The emulsifying properties of extracted okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) mucilage at different maturity indices (1, 2 and 3) were studied. The okra mucilage was prepared using water extraction method and was determined their viscosity at different temperature (10, 30, 50 and 70°C), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), as well as their emulsion capacity (EC) and emulsion stability (ES). Results found that okra with maturity index 2 produced the highest percentage yield of mucilage (1.46%) and followed by index 1 (1.10%) and index 3 (0.31%) (p
Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel is a rich source of fibre, antioxidant and betacyanin; however, it is discarded during processing, so it is able to cause environmental problems. In order to convert the fruit waste to potential by-product ingredients, drum drying is used as pre-treatment to create an ingredient which is shelf-stable. In this study, the effects of rotation speed and steam pressure of drums on the physico-chemical properties of pitaya peel that had undergone drum drying are investigated. Pitaya peel was dried in a laboratory scale double drum dryer at rotation speed of 1, 2, and 3 rpm at steam pressure of 1, 2, and 3 bar. The drum dried pitaya peel was then further analyzed based on percentage yield, moisture content, water activity, betacyanin retention and color change. Interaction of steam pressure and rotation speed gives significant effect (p < 0.05) on percentage yield, moisture content, water activity, betacyanin retention and Hunter L value, whereas it has no significant on Hunter a and b values. The best combination parameters (1 rpm and 2 bar) yield the highest betacyanin retention (80.21 mg/g of dry solid), acceptable moisture content (10.66% wet basis), water activity (aw = 0.42) and with 7.61% of yield.
The influence of superheated steam cooking on fat and fatty acid composition of chicken sausage were investigated at various temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) with different time domains (2-6 min). It has been found that the fat content of raw sample was higher than that of all cooked samples. The total fat content of cooked sample, showed a linear decreasing with time at all investigated temperatures. Superheated steam produce changes in saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in which their values were found to decrease in cooked samples. When different cooking conditions (temperature, time) were applied, the fatty acids were decreased as the time and temperature increased. The PUFA and MUFA were less prone to decrease at 150°C, while at this temperature there was a remarkable loss in SFA content. This cooking method considerably reduced the level of fat and SFA which have a positive effect on health. In addition it could imply a great choice for consumers to choose the healthier technique for cooking food.
Thermal processing of green coconut water (GCW) caused non-enzymic browning and development of rancidity. Effect of the addition of several combinations of ascorbic acid (AA) (0 to 100 ppm) and sodium metabisulfite (SMB) (0 to 30 ppm) on brown discolouration and rancidity of GCW during elevated thermal processing (121°C for 5 min at 15 psi) was investigated. Addition of AA and/or SMB significantly (P
A survey was conducted to investigate patterns of fruits and vegetables consumption among Malaysian adults residing in Selangor, Malaysia. Two hundred forty two subjects comprises of male (28%) and female (72%) of major ethnics (Malays-52.3%; Chinese-30.5%; Indians-16.9%) with the mean age of 43.5±18 years were studied from July to November 2002. Consumption data for vegetables were collected using 24 hours duplicate samples method while for fruits 24-hour diet record was used. The results showed that most frequently consumed leafy, leguminous, root, brassica and fruits vegetables were celery (Apium graveolens), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic), long beans (Vigna sesquipedolis), French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), carrot (Daucas carota), potato (Solanum tuberosum), Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea), round cabbage (Brassica reptans), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var cauliflora), chilies (red, green, small or dried) (Capsicum sp.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), long eggplant (Solanum melongena) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus). While most consumed ulam and traditional vegetables were petai (Parkia speciosa), sweet leaves (Sauropus andragynus) and Indian pennywor (Hydrocotyle asiatica). Other vegetables inclusive spices and flavorings that were preferred by subjects were shallot (Allium fistulosum), garlic(Allium sativum), onion (Alium cepa), green bean sprout (Phaseolus aureus) and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii). The most preferred fruits were banana (Musa spp.) and apples (.Malus domestica). A total consumption of fruits and vegetables among adults in Selangor was 173 g/day and the consumption among Malays (202 g/day) was significantly higher (P
This study was done to determine the effects of different thermal drying methods (sun drying, microwave drying and hot air oven drying) on the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content and the antioxidant properties of Vitex negundo (VN) tea. Significant decline (P < 0.05) in antioxidant properties of hot air oven drying shows that this method is not the best method to preserve antioxidant compounds in VN tea. As a conclusion, microwave drying has been found to be a good method for maintain the TPC, anthocyanin content and AEAC in dried sample of VN tea.
Molecular typing methods have been widely applied for many purposes. In this study, such methods were adopted as DNA fingerprinting tools to determine the origin and divergence of virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains found in local seafood. Although not all strain carry virulent tdh and trh gene, increasing prevalence demands an effective fingerprinting scheme which can constantly monitor and trace the sources of such emerging food pathogens. By using ERIC-, RAPD-, and BOX-PCR methods, 33 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from local Malaysia bloody clam (Anadara granosa) and Lala (Orbicularia orbiculata) with confirmed presence of tdh and trh gene were characterised, followed by determination of clonal relatedness among virulent strains using cluster analysis and discriminatory index. This study also involved application of Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS) Method which significantly improved the specificity of strain isolation. Cluster analysis using Unweighted Pair Group Mathematical Averaging (UPGMA) and Dice Coefficient shown clustering according to isolation food source, IMS level and haemolysin gene possessed. Nevertheless, different DNA fingerprinting methods generated different clustering at different similarity cut-off percentage, regardless as individual or as composite dendrograms. ERIC- and RAPD-PCR composite fingerprinting relatively shown the highest discriminatory index at following similarity cutoff percentage: 0.68 at 50%; 0.83 at 65%; and 0.93 at 75%. Discriminatory power increased with similarity cut-off percentage. However, result also suggested that BOX-PCR might be an effective fingerprinting tool, as it generated three clusters with no single-colony isolate at 70% similarity cut-off. This study not only achieved its objective to determine clonal relatedness among virulent strains from local seafood via characterisation, but also speculated the best possible combination of molecular typing methods to effectively do so.
Due to the latest industrial development, many dangerous chemicals have been released directly or indirectly which resulted in the polluted water bodies. Water rehabilitation is an alternative way to restore the quality of water, followed by the environmental management to control the waste discharge to ensure the balance of the degradation rates or detoxifying by environmental factors. However, this process consumed a lot of time and cost. Besides, most of the metal ions, especially copper which is capable to bioaccumulate in aquatic organism and at the elevated level may cause physiological and biochemical alteration which leads to mortality. Environmental monitoring is the initial step presupposed evaluating the potential toxicity of effluent gushing at its purpose to discharge, avoiding the determining effects of contaminant in water bodies. Due to the high sensitivity of the aquatic life towards dissolving toxicant, the fish has been utilized as the biological measurement (Biomarker) to indicate the existence of toxicant exposure and/or the impact towards the evaluation of molecular, cellular to physiological level. Thus, this paper gives an overview of the manipulation of fish as a biomarker of heavy metals through behavior response, hepatocyte alteration, enzymatic reaction and proteomic studies which have proven to be very useful in the environmental pollution monitoring.
The term ‘sustainable’ has become a buzz word in today’s business world. Consumption of green food is just one facet or ‘trip’ to the whole journey of sustainable development. This paper explores and synthesizes the findings of research on green food consumption in Malaysia. The already conducted studies in Malaysia have revealed various demographic and psychographic factors contributing to consumers’ intension to buy green food. This study revealed that majority of Malaysians consider food safety and health issue to be their prime reason for buying green food. To ensure the long term sustainability, the green food as well as the broad food industry in Malaysia must evidently understand the consumers’ buying motives of green food. Although mentionable limitation of the paper is the reliance on only published literature, this can be used as input for further large scale empirical research. The paper concludes with implications and suggestions for further research.
The extraction method for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in black pepper was optimized. The influence of three variables, i.e., type of solvent, solvent-volume-to-sample- size ratio (v/w) and amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) (g), on OTA recovery was evaluated. Analysis of variance was used to compare recovery values obtained from different solvents, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum amount of NaCl and the solvent-volume-to-sample-size ratio. The concentration of OTA was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The highest recovery (95.2 %) was obtained when methanol/water (80:20, v/v) was used as the solvent. The RSM results showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted to a second-order polynomial model with multiple regression coefficients (R2) of 0.962. The optimum amount of NaCl was determined to be 3 g, whereas the optimum solvent-volume-to-sample-size ratio (v/w) was found to be 4. The proposed method was applied to 20 samples, and the presence of OTA was found in 8 (40%) samples ranging from 0.11 to 3.16 ng g-1.
Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is mostly found in natural products such as fruits and vegetables. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated to compare the ascorbic acid content in Benincasa hispida (Bh) fruit extract with three different extraction solvents; i) 3% metaphosphoric acid, ii) 3% citric acid and iii) distilled water. The compound has been detected and quantified by the use of HPLC coupled with UV-Vis detector. The amount of ascorbic acid detected in Bh fruit extract prepared with different extraction solvents; 3% metaphosphoric acid, 3% citric acid and distilled water were 13.18, 7.91 and 9.42 mg/100g respectively. Total run time was 6 min and the retention time was 2.60 min. Calibration curve was linear with the concentration range 1.00 – 16.00 μg/ml. Limits of detection was 0.24 μg/ml, limit of quantification was 0.81 μg/ml and recovery was 93.52%. The result showed ascorbic acid content is higher in Bh fruit extract with 3% metaphosphoric acid, followed by extract with distilled water and 3% citric acid. Thus, Bh is another novel fruit/ vegetable potentially used as food ingredient as it contains a good source of ascorbic acid that can be good for one’s health.
The influence of different fermentation methods and turning of cocoa beans on the cocoa bean’s quality was studied. Both shallow box covered with banana leaves (SBBL) and shallow box without banana leaves (SBWL) were used throughout fermentation (120 hours). The initial microbial load for SBBL and SBWL was 5.35±0.18 and 5.19±0.21 log CFU/g before increased to 6.27±0.08 and 6.17±0.03 log CFU/g, respectively at the end of fermentation (120 hours). The titratable acidity of the cocoa beans increased steadily until 72 hours before decreased slightly to 1.34±0.07 (SBBL) and 0.75±0.15 (SBWL) at the latter stage of fermentation. The cocoa beans fermented under SBBL were less acidic than those found in SBWL. Turned cocoa beans produced better quality of cocoa with less acidic compared to the one without turning. Cocoa beans with periodical turning recorded higher percentage of brown beans for both SBBL (73%) and SBWL (69%); percentage of purple beans decreased to about 7-8% for cocoa fermented in respective methods mentioned above. No slaty beans were recorded throughout the study. This study suggests that the use of shallow box with banana leaves can produce cocoa beans with superior quality.
Malaysian poultry policy aims to provide remunerative prices for producers and to guarantee a steady supply of poultry products at stable and affordable prices to consumers. Broiler meat is the most important and the cheapest protein source in Malaysia and trade protection could stimulate the local industry and enhance food security. The study attempts to evaluate the competitiveness and comparative advantage of three different scales of broiler production in Johor using policy analysis matrix (PAM). The existing protection and the level of comparative advantage are ascertained through PAM indicators. The results show that Malaysia has strong competitiveness position in every scale of broiler production especially the largest scale. But, the protection through import curtailment resulted in higher domestic prices than the world price. To increase competitiveness, the broiler industry should reduce the dependence on expensive and unstable cost of corn based feed.
This paper reviews the structure, function and applications of collagens in food industry. Collagen is the most abundant protein in animal origin. It helps maintaining the structure of various tissues and organs. It is a modern foodstuff and widely used in food and beverage industries to improve the elasticity, consistency and stability of products. Furthermore, it also enhances the quality, nutritional and health value of the products. Collagen has been applied as protein dietary supplements, carriers, food additive, edible film and coatings. Therefore, this paper will review the functions and applications of collagen in the food and beverage industries. The structure and composition of collagen are also included.
Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157 were identified from “selom” (Oenanthe stolonifera), “pegaga” (Centella asiatica), beef, chicken, lamb, buffalo, “ulam Raja” (Cosmos caudatus) and “tenggek burung” (Euodia redlevi). The bacteria were recovered using chromagenic agar. Isolated Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli 0157 were further characterized by plasmid profiling and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The virulence genes of the isolates (VT1, VT2, LT, ST, eaeA, inV) that produces pathogenic Escherichia coli and 16S rRNA gene were screened by a multiplex PCR assay. The plasmid profiling analysis showed that out of 176 isolates, only 103 isolates contained plasmids. ERIC-PCR analysis generated amplified products in the range of ~150 bp to > 1000 bp categorizing isolates into a total of 52 different profiles. Multiplex PCR showed that 20 (32.3%) of the isolates carried eaeA gene, 6 (9.7%) isolates possessed inV genes, only 1 (1.6%) have VT2 genes and 1 (1.6%) as well carried VT1 genes, 2 (3.2%) of the isolates harboured LT genes, and only 1 (1.6%) isolate possessed ST genes. There were no correlation between plasmid, ERIC-PCR and virulence genes profiles.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is recognized as a frequent causal agent of human gastroenteritis due to the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled seafood in many Asian countries. The number of V. parahaemolyticus cases reported is on the rise, and this becomes a concern to the Asian countries as seafood is favoured by Asians. This study aimed to detect and quantify V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters and to determine the risk associated with the consumption of raw oysters. A total of 30 oyster samples were collected and analysed in this study. MPN-PCR and MPN-Plating methods were employed and carried out concurrently to determine the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters. The results showed that the prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus in oysters was 50.00% (15/30) where the MPN/g range was < 3 – > 11000 MPN/g for MPN-PCR method, and 40.00% (12/30) where the MPN/g range was < 3 – 4300 MPN/g for MPN-Plating method. MPN-PCR method was able to estimate the level of virulence (tdh+ and trh+) V. parahaemolyticus in the raw oysters where 10.00% (3/30) of samples were identified to be in a range of 3 – 30 MPN/g. A microbial risk assessment was conducted based on the enumeration data obtained from MPN-PCR method using @risk. The probability of illness annually was 1.76 X 10-6 with a prediction of 31 cases to occur with respect to the exposed Malaysian population, while the rate per 100,000 people was estimated to be at 0.104. In addition, the antibiogram of V. parahaemolyticus was determined using Kirby Bauer Disk Diffusion Test and the results indicated that the isolates were highly resistant towards Bacitracin (100.00%), Vancomycin (100.00%) and were least resistant to Chloramphenicol (8.70%). The MAR index of the isolates ranged from 0.17 to 0.50. In accordance with the results from this study, the consumption of raw oysters is a risk factor for V. parahaemolyticus infection and proactive actions should be taken to reduce the risk of the pathogen in order to improve public health.
The antibacterial activity of solvent-extracted oil of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.), and mustard (Brassica nigra L.) seed oils, and coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) oil, palm (Elaeis guineensis L.) mesocarp in hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed form were determined in order to explore their potential usage as antibacterial agent. The hydrolysis process that was catalyzed by immobilized lipase of Rhizomucor miehei (RMIM) showed highest hydrolytic activity with 1.0 ml of added water volume except bitter gourd seed oil and palm mesocarp oil which has maximum hydrolytic activity with added water volume of 5 ml and 2.5 ml respectively. Before hydrolysis, all oil samples did not show inhibition ring zones (IRZ) on any of the tested bacteria strains (Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Hydrolyzed lady’s finger and bitter gourd seed oil showed IRZ on all tested bacteria strains; hydrolyzed mustard seed oil on S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes; hydrolyzed spinach seed oil and coconut oil on L. monocytogenes; hydrolyzed noni seed oil and palm mesocarp oil did not exhibit IRZ on any of the tested bacteria strains. Most of the hydrolyzed oil exhibit an inhibition activity that was different from their respective dominant fatty acids except noni seed oil and palm mesocarp oil.
Knowledge of physical characteristics of Malaysian variety pomelo fruits are necessary for the design of some post harvesting, processing systems such as cleaning, handling, grading and packaging system. For proper development of pomelo grading systems, important relationships between the mass and some physical characteristics of pomelo fruits such as length, width, thickness, surface area, projected areas and volumes must be known. The aim of this research was to measure physical characteristics of two Malaysian varieties of pomelo fruit; Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) varieties. In this study, the mass of pomelo fruit was evaluated and correlated to measure physical characteristics using Linear, Quadratic, S-curve and Power models. The results showed that the correlation of the mass of pomelo fruit with all measured physical characteristics was significant at the 0.01 probability level. In the nutshell, mass modeling of pomelo fruit for Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) varieties based on the projected area are recommended according to economical view.
This study is conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of betel leaves extract on color, pH and microbiological in homemade chili bo. The homemade chili bo with different concentrations (0 mg/ml, 0.75 mg/ml, 1.25 mg/ml and 1.75 mg/ml) of betel leaves extract were prepared for analysis. The results showed that the color of chili bo became darker as the concentration of betel leaves extract increased. The extract showed significant in the pH of chili bo after 7 days in which the highest concentration of extract showed the highest value of pH 4.31. The aerobic microbial count was decreased as the concentration of betel leaves extract increased in chili bo. After 7 days of storage, the highest concentration of betel leaves extract showed the highest percentage of reduction (6%), while the control sample showed 2.41% of aerobic reduction. The study also found that the extract contain lesser yeast and mold count (5.22 log CFU/ml) in homemade chili bo compared to the control sample (5.31 log CFU/ml) after 7 days. Betel leaves extract can be considered as natural food preservatives in chili bo to reduce the growth of spoilage microorganism and thus enhance the shelf life of chili bo.
The interest in dietary antioxidants which are mainly found in fruits, has prompted research in
the field of commercial high antioxidant juice for healthy purposes. Fruits also are rich with antioxidants that help in reducing of degenerative diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular
disease and inflammation. Based on the health claims from the natural antioxidants, a new healthy juice called Mixed Fruit Juice (MFJ) has been developed by using three combinations of local fruits (soursop, mango and kasturi lime). In order to promote the commercial use of this product, the safety evaluation is needed to be carried out. The 28-days repeated toxicity test has been conducted in female and male rats for pre-clinical safety assessment prior to human study. There was no mortality observed when varying doses of the MFJ (5, 10 and 20%) administered to all rats. Hematological analysis showed no significant differences in most parameters examined. There were no significant changes observed in the liver and kidney functions tests of all treated-rats as compared to control normal rats. Furthermore, lipid profiles and blood glucose level were also within the normal range as noted in control rats. The present data demonstrate that the supplementation of MFJ did not produce adverse effects on the body system of experimental rats. This is the first documented report on the safety assessment of
MFJ in rats.