Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 893 in total

  1. Ho, L.-H., Tang, J.Y.H., Mazaitul Akma, S., Mohd Aiman, H., Roslan, A.
    The objective of this research is to develop an “energy” snack bar supplying energy and
    electrolytes in one bar by utilizing local Malaysian ingredients. The local ingredients used to make
    this snack bar were banana, glutinous rice flour, and coconut milk. It is a wholesome nutritious
    food for different age groups from adolescents to elderly people. Proximate composition, total
    carbohydrate, energy value, and sensory quality of prototype were determined. The developed
    snack bar contains 13.23% of moisture, 1.13% of ash, 6.36% of crude protein, 22.39% of
    crude fat, 1.16% of crude fibre, 56.89% of total carbohydrate, and 454.51 kcal of energy. The
    “energy” snack bar was highly acceptable with desirable sensory quality by all consumers.
  2. Mohd Thani, N., Mustapa Kamal, S.M., Taip, F.S., Awang Biak, D.R.
    Dadih is a favourable dessert in South East Asia due to its appealing sweet taste and jellies
    appearance. The sweet taste is from sugar (sucrose) content, and in order to reduce the sucrose,
    it was substituted with xylitol. Xylitol can provides intense sweetness with less calories and
    lower water activity, which potentially contribute to higher microbial stability thus giving
    longer shelf life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylitol substituted
    on dadih safety and sensory qualities. Dadih was prepared by replacing sucrose with xylitol
    composition in the range of 0 – 100% and at two levels of cooking times (15 and 20 minutes).
    Safety analysis were performed using total plate count (TPC) and water activity (aw) analysis.
    For sensory analysis, seven attributes were evaluated (appearance, colour, hardness, elasticity,
    taste, sweetness, and overall acceptability) based on the 9-hedonic scale. From the findings,
    dadih samples with total sucrose (0%) were observed to be contaminated faster compared to
    total xylitol (100%). Dadih with xylitol is more stable with prolonged shelf life. From sensory
    analysis, dadih sample prepared with shorter cooking time (15 minutes) was selected as more
    favourable with overall acceptability score between 72 - 85%. More than 70% of the score for
    dadih with xylitol substitute was above ‘slightly like’, which indicates a promising future to
    produce xylitol substitute dadih. The outcome of this study has shown that xylitol is potentially
    to be utilize as sugar substitute for dadih production.
  3. Nur Sofuwani, Z.A., Siti Aslina, H., Siti Mazlina, M.K.
    An extensive amount of research has reported on the use of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane,
    particularly in the improvement of membrane performance efficiency on cow’s milk. However,
    a very limited number of researches reported on using UF for producing low-lactose goat’s
    milk due to inherently low lactose. Nonetheless, goat’s milk is still not suitable to be consumed
    in a large amount by people who are lactose intolerant, especially among Asians, where
    over 90% of the populations are suffering from lactose intolerance. Until today, fouling and
    concentration polarization (CP) on membrane surface in cross-flow hollow fiber UF unit are
    the major problems in the dairy industry. Discovery on how to overcome the problem is still
    in a hot debate due to the nature’s complex composition in milk. One way to overcome this
    problem is by evaluating the effects of processing parameters such as trans-membrane pressure
    (TMP) and feed-flow rate on flux (J), lactose rejection (Ri), concentration factor (CF), and
    accumulation rate (AR) during the fractionation of lactose. In terms of lactose fractionation for
    5 KDa and 10 KDa UF membranes, the TMPs examined were 0.41, 0.55, and 0.69 bars, while
    feed flow-rates examined were 0.18, 0.34, 0.54, and 0.74 L/min. 5 KDa membrane shows that
    feed flow-rate and flux behave in a direct relationship, while an inverse relationship in 10 KDa
    membrane. Both membranes showed that TMP 0.55 bar exhibit the best flux value without
    reaching the limiting flux region, but with feed flow rate of 0.74 L/min in 5 KDa, while 0.18
    L/min in 10 KDa membrane. Lactose rejection percentage (%Ri) is the lowest with 77.71% in
    5 KDa membrane while 66.28% in 10 KDa membrane. This can be summarized that the best
    parameters for 5 KDa membrane is at TMP 0.55 bar with feed flow-rate of 0.74 L/min, while
    for 10 KDa membrane is at TMP 0.55 bar with feed flow-rate of 0.18 L/min. Due to higher flux
    value and lowest lactose rejection obtained from low feed flow-rate, 10 KDa UF membrane
    size was chosen over 5 KDa. As a conclusion, a high degree of lactose removal from goat’s
    milk could be achieved by 10 KDa UF membrane in a cross-flow hollow fiber system, which
    proved that different outcomes between 5 KDa and 10 KDa membranes and feed flow-rate
    required is closely associated to UF pore size and molecular weight of feed solute particles.
  4. New, C.Y., Ubong, A., Nur Hasria, K., Nur Fatihah, A., Son, R.
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is well known to be abundantly distributed in marine, coastal and
    estuarine environments. Since 1951, V. parahaemolyticus had been the source of numerous
    outbreaks related to contaminated or mishandled seafood. However, V. parahaemolyticus
    had been detected on other types of food. This issue has prompted this study to investigate
    on the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in various food samples and determine the risk
    associated with it. The results of the MPN-plating technique of the study indicated that V.
    parahaemolyticus was detected in seafood (33.3%, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 31.9 – 34.8 ,
    94 – 290 MPN/g) and vegetables (10.0%, 95% CI 9.7 – 10.3 , 9.2 – 23 MPN/g) while negative
    V. parahaemolyticus was detected in fruits (0.0%, 95% CI 0 – 1,
  5. Abu Bakar, B., Md. Salleh, N.H., Amir Hashim, N.A., Sudin, A., Jusoh, S., Abdullah, M.Z.K.
    This work presents the characterization of selected bioactive compounds of local herbs
    through their photonic spectrum. A Shimadzu spectrophotometer was used to map bioactive
    compounds extracted from Andrographis paniculata, Ficus deltoidea, Orthosiphon stamineus
    and Centella asiatica. Dominant peaks and repeatability were the determinant parameters
    in this study. Absorbance peaks of bioactive compounds were calibrated against respective
    standardized chemicals obtained from reputable suppliers. The results obtained indicated
    that absorbance peaks from different bioactive compounds could be identified by photonic
    spectrum. Most bioactive markers were detected within the wavelength range of 200 nm to 350
    nm, using a Deuterium (190 nm to 450 nm) light source and corresponding refraction grating.
    A mathematical relationship of concentration versus absorbance at different wavelengths for
    selected bioactive compounds were identified. The significance of the photonic characterization
    of these phytochemicals forms the basis for a mathematical model in a decision support system
    of a proposed mobile sensor prototype development.
  6. Tan, S.B., Shamsudin, R., Mohammed, M. A., Rahman, N. A.
    Sesame Cracker or Kuih Bijan is a popular traditional Malays snack in Malaysia. The simplest
    formulation of Sesame Cracker dough includes glutinous rice flour, sugar, and water. In order
    to reduce the negative effect caused by dough stickiness, the effect of mixing period (3 to 7
    minutes), water (41.6 to 45.6%) and sugar (1 to 9%) on dough stickiness of sesame cracker
    dough were studied using Texture Analyzer and Chen-Hoseney methodologies (i.e. Chen-
    Hoseney Dough Stickiness Cell). The result obtained showing that the increment of mixing
    time, water and sugar addition, increased the dough stickiness, work of adhesion/adhesiveness
    and dough strength/cohesiveness. However, overmixing of dough had led to the decrease of
    these parameters.
  7. Rajendran, N., Tey, Y.S., Ahmad Sidique, S.F., Abdul Hadi, A.H.I., Brindal, M., Shamsudin, M.N., et al.
    Farm sustainability issues are diverse but interconnected and complex. Many organizations
    have begun to promote packaged sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs). Some of these
    bundled SAPs (i.e. organic agriculture and integrated pest management) have long been
    employed by farmers, and studied by scientists seeking to understand their response to these
    alternative agricultural approaches. This paper reviews and synthesizes recent research in this
    area. It identifies key explanatory factors, which frequently lead to the adoption of bundled
    SAPs. Vote count analysis reveals that variables implying economic motivation and facilitation
    regularly explain farmers’ behaviour. In addition, a new finding emerged, in which factors
    inferring higher learning and superior management capacity provided further indicators to
    adoption. In particular, the training that provided by non-governmental organizations and rural
    institutions complements change agents (i.e. public extension services). While this finding is
    novel, more research is required to generate better understanding of farmer reaction to bundled
    SAPs, particularly dynamic ones (i.e. private standards) in which farm business sustainability
    depends upon good agricultural practices being implemented.
  8. Etti, C. J., Yusof, Y.A., Chin, N. L., Mohd Tahir, S.
    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of formulation on flowability of selected
    herbal powders which include Labisia pumila, Ortosiphon stamineus, Eurycoma longifolia
    and Andrographis paniculata using compendial methods and a recently available powder
    flow analyser. The material properties such as moisture content, particles sizes, tap and bulk
    densities of the pure herbal powders and the formulated powders were measured to determine
    Carr index and Hausner ratio which were indices of the compendial methods. Cohesion
    index and caking strength were used as basis of flowability indicator using the powder flow
    analyser. The flowability of the herbal powders were improved when they were formulated into
    beverages mix by mixing each herbal powders with other ingredients like sugar and nondairy
    creamer before analyzed using both the compendial methods and powder flow analyser. Both
    methods of flowability measurements adopted in this work complemented each other in the
    understanding and characterization of powder flowability.
  9. Lazim, S. S. R. M., Nawi, N. M., Rasli, A. M. M., Chen, G., Jensen, T.
    The influence of different data pre-processing methods (smoothing by moving average (MA),
    multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), Savitzky-Golay (SG), standard normal variate (SNV)
    and mean normalization (MN) on the prediction of sugar content from sugarcane samples was
    investigated. The performance of these pre-processing methods was evaluated using spectral
    data collected from 292 sugarcane internode samples using a visible-shortwave near infrared
    spectroradiometer (VNIRS). Partial least square (PLS) method was applied to develop both
    calibration and prediction models for the samples. If no pre-processing method was applied,
    the coefficient of determination (R2) values for both reflectance and absorbance data were 0.81
    and 0.86 respectively. The highest prediction accuracy values were obtained when the data was
    treated with MSC method, where the R2 values for reflectance and absorbance being 0.85 and
    0.87, respectively. From this study, it was concluded that pre-processing can improve the model
    performances where MSC method was found to give the highest prediction accuracy value.
  10. Onwude, D. I., Hashim, N., Janius, R. B., Nawi, N., Abdan, K.
    This study investigated the drying kinetic of pumpkin under different drying temperatures (50,
    60, 70 and 80°C), samples thickness (3, 4, 5 and 7mm), air velocity (1.2m/s) and relative
    humidity (40 - 50%). Kinetic models were developed using semi-theoretical thin layer models
    and multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) method. The Hii et al. (2009)
    semi-theoretical model was found to be the most suitable thin layer model while two hidden
    layers with 20 neurons was the best for the ANN method. The selections were based on the
    statistical indicators of coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and
    sum of squares error (SSE). Results indicated that the ANN demonstrated better prediction
    than those of the theoretical models with R2, RMSE and SSE values of 0.992, 0.036 and 0.207
    as compared to the Hii et al. (2009) model values of 0.902, 0.088 and 1.734 respectively. The
    validation result also showed good agreement between the predicted values obtained from
    the ANN model and the experimental moisture ratio data. This indicates that an ANN can
    effectively describe the drying process of pumpkin.
  11. Azman, N., Jamil, N., Bejo-Khairunniza, S.
    Rice production depends on good quality of paddy. In this research, the capability of thermal
    imaging to determine the quality of paddy based on the properties used in a Deduction Schedule
    namely moisture content, immature condition and foreign material is presented. First, the
    heating and cooling treatment was applied to the samples. FLIR E60 thermal camera was used
    to acquire images of the sample. Therefore, each samples were represented by a thermal index
    calculated based on the average value of pixels in the thermal image. Results of the experiment
    have shown that highly significant relationship were exist between thermal index and maturity
    stage and moisture content of paddy with r = -0.948 and 0.896, respectively. It also worked
    well in detecting foreign material (chaff) at 25s after cooling. The method gave accurate results
    with 92% for moisture content determination, 90% for maturity stage prediction and 100% for
    chaff detection.
  12. Gan, Y.Z., Azrina, A.
    This study aimed to determine total antioxidant and antioxidant activity of selected local varieties
    of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five varieties (iceberg, butterhead, romaine, green coral and
    red coral) were subjected to DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant
    power assay (FRAP) assays for determination of antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content
    and total flavonoid content were determined as total antioxidant. The EC50 values obtained from
    the DPPH radical scavenging assay ranged from 303.56 to 4485.41 μg/ml. The red coral lettuce
    had the lowest EC50 value indicating it possesses the highest antioxidant activity among the
    varieties. This variety also showed the highest FRAP value compared with the other varieties,
    where the values ranged from 48.05 to 2135.82 mM Fe2+/100 g fresh weight. Total phenolic
    content of samples ranged from 4.85 to 76.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g fresh weight,
    with the red coral lettuce had the highest value. Total flavonoid content of the lettuce samples
    ranged from 2.28 to 21.96 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g fresh weight, and were significantly
    different (p
  13. Fu, C.W.F., Tan, T.B., Tan, C.P., Abas, F., Ho, C.W., Yong, W.T.L.
    Algal have attracted attention from biomedical scientists as they are a valuable natural
    source of secondary metabolites that exhibit antioxidant activities. In this study, singlefactor
    experiments were conducted to investigate the best extraction conditions (ethanol
    concentration, solid-to-solvent ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time) in extracting
    antioxidant compounds and capacities from four species of seaweeds (Sargassum polycystum,
    Eucheuma denticulatum , Kappaphycus alvarezzi variance Buaya and Kappaphycus alvarezzi
    variance Giant) from Sabah. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC)
    assays were used to determine the phenolic and flavonoid concentrations, respectively, while
    2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picylhydrazyl
    (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities of
    all seaweed extracts. Results showed that extraction parameters had significant effect (p < 0.05)
    on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of seaweed. Sargassum polycystum
    portrayed the most antioxidant compounds (37.41 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g DW and 4.54 ± 0.02 mg
    CE/g DW) and capacities (2.00 ± 0.01 μmol TEAC/g DW and 0.84 ± 0.01 μmol TEAC/g DW)
    amongst four species of seaweed.
  14. Chang, V.S., Teo, S.S.
    Seaweeds are marine macro algae that can be found attach to the bottom shallow coastal waters.
    There are three major groups of seaweeds namely brown (Phaeophyta), red (Rhodophyta) and
    green (Chlorophyta). One of the edible red seaweeds is Eucheuma cottonii. Red seaweeds have
    been found of consisted several potential pharmaceutical uses such as antitumor, antiviral,
    anticoagulant and immunomodulation functions. In This study, heavy metals content of E.
    cottonii was determined by ICP-OES. Methanol was used as solvent for extraction. The
    phenolic content of the extract was determined by Follin-Ciocalteau method and results were
    expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH assay.
    Besides, anti-tyrosinase activity was investigated tyrosinase and L-DOPA with kojic acid as
    positive control. For element test, three elements were detected (Ar, Fe and Zn). The phenolic
    contents (3.40±0.013 mg GAE/g extract) and antioxidant activity (38.82±0.99 mg/mL) were
    lower compared to other plants but E. cottonii shows a good tyrosinase enzyme inhibition
    which achieved average 234.33μg/mL in 50% inhibition tyrosinase concentration (IC50). E.
    cottonii could be the potential source of natural anti-tyrosinase.
  15. Akinboro, A., Baharudeen, I., Mohamed, K.
    In this study, toxicological safety (mutagenicity) and therapeutic potential (antimutagenicity)
    of water extract of Centella asiatica Linn., were evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The
    mitotic index (MI) at 6.25% concentration of the extract decreased significantly from 3.13% to
    2.05% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively, however, the MI increased significantly by 60% and
    400% at 12.5% and 50.0% concentrations, respectively. There was total arrest of cell division
    at 100% concentration after 24 h and 48 h of onion’s roots exposure to the water extract.
    The chromosomal aberrations (CA) induced by the extract were not significantly different
    from the negative control (p ≥ 0.05) at the tested concentrations. The mutagenic activity of
    cyclophosphamide was significantly suppressed above 50% at the tested concentrations. These
    results suggest non-genotoxic effect, and antimutagenic potency of water extract of C. asiatica
    in A. cepa cells, being desirable characteristics of anticancer therapeutics.
  16. Bhat, Rajeev, Nurul Hanida Ismail, Yeoh, T.K.
    Goat milk is a highly nutritious and an ideal wholesome food. Today, an increase in demand by
    consumers is witnessed towards consuming goat milk, mainly owed to their rich nutraceutical
    value. In this study, novel goat milk bar was developed by incorporating rose flower extracts
    as an added ingredient (concentration level: 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%), and by using two different
    types of natural sweeteners (cane sugar and palm sugar). The nutrition bars were evaluated
    for proximate composition, texture properties and sensory qualities. Results obtained were
    encouraging and the new goat milk based nutritional bar formulation with added rose extracts
    certainly paves way for future commercial exploitation of the product. Goat milk, owing to its
    rich nutraceutical value, and rose extracts owing to the dual functions of a natural antioxidant
    and antimicrobial agent, can be beneficial for extending the shelf life of this novel product
    under room or refrigerated temperatures, thus attracting better markets.
  17. Sahilah, A.M., Laila Liyana, M.N., Aravindran, S., Aminah, A., Mohd Khan, A.
    Halal is a term that describes substances that are deemed ‘pure and clean’ which Muslims are
    allowed to consume according to Islamic law. The industrialization of food processing in the
    20th and 21st centuries has exposed Muslims community to various ingredients such as blood
    plasma, transglutaminase and gelatin introduced in meatballs and surimi product. Muslims
    are facing difficulties to ascertain which products are permitted or not under the Islamic law.
    Thus, this paper is to give knowledge of non-halal ingredients being introduced in meatballs
    and surimi products for consumers, researchers and policy makers. Local halal logo issued by
    Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) is needed to imply that all ingredients
    used in the food production and processing are Syariah compliance. The scientific evidence
    to substantiate any claim on Halal issue was developed based on several methods including
    PCR-based methods with different mitochondria and chromosomal DNA (MtDNA and cDNA)
    primers, real-time PCR with different probes and DNA binding agent, loop-mediated isothermal
    amplification (LAMP) with different primers developed, PCR- RFLP, ELISA and etc.
  18. Nor Hasni, H., Noranizan, M.A., Roselina, K.
    Pulsed light (PL) treatment is a non-thermal method for microbial decontamination on the
    surfaces of fresh-cut produce. The effect of pulsed light fluencies on microbiological stability
    and quality changes of fresh-cut yardlong beans were determined. Pulsed light treatments were
    carried out using an automatic laboratory flash lamp system (Steribeam XeMaticA-2L Kehl,
    Germany) at different fluencies (1.8 J/cm2, 5.4 J/cm2, 9.0 J/cm2 and 12.6 J/cm2). Microbiological
    quality (colour changes and textural changes) of fresh-cut yardlong beans stored at 4±1°C were
    monitored over 14 days. Results show that, the application of PL treatment at high fluencies
    allowed extension of microbiological shelf life up to 3-7 days in comparison to untreated
    samples. Apart from that, PL treated sample has no significant difference on the texture and
    colour as compared to untreated sample of fresh-cut yardlong bean. As a conclusion, the
    application of PL at dose 9.0 J/cm2 has increased the shelf life of fresh-cut yardlong bean while
    maintaining the quality when stored at 4±1°C.
  19. Farah, A.A., Sukor, R., Fatimah, A.B., Jinap, S.
    Nanotechnology contribute to significant impacts in every way in our daily life. Recently,
    the application of nanotechnology in biosensors has been a trend in developing a highly
    sensitive, selective, quick response, inexpensive, high volume production, great reliability
    and miniaturized sensors. High demands on the production of rapid sensors for food safety
    and quality control purposes are increasingly become the interest for researchers all over the
    world. This is because, in food sector, the quality of a certain product is based on their periodic
    chemical and microbilogical analysis. The uses of nanomaterials in biosensors are very
    promising because they mediate current flow. Surface modification of the electrode based on
    various nanomaterials including nanoparticle, nanofiber, nanowire and nanotube significantly
    increase the performance of the biosensor. Ultimately, this implementation will enhance the
    sensor’s sensitivity and stability. This review explores the previous research and development
    work on nanomaterials-based sensors for food applications.
  20. Uthumporn, U., Nadiah, N.I., Koh, W.Y., Zaibunnisa, A.H., Azwan, L.
    The effect of microwave heating and conventional heating towards the physicochemical and
    functional properties of corn and rice flour with 30% moisture content in water suspension at
    temperature of 50°C and 60°C were investigated. Conventional heat treatment was carried out
    at 50°C and 60°C respectively by direct heating the moisture treated flour. Microwave heating
    treatment was carried out by using domestic microwave oven at 50°C and 60°C respectively.
    The amylose content, particle size diameter, and gelatinization temperature are increasing in
    microwave and conventional heat treated corn and rice flour. Decreasing of pasting temperature,
    swelling power and solubility of all the heat-treated starches compared to control were detected.
    X-ray diffraction pattern of all control and heat treated corn and rice flour exhibit typical A-type
    pattern. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has revealed the heat treated corn and rice flour
    showed rougher surface, porous granules and rupture granules. There are no significance effect
    of temperature differences on corn and rice flour carried out at 50°C and 60°C. Evidently,
    microwave heating was effective to alter the physicochemical and functional properties of corn
    and rice flour.
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