Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 872 in total

  1. Ting, S.R., Loh, S.P.
    The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium, iron and zinc of breads added with different bread
    spreads was determined. The mineral contents were assessed by flame atomic absorption
    spectrophotometer and expressed in fresh weight (mg/100 g). For the mineral bioaccessibility
    determination, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was applied. Among the bread samples, calcium
    content of wholemeal bread with chocolate hazelnut spread ranked the highest (159.96±0.869
    mg/100 g). For iron, white bread with chocolate hazelnut spread (6.92±0.411 mg/100 g) showed
    highest iron content while for zinc, white bread with peanut butter was the highest (1.82±0.015
    mg/100 g). For calcium bioaccessibility, white bread with orange marmalade ranked the
    highest (39.33±4.865%) while wholemeal bread with peanut butter (14.70±0.265%) showed
    the lowest. The application of orange marmalade spread onto wholemeal bread increased the
    iron bioaccessibility significantly (9.73±1.387%). The acidic properties attributed by organic
    acids found in orange marmalade may favour both calcium and iron absorption. The zinc
    bioaccessibility of white bread alone remained the highest (20.63±3.536%) while wholemeal
    bread added with peanut butter (5.90±1.137%) showed the lowest. Overall, the addition of
    bread spreads particularly peanut butter and chocolate hazelnut spread had increased mineral
    contents of the bread samples. However, the presence of mineral enhancers (organic acids) and
    inhibitors (phytate and polyphenols) played some significant role in influencing the mineral
  2. Ruslan, R., Roslan, N..
    Papaya cv. Sekaki is one of the Malaysian’s favorite commodities with great tropical taste.
    Generally the papaya ripening determined through skin color changes. Current method for
    the quality inspection is through the experience of operator. However the inspection from
    one operator may vary to another. The main purpose of this study is to improve the quality
    inspection of papaya for an efficient grading system. This study will improve the ripening index
    developed for papaya by Malaysian Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority (FAMA) on the
    skin color basis by comparing the color values between CIE L*a*b* and CIE L*C*h color
    space. Destructive technique usually used to evaluate the chemical parameter such as total
    soluble solid (TSS) content. A new improvised ripening index chart added with specific TSS
    content and color values range. The relationship between color values and TSS was developed
    for CIE L*C*h with R²=0.9674. The ripening index chart established allows papaya quality
    attributes to be determined and evaluated nondestructively with the aid of colorimeter.
  3. Tan, W. L., Azlan, A., Noh, M.F.M.
    The study was undertaken to determine and compare the sodium and potassium contents in
    selected salts (table salt, coarse salt, French sea salt, Himalayan pink salt and bamboo salt)
    and sauces (light soy sauce, sweet soy sauce, chili sauce, tomato sauce and mayonnaise).
    Findings of the present study showed that the sodium content of salts was highest in table salt
    (35870.0 mg/100 g) and lowest in French sea salt (31235.0 mg/100 g), whereas the potassium
    content was highest in bamboo salt (399.4 mg/100 g) and lowest in table salt (43.7 mg/100
    g). There was no significant difference between sodium amounts of the salts. Bamboo salt
    was significantly higher in potassium than other salts. The ranking of sodium and potassium
    in sauces was similar, where light soy sauce contained the highest amount (4402.0 and 395.4
    mg/100 g) and mayonnaise contained the least (231.3 and 63.6 mg/100 g). Both sodium and
    potassium contents of light soy sauce were significantly higher than other sauces. Bamboo salt
    is a better choice instead of other salts in terms of the potassium level. Among sauces, although
    light soy sauce is high in potassium; however, its high sodium has offset the beneficial effect
    of potassium.
  4. Abu Bakar, B., Md. Salleh, N.H., Amir Hashim, N.A., Sudin, A., Jusoh, S., Abdullah, M.Z.K.
    This work presents the characterization of selected bioactive compounds of local herbs
    through their photonic spectrum. A Shimadzu spectrophotometer was used to map bioactive
    compounds extracted from Andrographis paniculata, Ficus deltoidea, Orthosiphon stamineus
    and Centella asiatica. Dominant peaks and repeatability were the determinant parameters
    in this study. Absorbance peaks of bioactive compounds were calibrated against respective
    standardized chemicals obtained from reputable suppliers. The results obtained indicated
    that absorbance peaks from different bioactive compounds could be identified by photonic
    spectrum. Most bioactive markers were detected within the wavelength range of 200 nm to 350
    nm, using a Deuterium (190 nm to 450 nm) light source and corresponding refraction grating.
    A mathematical relationship of concentration versus absorbance at different wavelengths for
    selected bioactive compounds were identified. The significance of the photonic characterization
    of these phytochemicals forms the basis for a mathematical model in a decision support system
    of a proposed mobile sensor prototype development.
  5. Etti, C. J., Yusof, Y.A., Chin, N. L., Mohd Tahir, S.
    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of formulation on flowability of selected
    herbal powders which include Labisia pumila, Ortosiphon stamineus, Eurycoma longifolia
    and Andrographis paniculata using compendial methods and a recently available powder
    flow analyser. The material properties such as moisture content, particles sizes, tap and bulk
    densities of the pure herbal powders and the formulated powders were measured to determine
    Carr index and Hausner ratio which were indices of the compendial methods. Cohesion
    index and caking strength were used as basis of flowability indicator using the powder flow
    analyser. The flowability of the herbal powders were improved when they were formulated into
    beverages mix by mixing each herbal powders with other ingredients like sugar and nondairy
    creamer before analyzed using both the compendial methods and powder flow analyser. Both
    methods of flowability measurements adopted in this work complemented each other in the
    understanding and characterization of powder flowability.
  6. Elexson, N., Rukayadi, Y., Nakaguchi, Y., Nishibuchi, M.
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a main foodborne disease in seafood and generally seafood is
    easily deteriorates in quality of color and flavor. In this study, clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
    extract shows potent antibacterial activity against growth of antibiotics resistant Vibrio
    parahaemolyticus on seafood samples (cockles and shrimps). Vibrio parahaemolyticus was
    artificial contaminates on the samples with 106 CFU/ml. The samples were treated with different
    concentration of cloves extract with 10 mg/ml which are 0.5%, 5% and 10% concentration
    from methanol food grade extraction in 0 hr, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and
    120 min. Tab water and deionized water were selected as a negative control. As a result, the
    amount of 10 % cloves managed to mitigates the number of V. parahaemolyticus on seafood
    samples in 5 minutes and 15 min on both samples. Therefore, our results signify the fact that
    cloves can be apply as natural sanitizer which could meet consumer demands for safe and
    traditionally consumed either raw without any undesirable effect when applied in the seafood
    system industries.
  7. Nur Sofuwani, Z.A., Siti Aslina, H., Siti Mazlina, M.K.
    An extensive amount of research has reported on the use of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane,
    particularly in the improvement of membrane performance efficiency on cow’s milk. However,
    a very limited number of researches reported on using UF for producing low-lactose goat’s
    milk due to inherently low lactose. Nonetheless, goat’s milk is still not suitable to be consumed
    in a large amount by people who are lactose intolerant, especially among Asians, where
    over 90% of the populations are suffering from lactose intolerance. Until today, fouling and
    concentration polarization (CP) on membrane surface in cross-flow hollow fiber UF unit are
    the major problems in the dairy industry. Discovery on how to overcome the problem is still
    in a hot debate due to the nature’s complex composition in milk. One way to overcome this
    problem is by evaluating the effects of processing parameters such as trans-membrane pressure
    (TMP) and feed-flow rate on flux (J), lactose rejection (Ri), concentration factor (CF), and
    accumulation rate (AR) during the fractionation of lactose. In terms of lactose fractionation for
    5 KDa and 10 KDa UF membranes, the TMPs examined were 0.41, 0.55, and 0.69 bars, while
    feed flow-rates examined were 0.18, 0.34, 0.54, and 0.74 L/min. 5 KDa membrane shows that
    feed flow-rate and flux behave in a direct relationship, while an inverse relationship in 10 KDa
    membrane. Both membranes showed that TMP 0.55 bar exhibit the best flux value without
    reaching the limiting flux region, but with feed flow rate of 0.74 L/min in 5 KDa, while 0.18
    L/min in 10 KDa membrane. Lactose rejection percentage (%Ri) is the lowest with 77.71% in
    5 KDa membrane while 66.28% in 10 KDa membrane. This can be summarized that the best
    parameters for 5 KDa membrane is at TMP 0.55 bar with feed flow-rate of 0.74 L/min, while
    for 10 KDa membrane is at TMP 0.55 bar with feed flow-rate of 0.18 L/min. Due to higher flux
    value and lowest lactose rejection obtained from low feed flow-rate, 10 KDa UF membrane
    size was chosen over 5 KDa. As a conclusion, a high degree of lactose removal from goat’s
    milk could be achieved by 10 KDa UF membrane in a cross-flow hollow fiber system, which
    proved that different outcomes between 5 KDa and 10 KDa membranes and feed flow-rate
    required is closely associated to UF pore size and molecular weight of feed solute particles.
  8. New, C.Y., Ubong, A., Nur Hasria, K., Nur Fatihah, A., Son, R.
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is well known to be abundantly distributed in marine, coastal and
    estuarine environments. Since 1951, V. parahaemolyticus had been the source of numerous
    outbreaks related to contaminated or mishandled seafood. However, V. parahaemolyticus
    had been detected on other types of food. This issue has prompted this study to investigate
    on the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in various food samples and determine the risk
    associated with it. The results of the MPN-plating technique of the study indicated that V.
    parahaemolyticus was detected in seafood (33.3%, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 31.9 – 34.8 ,
    94 – 290 MPN/g) and vegetables (10.0%, 95% CI 9.7 – 10.3 , 9.2 – 23 MPN/g) while negative
    V. parahaemolyticus was detected in fruits (0.0%, 95% CI 0 – 1,
  9. Mohd Thani, N., Mustapa Kamal, S.M., Taip, F.S., Awang Biak, D.R.
    Dadih is a favourable dessert in South East Asia due to its appealing sweet taste and jellies
    appearance. The sweet taste is from sugar (sucrose) content, and in order to reduce the sucrose,
    it was substituted with xylitol. Xylitol can provides intense sweetness with less calories and
    lower water activity, which potentially contribute to higher microbial stability thus giving
    longer shelf life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylitol substituted
    on dadih safety and sensory qualities. Dadih was prepared by replacing sucrose with xylitol
    composition in the range of 0 – 100% and at two levels of cooking times (15 and 20 minutes).
    Safety analysis were performed using total plate count (TPC) and water activity (aw) analysis.
    For sensory analysis, seven attributes were evaluated (appearance, colour, hardness, elasticity,
    taste, sweetness, and overall acceptability) based on the 9-hedonic scale. From the findings,
    dadih samples with total sucrose (0%) were observed to be contaminated faster compared to
    total xylitol (100%). Dadih with xylitol is more stable with prolonged shelf life. From sensory
    analysis, dadih sample prepared with shorter cooking time (15 minutes) was selected as more
    favourable with overall acceptability score between 72 - 85%. More than 70% of the score for
    dadih with xylitol substitute was above ‘slightly like’, which indicates a promising future to
    produce xylitol substitute dadih. The outcome of this study has shown that xylitol is potentially
    to be utilize as sugar substitute for dadih production.
  10. Onwude, D. I., Hashim, N., Janius, R. B., Nawi, N., Abdan, K.
    This study investigated the drying kinetic of pumpkin under different drying temperatures (50,
    60, 70 and 80°C), samples thickness (3, 4, 5 and 7mm), air velocity (1.2m/s) and relative
    humidity (40 - 50%). Kinetic models were developed using semi-theoretical thin layer models
    and multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) method. The Hii et al. (2009)
    semi-theoretical model was found to be the most suitable thin layer model while two hidden
    layers with 20 neurons was the best for the ANN method. The selections were based on the
    statistical indicators of coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and
    sum of squares error (SSE). Results indicated that the ANN demonstrated better prediction
    than those of the theoretical models with R2, RMSE and SSE values of 0.992, 0.036 and 0.207
    as compared to the Hii et al. (2009) model values of 0.902, 0.088 and 1.734 respectively. The
    validation result also showed good agreement between the predicted values obtained from
    the ANN model and the experimental moisture ratio data. This indicates that an ANN can
    effectively describe the drying process of pumpkin.
  11. Lazim, S. S. R. M., Nawi, N. M., Rasli, A. M. M., Chen, G., Jensen, T.
    The influence of different data pre-processing methods (smoothing by moving average (MA),
    multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), Savitzky-Golay (SG), standard normal variate (SNV)
    and mean normalization (MN) on the prediction of sugar content from sugarcane samples was
    investigated. The performance of these pre-processing methods was evaluated using spectral
    data collected from 292 sugarcane internode samples using a visible-shortwave near infrared
    spectroradiometer (VNIRS). Partial least square (PLS) method was applied to develop both
    calibration and prediction models for the samples. If no pre-processing method was applied,
    the coefficient of determination (R2) values for both reflectance and absorbance data were 0.81
    and 0.86 respectively. The highest prediction accuracy values were obtained when the data was
    treated with MSC method, where the R2 values for reflectance and absorbance being 0.85 and
    0.87, respectively. From this study, it was concluded that pre-processing can improve the model
    performances where MSC method was found to give the highest prediction accuracy value.
  12. Nurfatin, M.H., Zalifah, M. K, Etty Syarmila, I.K., Nur ‘Aliah, D., Babji, A.S., Ayob, M.K.
    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in reducing blood pressure and
    gives an anti-hypertensive effect. Inhibition of ACE mainly results in an overall antihypertensive
    effect. The objectives of this study were to determine the ACE inhibition activity in edible bird
    nest hydrolysates and the effect of different hydrolysis time of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240
    minutes. Edible bird nest protein was hydrolysed by enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase and
    papain to obtain ACE inhibitory peptides. The results suggested that 60 minutes of hydrolysis
    time using alcalase contributed to the best ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.02mg protein/ml)
    which shows edible bird nest protein hydrolysate to be a potent ACE inhibitor that may be used
    to decrease blood pressure.
  13. Jamil, N.H., Halim, N.R.A., Sarbon, N.M.
    The present study aims to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis condition and determine the
    functional properties of eel (Monopterus albus) protein hydrolysate (EPH) at different
    hydrolysate concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%). The enzymatic hydrolysis (using alcalase)
    condition; namely, temperature (°C), enzyme to substrate concentration (%) and pH on both
    the yield and degree of hydrolysis (DH), as responses, was optimized using the response
    surface methodology (RSM) by employing three factors, 3-level, Central Composite Design
    (CCD). The optimum hydrolysis condition suggested was a temperature of 55.76 °C, enzyme
    concentration of 1.80% and pH of 9. The experimental result for yield (9.45%) was higher while
    the experimental result for DH (15.01%) was lower than the predicted values of the responses
    using the quadratic model, which were 5.67% and 16.73%, respectively. The findings for the
    functional properties showed that the Nitrogen Solubility Index (NSI) of EPH was 85%. The
    emulsion stability index (ESI) of EPH was shown to decrease with the increase hydrolysate
    concentration (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) while the foam expansion of EPH showed an increase with
    the increase in concentration. High solubility and the ability of EPH to emulsify and form foam
    show its potential for use as a natural binding and emulsifying agent.
  14. Nurdianah, H.F., Ahmad Firdaus, A.H., Eshaifol Azam, O., Wan Adnan, W.O.
    Bee pollen is considered as one of the functional foods due to its complex biochemical
    properties. Bee pollen which is collected from pollen grains from various botanical sources
    contains almost a complete nutrition such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, vitamins
    and minerals. Its beneficial effect on health is thought to be due to the presence of phenolic
    compounds with its antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities of ethanolic bee pollen extract
    (BPE) from three species of Malaysian stingless bee; Trigona thoracica, Trigona itama and
    Trigona apicalis in this study were measured using DPPH-HPLC method and gallic acid (GA)
    as a standard reference. The percentage of DPPH inhibition by T. apicalis BPE at 1 mg/mL
    showed the highest inhibition (39%, GA equivalent to 0.3 mg/mL) compared with T. itama
    (14.3%, GA equivalent to 0.1 mg/mL) and T. thoracica (6.7%, GA equivalent to 0.05 mg/mL).
    Our result was the first in reporting antioxidant activity of BPE measured using DPPH-HPLC
    method from three different species of Malaysian stingless bee.
  15. Megat, R.M.R., Azrina, A., Norhaizan, M.E.
    Legume is a plant in the family of Fabaceae (or Leguminosae) that is cultivated and consumed
    throughout the world. Legume’s role in human health appears to be limited because of several
    limiting factors such as low protein and starch digestibility, poor mineral bioavailability and
    high antinutritional factors. Germination is defined as a process that occurs during seed growth
    that starts with uptake of water until the emergence of radicle through the surrounding structure.
    It has been suggested that germination is a cheaper and more effective technology that can
    improve the quality of legumes by increasing their nutritional value. This study was conducted
    to compare changes in dietary fibre and total sugar compositions after germination process in
    kidney, mung, soy beans and peanuts. Total dietary fibre was found to be significantly increased
  16. Wan Rosli, W.l.
    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajorcaju,
    PSC) addition to partially replace coconut milk powder on nutritional composition and
    sensory values of Herbal Seasoning (HS). This study evaluates the nutritional composition,
    dietary fibre and sensory acceptance of HS that processed using six different formulations
    with different levels of PSC powder, namely 0% (A), 20% (B), 40% (C), 60% (D), 80% (E)
    and 100% (F). The use of PSC powder substantially brought down the fat content of HS.
    The fat content of PSC-based HS was ranged from 13.82±0.84% to 8.16±0.74%. The protein
    content showed an increasing trend in line with increasing of PSC powder ranging from 7%
    to 12%.Substitution of coconut milk powder with PSC powder resulted in significantly higher
    (p0.05).The panels preferred HS formulated with PSC powder since its
    enhance colour and viscosity attributes of the products. In brief, HS formulated with more than
    40% PSC powder is recommended since it has significant nutrients and palatably accepted by
    sensorial panellists.
  17. Nur Nadirah MS, Ghazali H, Bakar AZA, Othman M
    This paper examines relationship between media literacy and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables focusing on consumption of soft drink among adolescents in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In addition, this paper also determines soft drink consumption, level of media literacy and the influences of the TPB variables on the intention of soft drink consumption. A cluster sampling method was used in collecting data within the Klang Valley area. The sample consisted of 436 adolescents from secondary school, aged between 13 to 18 years old. Two main scales utilized were Media Literacy (ML) scale and TPB scale. The descriptive, multiple linear regression and Pearson product-moment correlation analyses were carried out to answer the research objectives. Results revealed that 36% of respondents drank a minimum of 1 can, bottle or glass of soft drink for the past seven days and possess good level of media literacy (35%). Meanwhile, 14% of variance in adolescents’ intention of soft drink consumption is explained by TPB variables. Additionally, the total media literacy score towards soft drink advertisement was significantly positively correlated with attitude (r = 0.250, p
  18. Lesley, M.B., Velnetti, L., Fazira, A.A., Kasing, A., Samuel, L., Micky, V., et al.
    This study was conducted to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes)
    and screen for its antibiotic susceptibility characteristic from wildlife and water samples at
    Kubah National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Samples collected were incubated and streaked on
    selective medium PALCAM agar to confirm the presence of Listeria spp. before they were
    further tested using molecular analysis. Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay were
    performed to target specific virulence gene, haemolysin gene, hlyA to further distinguish the
    presence of this pathogenic bacteria in the samples. Overall, out of the 30 samples tested, 10
    samples were confirmed as to contain L. monocytogenes strains and selected to subsequent
    antibiotic susceptibility test. Susceptibility patterns to 10 antibiotics were investigated
    among the L. monocytogenes strains. All strains were uniformly resistant to tetracycline and
    erythromycin. On the other hand, all strains were sensitive to gentamycin and tobramycin. The
    multiple antibiotic resistance shown by the strains in this study indicate the potential health
    hazard associated with the possible transmission between wildlife and water to its surrounding
    environment especially visitors and workers of Kubah National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia.
  19. Aklilu, E., Nurhardy, A.D., Mokhtar, A., Zahirul, I.K., Siti Rokiah, A.
    Multi-drug resistant staphylococci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) are among the emerging
    pathogens and have become a threat to both human and animals. Foods of animal origin can
    easily be contaminated by these bacteria if handled unhygienically or exposed to contaminated
    environmental surfaces. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MRSA
    and MRSE in raw chicken meat sold at wet markets in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. One
    hundred fresh raw chicken meat samples were collected from three different wet markets in
    Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Routine isolation and identification, selective media (Brilliance MRSA2
    agar), antimicrobial sensitivity test (AST), minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC), and
    polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of nucA gene and the resistant gene, mecA
    were conducted. Based on bacteriology results and growth on selective media, MRSA and
    MRSE were detected in 43% (43/100) of the raw chicken meat samples. Using the PCR assay,
    77% (34/43) isolates were positive for nucA gene. The detection of these emerging multidrug
    resistant bacteria in chicken meat intended for human consumption implies the potential
    contamination of food items by the bacteria which in turn may pose risk to the public health.
  20. Rashed, K., Said, A., Abdo, A., Selim, S.
    This work was carried out for determining antimicrobial activity of Pistacia chinensis leaves
    methanol extract and identifying the chemical composition of the plant extract. Methanol extract
    was tested for antimicrobial activity using disc-diffusion assay and the extract was fractionated
    on silica gel column chromatography for the isolation of the bio-active constituents. The leaves
    extract of P. chinensis showed a significant antimicrobial effect, it strongly inhibited the growth
    of the test bacteria and yeast studied. Chromatograpic separation of the methanol extract of
    P. chinensis leaves has led to the isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol, luepol, and
    six flavonoids, quercetin, myricetin, quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside,
    myricetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside and myricetin 3-O-β-glucuronide using various chromatographic
    procedures and the interpretation of spectral data in comparison with already existing data
    reported in the literature. The results presented here may suggest that the leaves extract of P.
    chinensis possess antimicrobial properties, and therefore, can be used as natural preservative
    ingredients in food and/or pharmaceuticals.
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