Antibiotic susceptibility and genetic diversity of E. coli isolated from cultured catfish and their surrounding environment were determined. The levels of resistance of the E. coli isolates towards six different antibiotics tested differed considerably. Though the isolates displayed resistance towards some of the antibiotics tested, none of the isolates showed resistant towards norfloxacin, sulphametoxazole/trimethoprim and chloramphenicol. RAPD-PCR analysis using single primer and primers combination clustered the E. coli isolates into 3 and 5 groups, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the E. coli isolates from the catfish and their surrounding environment derived from a mixture of sensitive and resistant strains with diverse genetic contents. The use of the RAPD analysis is sufficiently discriminatory for the typing of the E. coli isolates.
This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and energetic value of selected marine fish and shellfish from the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This study has included 20 species of fish (10 pelagic fish and 10 demersal fish) and 4 species of shellfish. For pelagic fish, Longtail shad (terubuk) was found to contain significantly lower moisture (59.31+0.00%), but significantly higher fat content (23.15+0.00%) compared to other fish species. For demersal fish, moisture and ash contents ranged between 74-82%, and 0.9-2.1%, respectively. Long-tailed butterfly ray contained the highest protein (22.22+1.24%) compared to other fish studied. The highest fat content of demersal fish was in Moonfish at 6.89+2.76%. For shellfish, prawn contained the highest protein (19.12+1.44%). The fat content of shellfish ranged between 1-2%. Oyster contained significantly higher carbohydrate at 6.45+0.00%, compared to other shellfish. Longtail shad contained the highest energetic value of 13.34 kJ g-1 of all samples. These values are useful references for consumers in order to choose fish and shellfish based on their nutritional contents.
This study was performed to enumerate the total viable cell count of probiotic in five brands (A to E) of commercially cultured milk drinks that are available in the Malaysian market as well as to test their tolerance to various pH and bile concentrations by simulating the human gastrointestinal pH and bile concentration. The acid tolerance test was studied under pH 1.5 and 3.0 with 7.2 as control. The cell count for the acid tolerance test was obtained at an interval of 0, 1.5 and 3 hours respectively and was plated onto duplicate MRS agars to be incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. All cells recovered after 3 hours of pH treatment were selected for bile tolerance test in MRS broth containing bile concentrations of 0% (control), 0.3% and 2.0% and cell counts were recorded after 24 hours of incubation. The probiotic strains in products A, B, C & D met the suggested initial count of 106 CFU/ml with brand C recording the highest at 9.19 ± 0.14 log CFU/ml. Strains in product A, B & C showed good tolerance to pH 3.0 and 7.2 recording a count of >106 CFU/ml after 3 hours with a range of 6.60 – 9.04 log CFU/ml. The higher bile concentrations resulted in lower growth of strains in all the brands. Upon pH 1.5 treatment, only brand C recorded growth in all bile concentrations. After pH 3.0 treatment, all brands except brand E met the requirement of survival at 0.3% bile concentration. Results showed probiotics in product A, B & C met the initial count requirement, and exhibited good acid and bile tolerance therefore being a potentially good source of probiotic.
Pasteurized shell eggs are eggs that have been thermally treated to eliminate harmful bacteria, however the treatment may also denature some of the egg white proteins. In this study the degree of denaturation and functional properties (emulsifying, foaming, and gelling properties) of egg white obtained from pasteurized eggs (EWP) were compared with those of unpasteurized eggs (EWUP). Data from differential scanning calorimeter showed that the EWP (ovotransferin, lysozyme, and ovalbumin) denatured at lower temperatures and required lower denaturation enthalpies than EWUP, indicating a partial loss of protein structure during the pasteurization process in the pasteurized eggs. The emulsion and foam stability formed from EWP were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of EWUP, however the EWP formed stronger gels than EWUP. To assess suitability of EWP as a cake ingredient, angel food cake was prepared using both egg whites. As compared to EWUP-cake, EWP-cake was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in volume, cohesiveness and springiness values, but significantly (P < 0.05) higher in hardness, gumminess and chewiness. Overall, the sensory panelists gave significantly (P < 0.05) higher scores for angel food cake prepared with EWUP. The differences in functional properties of egg white proteins and the quality of cake were due mainly to the higher levels of denaturation attained by EWP as a result of the pasteurization process.
Imports are the only source of food supply to Singapore. Such condition offers a very attractive proposition for agricultural oriented countries. The dependence on type of food imports is determined by consumer demand. This study intends to do an exploratory study on the current conditions of Singaporean food consumption and expenditures with implications on Malaysia as an important agricultural exporting country to Singapore. It is identified that Singaporean consumers tend to demand for high quality poultry, pork, seafood, vegetables, and fruits in future, particularly in response to income growth. At the mean time, Malaysia is seemingly rich in the production of these food commodities and commits to exports for the excess of the supplies. While facing competition from various countries, Malaysia still possesses various competitive advantages over the other countries.
The effects of alginate-based [sodium alginate, 0-2% (w/v), glycerol, 0-2% (w/v) and sunflower oil 0.025% (w/v)] and gellan-based [gellan, 0-1% (w/v), glycerol, 0-1% (w/v) and sunflower oil 0.025% (w/v)] edible coatings on fresh-cut pineapple were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Weight loss, firmness and respiration rate were considered as response variables. The results showed that for all response variables the RSM models were significantly (p0.05) difference between predicted and experimental values. The overall optimum region predicted by RSM indicated that alginate and gellan-based coatings containing 1.29% (w/v) sodium alginate, 1.16% (w/v) glycerol and 0.56% (w/v) gellan gum, 0.89% (w/v) glycerol were optimized formulations respectively.
This study investigates productivity growth and efficiency of Large Scale Enterprises (LSEs) in the
Malaysian food processing industry. Malmquist productivity index of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was employed to five-digit panel data for the period of 2000-2006. The findings suggest that average Technical Efficiency (TE) of the LSEs was 0.683 during the period of observation, which indicates that the industries are able to expand their output as much as 31.7 percent by using the same level of inputs. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth was positive at 7.3 percent, which is contributed by a Technical Efficiency Change (EFCH) of 4.3 percent and Technological Change (TECH) of 3.0 percent. Sub industries of manufacturing alcohol and wine as well as the processing and preserving of meat and meat products shows the highest productivity growth at 84.8 percent and 47.5 percent respectively. On the other hand, the sub industries of processing and preserving poultry and poultry products together with the manufacturing of chocolate are those which have the lowest TFP growth at -30.5percent and -14.8 percent respectively. The significant determinants of the productivity growth, with a positive relationship are public infrastructure, IT expenditure and foreign ownership, while energy price is the determinant with a negative relationship. The main contributor to the TFP growth of the LSEs in the Malaysian food processing industry is EFCH, however, the LSEs can also improve the TFP growth by moving forward the production frontier as well.
Cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)) is the main fatal pest that destroys cocoa plantations in South East Asia, mainly in Indonesia and Malaysia. Infested cocoa beans stick to each other, the pulp become hard and normal fermentation process to produce flavour precursors cannot be done. This research aimed to utilize the infested cocoa beans as a source of phenolic compounds. Extraction of phenolic compounds was carried out for three infestation levels regarded as low, medium and heavy. Parameters of study were bean size, shell content, fat content, total polyphenol and antioxidant activity. Results of the study showed that the increase in cocoa pod borer infestation significantly decreased cocoa bean size, fat content and total polyphenol; but shell content was increased. Antioxidant activity of the extracted polyphenol was not significantly affected by the infestation. The results clearly indicate that cocoa beans infested by cocoa pod borer can potentially to be used as a source of phenolic compounds for natural antioxidant uses.
In this study, RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR were used to study the epidemiology of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles in Padang, Indonesia. The Gold Oligo OPAR3 primer produced bands ranged from 1-8 with sizes from 0.2 – 5.0 kb and the Gold Oligo OPAR8 primer produced 1-7 bands with sizes 0.7 – 1.5 kb. Both primers produced twenty five RAPD patterns with a few isolates failed to produce any products. Based on phylogenetic dendrogram, all the isolates can be divided into 6 major clusters with similarity between 0 to 52%. For the ERIC primer, it produced bands ranged from 3-15 with sizes from 0.1 – 5.0 kb and twenty seven different ERIC patterns. Construction of the phylogenetic dendogram showed the isolates can be divided into 4 major clusters with similarity between 56 to 86%. The high diversity of both processes may be due to the multiple contamination sources of V. parahaemolyticus.
The effects of food gums addition on wheat dough freeze-thaw and frozen storage stability were studied. Thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of frozen wheat dough without yeast addition were
determined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA).
DSC results revealed that food gums showed the ability to increase freeze-thaw stability in frozen-stored
samples wherein lower difference in melting enthalpy between first and second freeze-thaw cycle was shown. Based on DMA results, in general, difference between Tg’ and storage temperature (- 18°C) of dough became smaller upon addition of food gums. This may have a practical implication whereby the unfrozen phase could be better protected against physical degradation.
The growth of the Malaysian’s per capita income has generally empowered consumers to have more choices for food, more purchasing power, health consciousness and demand for more nutritional values of their food intake. Motivated by the changes in Malaysian consumer’s food choice, a conjoint analysis was performed to investigate Malaysian consumers’ demand for rice attributes and how much consumers are willing to pay for the demanded attribute. A conjoint analysis is a method used in identifying and understanding the combined effects of product attributes on preferences for a product or service. In conjoint analysis, utility is the conceptual basis for assessing the value of a product or service, where individuals make decisions between bundles of products based on their budget constraints. The findings suggested that the most important attribute for rice was food safety, followed by taste and size of grain. Consumers were also willing to pay premium prices for the demanded attributes. The findings would have positive implications for the agrifood industry if it responds effectively to translate into business opportunities to these changes.
The effect of degree of hydrolysis (DH) on the physicochemical properties of cobia frame hydrolysate was determined. Three levels of degree of hydrolysis of cobia frame hydrolysate were studied, which were 53%, 71% and 96%. After enzymatic hydrolysis using Alcalase®, the samples were spray-dried. Cobia hydrolysate powder samples were analyzed for their proximate analysis and physicochemical properties. The proximate analysis showed significant differences in fat and ash content only. DH96 hydrolysate showed desirable essential amino acid profile for human requirement except for methionine and isoleucine. The study found that cobia frame hydrolysate had good colour, emulsifying capacity and excellent foaming properties. However, there were no significant differences in water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity and peptide solubility among the hydrolysate samples. This study suggested that cobia frame hydrolysate is a potential ingredient and foaming agent for food industry.
In this study, the effect of different solvent including ethanol, n-hexane and ethyl acetate on antioxidant
activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seeds extract was investigated using conventional Soxhlet extraction (CSE). DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity and TPC results indicated that the seed extracts obtained using ethanol possessed the highest antioxidant activity and followed by ethyl acetate and n-hexane. By considering obtained results, it was clear that there was a high positive correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. Linoleic acid forms a significant percentage of unsaturated fatty acids of the seed extract (60.6%). It is well known that essential fatty acids including linoleic acid and linolenic acid which are detected in extracts play important roles in preventing many disease and abnormal differentiation problems. B. hispida seeds are potential source of natural antioxidant compounds to replace synthetic antioxidants.
The introduction of new agricultural commodities and products derived from modernbiotechnology may have an impact on human and animal health, the environment and economiesof countries. As more Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) enter markets worldwide, themonitoring of GMOs is being preferred for obvious reasons such as determination of seed purity,verification of non-GMO status of agricultural crops and fulfilling GMO labeling provisions, tomention a few. Numerous GMO analytical methods which include screening, identification andquantification have been developed to reliably determine the presence and/or amount of GMOin agricultural commodities, in raw agricultural materials and in processed and refined ingredients.The detection of GMOs relies on the detection of transgenic DNA or protein material. For routineanalysis, a good sample preparation technique should reproducibly generate DNA/protein ofsufficient quality, purity and yield while minimizing the effects of inhibition andcontamination.
The key sample preparation steps include homogenization, pretreatment, extraction andpurification. Due to the fact that analytical laboratories receive samples that are often processedand refined, the quality and quantity of transgenic target analyte (e.g. protein and DNA) frequentlychallenge the sensitivity of any detection method. With the development of GMO analysistechniques, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMOdetection, and the real-time PCR is the most effective and important method for GMOquantification. The choice of target sequence; for example a promoter, a terminator, a gene, or ajunction between two of these elements, is the single most important factor controlling the specificity of the PCR method. Recent developments include event-specific methods, particularlyuseful for identification and quantification of GM content. Although PCR technology has obvious
limitations, the potentially high degree of sensitivity and specificity explains why PCR in its various
formats, is currently the leading analytical technology employed in GMO analysis. Comparatively, immunoassays are becoming attractive tools for rapid field monitoring for the integrity of agricultural commodities in identity preservation systems, whereby non-specialised personnel can employ them in cost-effective manner. This review discusses various popular extraction methodologies and summarises the current status of the most widely used and easily applicable GMO analysis technologies in laboratories, namely the PCR and immunoassay technologies.
The study was conducted to detect the porcine DNA in pharmaceutical products in local market using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and southern-hybridization on the biochip. A total of 113 (n=113) of hard (82 samples) and soft gel (31 samples) capsules from pharmaceutical products were purchased and tested for the presence of porcine DNA for Halal authentication. All capsules were gelatin-based purchased from local over the counter (OTC) markets. Of all samples tested, 37.2% (42/113) contained porcine DNA. While, none porcine DNA band was detected for 62.8% (71/113) of capsules tested. All samples which were positive toward porcine DNA were imported pharmaceutical products with none Halal logo. Results in the presence study demonstrated that the PCR techniques and southern-hybridization on the biochip is suitable tool for monitoring the Haram component in highly processed product of soft and hard capsule.
Since the introduction of the molecularly imprinting technology (MIT) in 1970s, it becomes an emerging technology with the potential for wide-ranging applications in food manufacturing, processing, analysis and quality control. It has been successfully applied in food microbiology, removal of undesirable components
from food matrices, detection of hazardous residues or pollutants and sensors. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) is the most common application so far. The review describes the methods of making the molecularly imprinted polymer systems, the application of the technology in food safety issues and the remaining challenges.
Currently, data concerning the content of naturally occurring dietary folate in Malaysian foods is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the folate content of vegetables, fruits, legumes and cereals that were commonly consumed among Malaysians. The total folate content of 156 samples (51 vegetables, 33 fruits, 22 legumes and legume products, and 50 cereals and cereal products) available in Malaysia was determined by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) after trienzyme treatment with protease, α-amylase and folate conjugase (from rat serum). An internal quality control system was used throughout the study by analyzing CRM 121 (wholemeal flour) and CRM 485 (lyophilized mixed vegetables); percent recovery (as mean ± SD) of 97 ± 2.0 and 101 ± 4.0 was obtained. The range of folate content in vegetables, fruits, legumes and cereals were 1-11 μg/100 g and 1-31on the basis of fresh weight and 1-31 µg/100 g and 2-156 µg/100 g on the basis of dry weight, respectively. This study has shown that some of these underutilized vegetables and fruits are good sources of folate and could fulfill the recommended dietary intake of total folate.
Starch blend films made from sago and mung bean were prepared by casting with glycerol as the plasticizer and subsequently exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for 2 h. The films were characterized by thickness, moisture sorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. All films produced were colorless while incorporation of glycerol resulted in more flexible and manageable films. Moisture sorption isotherms for all films showed sigmoidal shape and the control films showed slightly higher curve than treated films. While for X-ray analysis, the control and treated films for all formulations showed similar pattern, however for treated films showed more crystalline character. UV radiation showed affect on X-ray diffraction and sorption isotherms; however the UV radiation did not affect the spectra pattern of FTIR.
Microbiological qualities of fresh goat milk collected from two selected, popular dairy farms in Penang Island, Malaysia were evaluated, as a measure of food safety. Milk samples were screened for total plate counts, yeast and mould counts, psychrotrophic counts, Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Escherichia coli, Coliforms and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which were in the range of (mean values) 4.2- 4.5, 4.2- 4.6, 3.1- 4.3, 2.7- 3.2, < 2- 4.6, 2.2- 4.0 and 4.1- 4.8 log CFU/ml, respectively in the two farms. Milk samples were also screened for the presence of selected foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. Results
showed the presence of only Salmonella sp. (at 2.9 log CFU/ml) with the absence of Listeria monocytogenes. The outcome of this study assumes importance as the presence of microbial contaminants amounts indicates poor milk quality, which requires immediate consideration as it can pose serious health risk to consumers.
This study described the antibiotic and heavy metal resistance pattern of 17 isolates of Edwardsiella tarda obtained from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). E.tarda isolates were resistant to oleandomycin, lincomycin, novobiocin and spiramycin. In contrast, most of the isolates showed high level of susceptibility to tetracycline, doxycycline, florfenicol, chloramplenicol, nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, kanamycin, oxolinic acid and flumequine. MAR value was 0.35 which indicated that the cultured Asian seabass have received high exposure to those tested antibiotics. Besides, very high level of heavy metal resistance among these isolates was observed. Genotypic profile of DNA fingerprintings generated by RAPD-PCR using M13 universal primer and M13 wild type phage primer showed high degree of genetic diversity with percentages similarity and genetic distance among the isolates were ranging from 10.5% to 100% and 0 to 0.895, respectively. This result indicates that strains that belong to the same origin were not always closely related genetically.