Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 101 in total

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  1. Ameen Saleh Saleh Sherah, Mohd Hasni Jaafar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):597-605.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction An Analysis of a Survey Questionnaire on health care workers’ knowledge and practices regarding of infection control and complains them to apply universal precautions. Health care workers are at substantial risk of acquiring blood borne pathogen infections through exposure to blood or other products of patients. To assess of infection control among health care workers in Sana'a healthcare centers, Yemen.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the health center to assess knowledge and practices regarding of infection control among 237 health workers in Sana,a city. A structured self-administered questionnaires were used and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the associations were tested with chi-square, with p-value of < 0.05.
    Results The health care workers in public centers ware (51.1%) and (48.9%) of them works in private centers. One hundred and seventeen (49.4%) respondents had poor infection control knowledge, 113 (43.5%) had fair knowledge, and 17 (7.2%) had good knowledge. The knowledge was significantly associated with type of center (P < 0.018), such that the public center had the highest proportion with poor knowledge. And nurses and midwife having the highest proportion with fair knowledge of infection control. Eight (3.4%) respondents had a poor practice of universal precautions, 93 (39.2%) had fair practice, and 136 (57.4%) good practice. The practice was significantly associated with the profession, level of education and work experience (P < 0.001), (P < 0.006), (P < 0.001) respectively, and nurses and midwives as the profession with the highest proportion with good practice.
    Conclusion We conclude that the practices and knowledge of universal precautions were low and that's need for intensive programmes to educate health care workers on various aspects of standard precautions and infection control programmes and policies.
  2. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Jambai Endu, Chan, Ying Ying, Teh, Chien Huey, Hasimah Ismail, Lim, Kuang Hock, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):631-636.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Following the reveal of borderline iodine sufficiency among the Sarawakians
    from the 2008 National Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs) survey, a
    mandatory universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in Sarawak
    thereafter. This study aimed to determine the current status of USI in
    Sarawak after a 3-year implementation of USI from 2008 to 2011.

    Methods The IDD survey was conducted between Jun 2011 to July 2011 involving six
    districts in Sarawak (Sarikei, Mukah, Kapit, Sibu, Bintulu and Miri). The
    schools were selected via multistage proportionate-to-population size
    sampling technique and the children were randomly selected via systematic
    sampling. A total of 19 schools and 661 children were recruited into the
    survey. Thyroid size was determined by palpation and was and graded
    according to the classification of the World Health Organization (grade 0-2).
    The iodine excretion level in spot morning urine was measured using inhouse
    microplate method. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) values
    were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square tests were used to
    compare categorical variables.

    Results A total of 610 school children were participated in the study (92.3%). The
    TGR of grade 1 and 2 was found to be 0.3% (n = 2). Overall the median UIC
    level was 154.2 (IQR, 92.7 - 229.8) μg/L, with the highest median UIC been
    observed in Sarikei [178.0 (IQR, 117.6 - 308.9) μg/L], followed by Mukah
    [174.8 (IQR, 99.0 - 224.3) μg/L)], Miri [158.6 (IQR, 92.3 - 235.4) μg/L],
    Sibu [147.0 (IQR, 89.8 - 221.4) μg/L], Bintulu [142.3 (IQR, 52.8 - 245.1)
    μg/L] and Kapit [131.0 (IQR, 88.6 - 201.9) μg/L]. One in every ten child was
    of iodine deficient (UIC < 50μg/L) while a third of the child (32%) were of
    adequate level of UIC.

    Conclusion The present findings indicate that the mandatory USI successfully improves
    the iodine level of children in Sarawak. However, regular and proper
    monitoring of the UIC level in the communities is needed to prevent
    excessive iodine intake.
  3. Sukhvinder Singh Sandhu, Noor Hassim Ismail, Krishna Gopal Rampal
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):543-548.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Physical activity reduces risk of non-communicable diseases. Physical
    activity prevalence is low due to barriers to physical activity. This study was
    conducted to translate the Barrier to Physical Activity (BPA) questionnaire
    into Malay and assess the reliability and validity of the translated version
    among nurses.

    Methods The Malay version of BPA was developed after translating the English
    version of BPA through back to back translation process. The Malay BPA
    was distributed among 306 volunteered nurses from 5 government hospitals
    in Selangor state. Factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test and test – retest
    reliability was conducted to determine psychometric properties of BPA.

    Results Chronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79 for perceived benefits items and 0.51
    for perceived barrier items (overall was 0.73). The ICC was 0.88 (95% CI:
    0.78-0.93) for test-retest testing after 7 days. Two factors components were
    yielded through exploratory factor analysis with eigenvalues of 3.9 and 2.0
    respectively. Both the factors accounts for 31.4 % of the variance. Factor 1
    included 14 items and explained 19.9% of the variance. Factor 2 consisted of
    5 items and explained 11.5% of variance. CFA yielded two factor structures
    with acceptable goodness of fit indices [x2/df = 23.99; GFI = 0.82, SRMR =
    0.09; PNFI = 0.49 and RMSEA = 0.10 (90%CI = 0.09-0.11)].

    Conclusions The Malay version of BPA had demonstrated satisfactory level of validity
    and reliability to assess barriers to physical activity. Therefore, this
    questionnaire is valid in assessing barriers to physical activity among
    working population.
  4. How, Vivien, Zailina Hashim, Dzolkhifli Omar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):592-596.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction This paper aims to investigate the potential pesticide dermal contamination
    among the agricultural community by observing the microenvironmental and
    macroactivity interaction between farm children and adult farmer.

    Methods A 24 hours timeline activity was observed and recorded in the agricultural
    farming village, Kuala Selangor. In this study, 2 homes were monitored for 2
    days following a pesticide application. A total of 2 adult farmers and 5
    children (7-10 year old) were recruited to participate in this study. Twentyfour
    hour videotape segments and time-activity diaries were collected during
    the study.

    Results The microenvironment and macroactivity interaction were modelled in this
    study. By considering only the potential dermal exposure pathway, the
    different biological vulnerability and exposure pattern to pesticides were
    observed. Finding showed a greater extent of interaction between human and
    its environment, where adult farmers are the main contributor of
    environmental contaminants, and children is one of the vulnerable receivers
    of the contaminants’ residuals from the environment.

    Conclusion The daily activities and behaviors practiced by the agricultural community
    were among the contributing factors which help to highlight the pesticide
    dermal contamination pathway in the farming village. This study
    recommends the necessary to consider the microenvironment and
    macroactivity of the target community when assess their exposure levels to
    the environment contaminants.
  5. Norsham Shamsuddin, Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria, Rahman Jamal, Poh, Bee Koon, Mohd Ismail Noor
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):643-653.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Validation of instruments is essential when assessing physical activity (PA).
    The aim of this study was to validate a Malay language version of the
    International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-M) against Actical
    accelerometer and to determine its reliability and validity.

    Methods A total of 90 Malay adults aged 35-65 years old participating in The
    Malaysian Cohort project were recruited for this study. The IPAQ-M is
    comprised of 12 items, covering vigorous, moderate, walking, sitting and
    sleeping activities, and was administered on two occasions (Day 1 and Day 9)
    by interviewing the participants. Participants wore the Actical accelerometer
    for seven consecutive days between the two interview sessions.

    Results Validity tests showed that time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity
    (MVPA) (min wk-1) from IPAQ-M was significantly correlated with MVPA
    from accelerometer (=0.32, p
  6. Sanaz Aazami, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Syaqirah Akmal
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):606-612.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Family satisfaction is referred to the extent in which family members feel
    happy and fulfilled with each other. However, there has been lack of
    evidences on the family satisfaction scale within the Malaysian context.
    Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess validity of the Malay version of
    the Olson’s Family Satisfaction Scale. This is to allow Malaysian researchers
    to bring family satisfaction in line with the different field of studies.

    Methods This study was conducted among 567 Malaysian working women. Data were
    collected using self-administrated questionnaires. This study conducted
    exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity and internal
    consistency using Cronbach’s alpha.

    Results The findings of this study support the uni-dimensionality of the Malay
    version of the family satisfaction scale. The 10 items of the scale account for
    68.1% of the total variance and the un-rotated factor loadings ranged from
    0.76 to 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis was run and supported the
    structure of family satisfaction scale. The results of confirmatory factor
    analysis using AMOS 21 in the current study reported the following indices:
    RMSEA= 0.06, CFI= 0.94, NFI= 0.94, TLI= 0.93. The convergent validity
    (average variance extracted= 0.65) and the internal consistency (Cronbach’s
    alpha= 0.94) of this construct were adequately supported.

    Conclusions The findings support the factor structure, convergent validity and the internal
    consistency of the examined construct. Therefore, Malay version of the
    family satisfaction scale is a valid and reliable instrument among Malaysian
    working women.
  7. Muhammad Adil Zainal Abidin, Hayati Kadi @ Shahar, Rosliza Abdul Manaf
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):774-782.
    MyJurnal
    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of non-communicable disease mortality worldwide. Therefore, effort for the effective measure in smoking cessation is important. However, the central problem in the nicotine addiction treatment is relapse. A retrospective cohort study was done at Tanglin Quit Smoking Clinic to determine the outcome of smoking cessation and its predictors. A cohort of 770 smokers between 2008 and 2015 were identified through simple random sampling. Smokers were defined as current smoker, while smoking abstinence is defined as cessation more than 6 months and relapse as any smoking episode even a puff since the quit date. Majority were Malays, Muslims and had secondary or higher education. The mean initiating age for smoking was 17.6 years old, with majority smoke between 11 to 20 sticks, and had high nicotine dependence score (43%). At the end of the study 52.5% of them abstinence from smoking. The predictors for smoking cessation were number of quit attempt (1 to 10 times) (AOR = 1.582, 95% CI = 1.012-2.472) and pharmacotherapy (AOR = 0.711, 95% CI=0.511-0.989). More frequent follow up was required during the first crucial 6 months to prevent relapse. Number of follow up can enhance not only the medication compliance but also motivational aspect to smokers to reduce relapse rates. Healthcare provider should give extra attention to the potential relapser especially to those who attempt for the first time.
    Keywords: Malaysia, Quit Smoking Clinic, Smoking Cessation, Cohort, Survival analysis
  8. Kamal Kenny, Zoharah Omar, El Sheila Kanavathi, Priya Madhavan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):765-773.
    MyJurnal
    Health care systems play a vital role in providing health services and in optimising the population’s health of each nation. The Malaysian health care system primarily consists of the public and private health services. One of the prominent private health care services offered in the General Practitioner’s (GP) Clinic. Despite the prominent role GPs play in the health care system in this country, little is known about their practices, the issues and challenges faced by GPs in this country. The objective of this study was to describe the current GP practice operations in Malaysia in terms of its general operations, financial expenditure and revenue, market competitiveness and laboratory services offered by the clinics.
  9. Fateh Addin Nejm Addin Al-Emad, Zaleha Md. Isa
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):783-790.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of secondary school students in Sana'a Yemen related to exposure to second-hand smoking.
  10. Narwani Hussin, Hafizah Jumat, Mabelle Wong, Liau Siow Yen, Jeremy Robert Jinuin Jimin, Beh Boon Cong, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):757-764.
    MyJurnal
    Rheumatic heart disease is still endemic in developing countries and among the indigenous population in developed countries. However, there is no comprehensive data on rheumatic heart disease patients in Malaysia. The Cardiology Department of Queen Elizabeth ll Hospital (QEH ll), Sabah started this hospital-based registry in 2010. The objective of this analysis was to report the demographic profile, severity of disease, types of valve involvement and the practice of secondary prophylaxis among these patients.
  11. Narwani Hussin, Wong, Mabelle, Liew, Houng Bang, Liau, Siow Yen
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):736-740.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) has been thought as a disease of poor socioeconomic status. It is more prevalent in underdeveloped and developing countries than in developed countries. It is also common among the population with multiple social issues such as overcrowded dwellings, undernutrition, poor sanitation and suboptimal medical care. This study was done to review the socio demographic profiles of RHD patients in Hospital Queen Elizabeth (HQE) II, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
    Methods: A secondary data review of all patients registered under the RHD registry in HQE II for one- year starting from July 2013 to June 2014.
    Results: 204 RHD patients were included. Nearly three quarter (74.0%) were female. The mean age was 40.43 (14.75) years old. 61.1% has completed secondary
    education. 42.7% were housewives. The mean monthly income was RM 1363.83 (1297.05) which was categorized under the vulnerable income group. When they were categorized under the poverty level and the vulnerable income group, 42.6% and 76.5% of them fell under those categories respectively. The nearest health facilities to their houses were district hospitals (33.3%) with the mean distance of 9.17 km and health clinics (30.8%) with the mean distance of 4.27 km. Only 11.5% of them lived near the specialist hospitals with the mean distance of 21.32 km.
    Conclusions: Results from this review suggested that majority of RHD patients were in the low socioeconomic group with less access to health care facilities with specialist care. They are the most vulnerable groups and need to be prioritized in the specialized care program. .
  12. Shamzaeffa Samsudin, Norehan Abdullah, Shri Dewi Applanaidu
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):741-749.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Malaysia shows a
    rising trend that influences the society in many respects. Country specific
    evidence is vital for effective intervention. The aims of this study were to
    identify the role of gender and urbanisation status on NCDs prevalence and
    its effect on health care demand, specifically doctor visits among elderly in
    Malaysia. We focused on two of the highest occurrence NCDs in the country
    – diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Methods A total of 1,414 respondents aged 60 years and above were selected using a
    multistage sampling for face-to-face interview. We started the analysis with
    descriptive analysis of the prevalence, taking the effect of gender and
    urbanisation status of residing area. We extended the study with parametric
    analysis to find the effect of these health problems on the likelihood of doctor
    visits as it reflects the equity for access and utilisation issues.

    Results Results showed that there were no significant difference of prevalence by
    gender and urbanisation for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. By utilising
    probit model, we found that those with diabetes mellitus or hypertension,
    controlling for other variables, were more likely to utilise doctor services.

    Conclusion This result implies that the prevalence of NCDs may further increase demand
    for health care, especially in the state with a high proportion of older age
    groups.
  13. Balsam Mahdi Nasir Al-Zurfi, Maher D. Fuad Fuad, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Mohammed A. AbdalQader, Maged Elnajeh, Mohammed Faez Baobaid
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):750-756.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Drug abuse has been a global threat not only in Malaysia but worldwide,
    especially among adolescents. This is alarming issue had been a serious
    public health problem worldwide. The aim of the study is to access the
    knowledge and attitude on drug abuse among Pahang Matriculation students
    in 2016.

    Methods A cross¬-sectional study was conducted involving 217 matriculation
    students. A self-determined questionnaire was distributed among the students
    regarding knowledge and attitude about drugs.

    Results The prevalence of good knowledge on drug abuse was (82.03%). The
    prevalence of students’ attitude on drug abuse has higher number of good
    attitude with the sum of 182 (83.9 %). Only gender showed a significant
    association with students’ knowledge (P= 0.046).

    Conclusion The knowledge, attitude, and practice of drug abuse among Pahang
    Matriculation students are good.
  14. Hasimah Ismail, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Mohammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Lim, Kuang Kuay, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):677-684.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide
    and many of these affected individuals remain unidentified. Undiagnosed
    T2DM may impose substantial public health implications because these
    individuals remain untreated and at risk for complications. The objective of
    this study was to determine the national prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM
    and to identify the associated risk factors.

    Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted involving 17,783
    respondents. Two-stage stratified sampling design was used to select a
    representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Structured
    validated questionnaires with face to face interviews were used to obtain
    data. Respondents, who claimed that they were not having diabetes, were
    then asked to perform a fasting blood glucose finger-prick test by Accutrend
    GC machine.

    Results The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was 8.9% (n=1587). The highest
    percentage of undiagnosed T2DM was found among males (10.2%), 55-59
    years old (13.4%), highest education attainers of primary school (11.1%),
    Indians (10.3%), married (10.3%), working (8.9%) and living in the urban
    areas (9.2%). Multivariate analyses showed that factors associated with
    undiagnosed T2DM were gender, age group, ethnicity, marital status, obesity
    and hypertension.

    Conclusion This study found an increasing trend of undiagnosed T2DM in Malaysia
    compared to 2006. This finding is alarming as risk factors associated with
    undiagnosed diabetes were related to most of the socio-demographic factors
    studied. Therefore, early diabetic screening is crucial especially among adults
    aged 30 and above to prevent more serious complications of this disease.
  15. Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Mala A. Manickam, Azli Baharudin, Rusidah Selamat, Kee, Chee Cheong, Noor Ani Ahmad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):661-669.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Overweight and obesity is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Malaysian adult population and their association with socio-demographic characteristics (gender, ethnic, and age groups).
    Methods A total of 17,257 adults aged 18 years and older (8,252 men, 9,005 women)
    were assessed for BMI status, with a response rate of 97.8%, through a household survey from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), conducted in all states of Malaysia in 2011.
    Results All socio-demographic factors were consistently associated with higher chance of being overweight (except gender and location) and obesity (except location and household income). The identified risk of overweight were
    Indian (aOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8), aged 50-59 years (aOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 2.0-3.9), widower (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0), subject with secondary education (aOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4), Homemaker/unpaid worker (aOR:
    1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), and with high household income group (aOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6). The identified risk of obesity were women (aOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), Indian (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2), aged 30-39 years (aOR: 3.6,
    95% CI: 2.4-5.5), widower (aOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.6), subjects with primary education (aOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.6), Homemaker/unpaid worker (aOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), and with middle household income group (aOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6).
    Conclusions Our data indicate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the
    population. Several sociodemographic characteristics are associated with both overweight and obesity. This study highlights the serious problem ofoverweight and obesity among Malaysia adults. Documentation of these problems may lead to research and policy agendas that will contribute both to our understanding and to the reduction of these problems.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
  16. Norlen Mohamed, Lokman Hakim Sulaiman, Thahirahtul Asma Zakaria, Anis Salwa Kamarudin, Daud Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):685-694.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction During haze, at what level should Air Pollutant Index (API) showed, public
    or private school be closed is not without controversy and is very much
    debated. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to objectively quantify the
    potential inhaled dose of PM10 associated with exposure at school and home
    microenvironments during haze. The result of the health risk assessment will
    be used to propose the API level for closing the school during haze episode.

    Methods A hypothetical haze exposure scenario was created using the breakpoints of
    PM10 concentration for calculation of API and respective inhaled dose during
    haze. To determine the potential inhaled dose, we have considered many
    factors that include time spent for specific physical intensity at school and
    home microenvironments, age-specific and physical intensity-specific
    inhalation rate (m3/min), and the indoor/outdoor ratio of PM10. To calculate
    risk quotient (RQ), the inhaled dose was compared with the health reference
    dose computed based on the concentration of PM10 in the Malaysian
    Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    Results When considering the specific exposure at each microenvironment (school
    and home), the potential inhaled dose of PM10 was substantially lower when
    school is closed for both primary and secondary school. The calculated risk
    quotient (RQ) indicates that primary school children are likely to be affected
    at slightly lower PM10 concentration (equivalent to API of 197) as compared
    to secondary school children. Short duration of high physical activity
    intensity during school breaks has contributed to a large proportion of inhaled
    dose among school children indicating the important to avoid physical
    activities during haze.

    Conclusion Based on the assessment, taking into account the uncertainty of risk
    assessment methodology, we proposed school to be closed when API reach
    190 for both primary and secondary schools. These findings and
    recommendations are only valid for naturally ventilated school and applicable
    in the context of the current API calculation system and the existing
    Recommended Air Quality Guideline values in Malaysia.
  17. Abdulrahman Al Aizary, Faiz Daud
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):700-706.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Prolonged mechanical ventilation among cardiac surgery patient has been
    found to be correlated with negative clinical outcome and increased
    healthcare resources utilization. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV)
    was defined as the accumulative duration of 24 hours or more of
    postoperative endotracheal intubation starting from transfer of the patient to
    cardiac ICU. This study is aimed to identify the risk factors preoperative,
    intra operative and postoperative for prolonged ventilation among cardiac
    patients in AL-Thawra Modern General Hospital (TMGH).

    Methods Observational study design was conducted during a two-month period (from
    1 August 2014 to 30 September 2014). It was among 70 patients who were
    admitted to cardiac surgery intensive care unit in Al-Thawra Modern General
    Hospital and selected by convenient sampling. The soci-demographic
    characteristic and clinical patient data were collected using short
    questionnaire developed by researcher. All patients had the same anesthetic
    and postoperative management. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS
    version 20 and using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression.
    The p-value of < 0.05 was found to be statistically significant.

    Results Incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilator post cardiac surgery was 37.1%
    (26/70) through bivariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Low
    Ejection fraction of Left Ventricle was inversely related to mechanical
    ventilation time (AOR= 0.872) with 95% confidence interval [0.790 - 0.963],
    hemodynamic instability were associated with prolonged mechanical
    ventilation time (AOR=16.35) with 95% confidence interval [2.558 -
    104.556].

    Conclusion Low ejection fraction of Left Ventricle and Hemodynamic Instability post
    operation were identified risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation
    post cardiac surgery.
  18. Norfazillah Ab Manan, Rozita Hod, Hanizah Mohd Yusoff, Mazrura Sahani, Rosnah Ismail, Wan Rozita Wan Mahiyuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):707-712.
    MyJurnal
    Air pollution has been widely known to have an influence on health of the general population.
    Air pollution can result from natural causes, human activities and transboundary air pollution.
    Weather and climate play crucial role in determining the pattern of air quality. In recent years,
    air pollution and recurrent episodes of haze has become a major concern in Malaysia.
    Surveillance data on concentrations of main air pollutants such as carbon dioxide, (CO2),
    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10)
    were found to be higher during the haze days and this may have an impact on health of the
    community as reflected by an increase in hospital admissions particularly the respiratory and
    cardiovascular diseases.
  19. Zahir Izuan Azhar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Tan, Susan, M.K., Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):713-718.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The risk factors associated with mental health among adolescents are usually
    described by researchers at an individual level. Neighbourhood factors and
    health have opened a new insight into the field of epidemiology. The aim of
    this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a newly developed
    Neighbourhood Factors on Mental Health Questionnaire among Malaysian
    adolescents.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Kuala
    Lumpur, Malaysia using a newly developed questionnaire which comprised
    of two main domains and seven items. Exploratory factor analysis and
    Cronbach‟s alpha were used to measure the instrument‟s construct validity
    and reliability.

    Results A total of 106 adolescents participated in this research. The majority of
    adolescents were 13 years old (40.6%), female (55.7%), Malays (68.9%),
    have parents who only studied until secondary school (66.0%) and lived in
    flats (32.1%). Bartlett‟s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi-square =
    258.361, p
  20. Nor Azian Mohd Zaki, Norhafizah Sahril, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Muhammad Hasnan Ahmad, Azli Baharudin, Noor Safiza Mohd Nor
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):670-676.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Physical activity assessment in children is the first step in assessing the
    relationship between activity and health, as well as the determinants of
    childhood physical activity and changes in activity level.Physical Activity
    Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) is self- administered
    questionnaire to assess physical activity among older children. The objective
    of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of Physical Activity
    Questionnaire for Older Children in Malay language PAQ-C (M).

    Methods The validation study was done among 73 students aged 10 to 17 years old.
    The PAQ-C was translated into Malay language using forward and backward
    translation. The evaluation of the psychometric properties included internal
    consistency, test-retest reliability and criterion validity. Reliability of PAQ-C
    (M) was determined using Cronbach alpha and intra-class correlation
    coefficient (ICC). The PAQ-C (M) was administered twice in one week
    interval to assess test-retest reliability. Criterion validity was assessed
    between PAQ-C (M) and 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR).

    Results The internal consistency of PAQ-C (M) assessment calculated in this study
    was α = 0.75 and α = 0.77 for assessments one and two, respectively. The
    ICC between individual items of PAQ-C (M) was 0.59 to 0.91, indicating
    moderate to good correlation. The Spearmen correlation coefficient between
    PAQ-C (M) and 3DPARwas acceptable (r=0.60, p
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