical cancer patients in this study was low. The survival of those diagnosed at an advanced stage was low compared to early stages. In addition, those who underwent surgery had higher survival than those who had no surgery for primary treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with haematuria and/or past history of urothelial cancer on follow-up had their voided urine tested with FISH. Patients then underwent cystoscopy/ ureteroscopy and any lesions seen were biopsied. The histopathological reports of the bladder or ureteroscopic mucosal biopsies were then compared with the FISH test results.
RESULTS: Two hundred sixty patients were recruited. The sensitivity and specificity of the FISH test was 89.2% and 83.4% respectively. The positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 47.1% and 97.9%. By excluding patients who had positive deletion of chromosome 9, the overall results of the screening test improved: sensitivity 84.6%; specificity 96.4%; PPV 75.9% and NPV 97.9%.
CONCLUSIONS: UroVysion FISH has a high specificity of detecting urothelial cancer or dysplasia when deletion of chromosome 9 is excluded. Negative UroVysion FISH-tests may allow us to conserve health resources and minimize trauma by deferring cystoscopic or ureteroscopic examination.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the existing literature on several cognitive theories and models associated with breast cancer screening, with an emphasis on the work that has been done in relation to Asian women. To conduct this review, a number of electronic databases were searched with context-appropriate inclusion criteria.
RESULTS: Little empirical work was found that specifically addressed the applicability of health theories in promoting adherence to the current breast cancer prevention programs Among Asian women. However, a few studies were found that addressed individual cognitive factors that are likely to encourage women's motivation to protect themselves against breast cancer in this region of the world. The findings suggest that multi-level, socio-cultural interventions that focus on cognitive factors have much promise with this issue.
CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed that effectively and efficiently target the personal motivation of at-risk Asian women to seek out and engage in breast cancer prevention. Concerning implications, personal motivation to seek out and engage in individual preventive actions for breast cancer prevention among Asian women is a timely, high priority target with practical implications for community development and health promotion. Further studies using qualitative, anthropologic approaches shaped for implementation in multi-ethnic Asian settings are needed to inform and guide these interventions.