Herein, it is aimed to develop a high-performance monolithic adsorbent to be utilized in methyl orange (MO) adsorption. Therefore, amino-functionalized three-dimensional graphene networks (3D-GNf) fulfilling the requirements of reusability and high capacity have been fabricated via hydrothermal self-assembly approach followed by a double-crosslinking strategy. The potential utilization of 3D-GNf as an adsorbent for removal MO has been assessed using both batch-adsorption studies and an artificial neural network (ANN) approach. Graphene oxide sheets have been amino-functionalized and cross-linked, by ethylenediamine (EDA) during hydrothermal treatment, following the glutaraldehyde has used as a double-crosslinking agent to facilitate the crosslinking of architecture. The successful fabrication of 3D-GNf has been confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms have revealed the high specific surface area (1015 m2.g-1) with high pore volume (1.054 cm3.g-1) and hierarchical porous structure of 3D-GNf. The effect of initial concentration, contact time, and temperature on adsorption capacity have been thoroughly studied, and the kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics of MO adsorption have been modelled. The MO adsorption has been well defined by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 270.27 mg.g-1 at 25 °C. The thermodynamic findings have revealed MO adsorption has occurred spontaneously with an endothermic process. The Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm has been implemented to train the ANN model, which has used the activation functions of tansig and purelin functions at the hidden and output layers, respectively. An optimum ANN model with high-performance metrics (coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.9995; mean squared error, MSE = 0.0008) composed of three hidden layers with 5 neurons in each layer was constructed to forecast MO adsorption. The findings have shown that experimental results are consistent with ANN-based data, implying that the suggested ANN model may be used to forecast cationic dye adsorption.
The present study aimed to assess the efficiency of silver bio-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in inactivating of the Aspergillus fumigatus, A. parasiticus and A. flavus var. columnaris and A. aculeatus spores. The AgNPs were synthesized in secondary metabolic products of Penicillium pedernalens 604 EAN. The inactivation process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) as a function of Ag NPs volume (1-10 μL/mL); time (10-120 min); pH (5-8); initial fungal concentrations (log10) (3-6). The artificial neural network (ANN) model was used to understand the behavior of spores for the factors affecting inactivation process. The best conditions to achieved SAL 10-6 of the fungal spores were recorded with 3.46 μl/mL of AgNPs, after 120 min at pH 5 and with 6 log of initial fungal spore concentrations, at which 5.99 vs. 6.09 (SAL 10-6) log reduction was recorded in actual and predicted results respectively with coefficient of 87.00%. The ANN revealed that the timehas major contribution in the inactivation process compare to Ag NPs volume. The fungal spores were totally inactivated (SAL 10-6, 6 log reduction with 99.9999%) after 110 min of the inactivation process, 10 min more was required to insure the irreversible inactivation of the fungal spores. The absence of protease and cellulase enzymes production confirm the total inactivation of the fungal spores. FESEM analysis revealed that the AgNPs which penetrated the fungal spores leading to damage and deform the fungal spore morphology. The AFM analysis confirmed the total spore surface damage. The bands in the range of the Raman spectroscopy from 1300 to 1600 cm-1 in the inactivated spores indicate the presence of CH3, CH2 and the deformation of lipids released outside the spore cytoplasm. These finding indicate that the AgNPs has high potential as a green alternative inactivation process for the airborne fungal spores.
The demand for the green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained prominence over the conventional chemical and physical syntheses, which often entails toxic chemicals, energy consumption and ultimately lead to negative environmental impact. In the green synthesis approach, naturally available bio-compounds found in plants and fungi can be effective and have been proven to be alternative reducing agents. Fungi or mushrooms are particularly interesting due to their high content of bioactive compounds, which can serve as excellent reducing agents in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Apart from the economic and environmental benefits, such as ease of availability, low synthesis/production cost, safe and no toxicity, the nanoparticles synthesized from this green method have unique physical and chemical properties. Stabilisation of the nanoparticles in an aqueous solution is exceedingly high, even after prolonged storage with unperturbed size uniformity. Biological properties were significantly improved with higher biocompatibility, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. These remarkable properties allow further exploration in their applications both in the medical and agricultural fields. This review aims to explore the mushroom-mediated biosynthesis of nanomaterials, specifically the mechanism and bio-compounds involved in the synthesis and their interactions for the stabilisation of nanoparticles. Various metal and non-metal nanoparticles have been discussed along with their synthesis techniques and parameters, making them ideal for specific industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. Only recent developments have been explored in this review.
Microalgae are drawing attentions among researchers for their biorefinery use or value-added products. The high production rate of biomasses produced are attractive for conversion into volatile biochar. Torrefaction, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization are the recommended thermochemical conversion techniques that could produce microalgal-based biochar with desirable physiochemical properties such as high surface area and pore volume, abundant surface functional groups, as well as functionality such as high adsorption capacity. The characterizations of the biochar significantly influence the mechanisms in adsorption of pollutants from wastewaters. Specific adsorption of the organic and inorganic pollutants from the effluent are reviewed to examine the adsorption capacity and efficiency of biochar derived from different microalgae species. Last but not least, future remarks over the challenges and improvements are discussed accordingly. Overall, this review would discuss the synthesis, characterization and application of the microalgal-based biochar in wastewater.
As one of the potential bionanomaterials, nanocellulose has appeared as a favorable candidate for photoremediation of the environment because of its abundance in nature, inexpensive, eco-friendly, decomposable, high surface area, and outstanding mechanical properties. The current review carefully summarized the diverse type of nanocellulose, their preparation approaches, and several previous works on the use of nanocellulose for photoremediation. These include the role of nanocellulose for the increased surface active site of the hybrid photocatalysts by providing a large surface area for enhanced adsorption of photons and pollutant molecules, as a dispersing agent to increase distribution of metal/non-metal dopants photocatalysts, as well as for controlled size and morphology of the dopants photocatalysts. Furthermore, the recommendations for upcoming research provided in this review are anticipated to ignite an idea for the development of other nanocellulose-based photocatalysts. Other than delivering beneficial information on the present growth of the nanocellulose biomaterials photocatalysts, this review is expected will attract more interest to the utilization of nanocellulose photocatalyst and distribute additional knowledge in this exciting area of environmental photoremediation. This could be attained by considering that a review on nanocellulose biomaterials for environmental health photoremediation has not been described elsewhere, notwithstanding intensive research works have been dedicated to this topic.
This study was focused on identifying the region suitable for agriculture-based, using new irrigation groundwater quality plot and its spatio-temporal variation with fuzzy logic technique in a geographic information system (GIS) platform. Six hundred and eighty groundwater samples were collected during pre, southwest, northeast, and post monsoon periods. A new ternary plot was also attempted to determine the irrigation suitability of water by considering four essential parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), Sodium percentage (Na %), and electrical conductivity (EC). The derived ternary plot was the most beneficial over other available plots, as it incorporated four parameters, and it differs from the US Salinity Laboratory (USSL) plot, such that the groundwater with higher EC could also be used for irrigation purposes, depending on the Na%. The ternary plot revealed that the groundwater predominantly manifested good to moderate category during post, northeast, and southwest monsoons. The assessment with the amount of fertilizer used during the study period showed that the NPK fertilizers were effectively used for irrigation during monsoon periods. Spatial maps on EC, Kelly's ratio, Mg hazard, Na%, PI, potential salinity (PS), SAR, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and soluble sodium percentage (SSP) were prepared for each season using fuzzy membership values, integrated for each season. A final suitability map derived by an overlay of all the seasonal outputs has identified that the groundwater in the western and the eastern part of the study area are suitable for agriculture. The study recommends cultivation of groundwater-dependent short-term crops, along the western and northern regions of the study area during the pre-monsoon season.
MXene based nanomaterial is an uprising two-dimensional material gaining tremendous scientific attentions due to its versatile properties for the applications in electronic devices, power generation, sensors, drug delivery, and biomedicine. However, the cytotoxic effects of MXene still remained a huge concern. Therefore, stringent analysis of biocompatibility of MXene is an essential requirement before introduction to human physiological system. Several in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies have been reported to investigate the interactions between MXenes with living organisms such as microbes, mammalian cells and animal models. The biological response and cytotoxicity reported were dependent on the physicochemical properties of MXene. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MXene were dependent on size, dose, and surface coating. This review demystifies the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies associated with MXene. Various methods proposed to mitigate the cytotoxicity of MXene for in vivo applications were revealed. The machine learning methods were developed to predict the cytotoxicity of experimentally synthesized MXene compounds. Finally, we also discussed the current research gaps of applying MXenes in biomedical interventions.
In this work, the transformation of soybean industrial bio-residue with limited practical applications, into a multifunctional carbonaceous adsorbent (SBAC) via one-step microwave-irradiation has been succeeded. The surface porosity, chemical compositions, functionalities and surface chemistry were featured by microscopic pore-textural analysis, elemental constitution analysis, morphological characterization and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The adsorptive performance of SBAC was evaluated in a batch experiment by adopting different classes of water pollutants, specifically methylene blue (MB), acetaminophen and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The equilibrium uptakes were analyzed with respect to the non-linearized Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm equations. The unique features of SBAC, specifically the antimicrobial and antifungal efficacies were examined against gram-positive/negative bacteria and fungi species. An ordered microporous-mesoporous structure of SBAC, with the BET surface area and total pore volume of 1696 m2/g and 0.94 m3/g, respectively, has been achieved. The equilibrium data of MB and acetaminophen were found to be in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, with the monolayer adsorption capacities (Qo) of 434.57 mg/g and 393.31 mg/g, respectively. The adsorptive experiment of 2,4-D was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm equation, with the Qo of 253.17 mg/g. The regeneration performance of the spent SBAC under microwave-irradiation could maintain at 69.42-79.31%, even after five (5) adsorption-regeneration cycles. SBAC exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies against gram-positive/negative bacteria and fungi species, with the inhibition zones at 14.0-28.0 mm. This newly developed SBAC appears to be a new powerful candidate for the remediation of different classes of water contaminants, and novel antibacterial and antifungal agents against biological contaminations. The novel concept of "turn waste into wealth" in a cost-effective and energy saving manner for environmental preservation has been successfully accomplished.
Several strategies have been proposed to improve the performance of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Among them, the use of various nanoparticles (NPs) (e.g. Fe, Ag, Cu, Mn, and metal oxides) is considered one of the most effective approaches to enhance the methanogenesis stage and biogas yield. Iron-based NPs (zero-valent iron with paramagnetic properties (Fe0) and iron oxides with ferromagnetic properties (Fe3O4/Fe2O3) enhance microbial activity and minimise the inhibition effect in methanogenesis. However, comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge on the function and impact of Fe-NPs on methanogens and methanogenesis stages in AD is frequently required. This review focuses on the applicative role of iron-based NPs (Fe-NPs) in the AD methanogenesis step to provide a comprehensive understanding application of Fe-NPs. In addition, insight into the interactions between methanogens and Fe-NPs (e.g. role of methanogens, microbe interaction and gene transfer with Fe-NPs) beneficial for CH4 production rate is provided. Microbial activity, inhibition effects and direct interspecies electron transfer through Fe-NPs have been extensively discussed. Finally, further studies towards detecting effective and optimised NPs based methods in the methanogenesis stage are reported.
In urban ecosystems, microbes play a key role in maintaining major ecological functions that directly support human health and city life. However, the knowledge about the species composition and functions involved in urban environments is still limited, which is largely due to the lack of reference genomes in metagenomic studies comprises more than half of unclassified reads. Here we uncovered 732 novel bacterial species from 4728 samples collected from various common surface with the matching materials in the mass transit system across 60 cities by the MetaSUB Consortium. The number of novel species is significantly and positively correlated with the city population, and more novel species can be identified in the skin-associated samples. The in-depth analysis of the new gene catalog showed that the functional terms have a significant geographical distinguishability. Moreover, we revealed that more biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) can be found in novel species. The co-occurrence relationship between BGCs and genera and the geographical specificity of BGCs can also provide us more information for the synthesis pathways of natural products. Expanded the known urban microbiome diversity and suggested additional mechanisms for taxonomic and functional characterization of the urban microbiome. Considering the great impact of urban microbiomes on human life, our study can also facilitate the microbial interaction analysis between human and urban environment.