Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 118 in total

  1. Khor YP, Sim BI, Abas F, Lai OM, Wang Y, Nehdi IA, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Dec;99(15):6989-6997.
    PMID: 31414493 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9989
    BACKGROUND: Recycled oil has emerged as a significant food safety issue and poses a major threat to public health. To date, very limited studies have been conducted aiming to detect the adulteration of used and recycled palm olein in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO). In the present study, oil samples that underwent controlled heating and deep-frying studies were refined using the common oil refining procedure to simulate the production of recycled oil. Polymerized triacylglycerol (PTG), oxidized monomeric triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), such as epoxy, keto and hydroxy acids, and caprylic acid have been proposed as potential indicators for tracking the adulteration of recycled oil.

    RESULTS: For PTG, triacylglycerol oligomers and dimers showed a significant increase (P 

  2. Onwude DI, Hashim N, Chen G, Putranto A, Udoenoh NR
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jan 30;101(2):398-413.
    PMID: 32627847 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10649
    BACKGROUND: Combined infrared (CIR) and convective drying is a promising technology in dehydrating heat-sensitive foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This novel thermal drying method, which involves the application of infrared energy and hot air during a drying process, can drastically enhance energy efficiency and improve overall product quality at the end of the process. Understanding the dynamics of what goes on inside the product during drying is important for further development, optimization, and upscaling of the drying method. In this study, a multiphase porous media model considering liquid water, gases, and solid matrix was developed for the CIR and hot-air drying (HAD) of sweet potato slices in order to capture the relevant physics and obtain an in-depth insight on the drying process. The model was simulated using Matlab with user-friendly graphical user interface for easy coupling and faster computational time.

    RESULTS: The gas pressure for CIR-HAD was higher centrally and decreased gradually towards the surface of the product. This implies that drying force is stronger at the product core than at the product surface. A phase change from liquid water to vapour occurs almost immediately after the start of the drying process for CIR-HAD. The evaporation rate, as expected, was observed to increase with increased drying time. Evaporation during CIR-HAD increased with increasing distance from the centreline of the sample surface. The simulation results of water and vapour flux revealed that moisture transport around the surfaces and sides of the sample is as a result of capillary diffusion, binary diffusion, and gas pressure in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The nonuniform dominant infrared heating caused the heterogeneous distribution of product temperature. These results suggest that CIR-HAD of food occurs in a non-uniform manner with high vapour and water concentration gradient between the product core and the surface.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in-depth insight into the physics and phase changes of food during CIR-HAD. The multiphase model has the advantage that phase change and impact of CIR-HAD operating parameters can be swiftly quantified. Such a modelling approach is thereby significant for further development and process optimization of CIR-HAD towards industrial upscaling. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Nasaruddin N, Jinap S, Samsudin NI, Kamarulzaman NH, Sanny M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Mar 30;101(5):1812-1821.
    PMID: 32893877 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10795
    BACKGROUND: Corn, a main feed ingredient in the livestock industry, is one of the most susceptible crops to fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination. Livestock feeding on aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated feed have been shown to experience feed refusal, and decreased growth rate, milk production, and feed efficiency. In poultry, AF poisoning causes weight loss, poor feed efficiency, and reduced egg production and egg weight. The present work therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of mycotoxigenic fungi and the occurrence of AF contamination along the integrated corn-based poultry feed supply chain in Malaysia. A total of 51 samples were collected from different points along the feed supply chain from integrated poultry feed companies. The samples were subjected to mycological analyses (fungal isolation, enumeration, identification), and AFs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD).

    RESULTS: Samples collected from sampling point 1 (company A) and sampling point 9 (company B) yielded the highest total fungal load (>log 4 CFU g-1 ). The prevalent fungal genera isolated were Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 8.3% of corn samples, and 7.4% of corn-based poultry feed samples along the feed supply chain, whereas AFs B2 , G1 , and G2 were not detected.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of mycotoxigenic fungi along the integrated poultry feed supply chain warrant continuous monitoring of mycotoxin contamination to reduce the exposure risk of mycotoxin intake in poultry. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Nayan N, van Erven G, Kabel MA, Sonnenberg AS, Hendriks WH, Cone JW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Jun;99(8):4054-4062.
    PMID: 30737799 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9634
    BACKGROUND: White rot fungi have been used to improve the nutritive value of lignocellulose for ruminants. In feed analysis, the Van Soest method is widely used to determine the cell wall contents. To assess the reliability of this method (Method A) for determination of cell wall contents in fungal-treated wheat straw, we compared a combined monosaccharide analysis and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) (Method B). Ruminal digestibility, measured as in vitro gas production (IVGP), was subsequently used to examine which method explains best the effect of fungal pretreatment on the digestibility of wheat straw.

    RESULTS: Both methods differed considerably in the mass recoveries of the individual cell wall components, which changed on how we assess their degradation characteristics. For example, Method B gave a higher degradation of lignin (61.9%), as compared to Method A (33.2%). Method A, however, showed a better correlation of IVGP with the ratio of lignin to total structural carbohydrates, as compared to Method B (Pearson's r of -0.84 versus -0.69). Nevertheless, Method B provides a more accurate quantification of lignin, reflecting its actual modification and degradation. With the information on the lignin structural features, Method B presents a substantial advantage in understanding the underlying mechanisms of lignin breakdown. Both methods, however, could not accurately quantify the cellulose contents - among others, due to interference of fungal biomass.

    CONCLUSION: Method A only accounts for the recalcitrant residue and therefore is more suitable for evaluating ruminal digestibility. Method B allows a more accurate quantification of cell wall, required to understand and better explains the actual modification of the cell wall. The suitability of both methods, therefore, depends on their intended purposes. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Wei J, Ren W, Wang L, Liu M, Tian X, Ding G, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Dec;100(15):5627-5636.
    PMID: 32712996 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10690
    BACKGROUND: Serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food, possesses unique flavors and health beneficial effects. These properties are likely due to the sophisticated metabolic networks during fermentation, which are mainly driven by microbiota. However, the exact roles of metabolic pathways and the microbial community during this process remain equivocal.

    RESULTS: Here, we investigated the microbial dynamics by next-generation sequencing, and outlined a differential non-targeted metabolite profiling in the process of serofluid dish fermentation using the method of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Lactobacillus was the leading genus of bacteria, while Pichia and Issatchenkia were the dominant fungi. They all accumulated during fermentation. In total, 218 differential metabolites were identified, of which organic acids, amino acids, sugar and sugar alcohols, fatty acids, and esters comprised the majority. The constructed metabolic network showed that tricarboxylic acid cycle, urea cycle, sugar metabolism, amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism, and flavonoid metabolism were regulated by the fermentation. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that the leading fungi, Pichia and Issatchenkia, were linked to organic acids, amino acid and sugar metabolism, flavonoids, and several other flavor and functional components. Antibacterial tests indicated the antibacterial effect of serofluid soup against Salmonella and Staphylococcus.

    CONCLUSION: This work provides new insights into the complex microbial and metabolic networks during serofluid dish fermentation, and a theoretical basis for the optimization of its industrial production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Soo YN, Tan CP, Tan PY, Khalid N, Tan TB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Apr;101(6):2455-2462.
    PMID: 33034060 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10871
    BACKGROUND: The popularity of coffee, the second most consumed beverage in the world, contributes to the high demand for liquid non-dairy creamer (LNDC). In this study, palm olein emulsions (as LNDCs) were investigated as alternatives to the more common soybean oil-based LNDCs. LNDCs were prepared via different homogenization pressures (100-300 bar) using different types of oil (palm olein and soybean oil) and concentrations of DATEM emulsifier (5-20 g kg-1 ).

    RESULTS: Increases in homogenization pressure and emulsifier concentration were observed to have significant (P  0.05) differences between the prepared and commercial LNDCs in terms of their color, appearance, and overall acceptability.

    CONCLUSION: Shelf-stable LNDCs with qualities comparable to commercial LNDC were successfully fabricated. Valuable insights into the effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration, as well as functionality and consumer acceptance of the LNDCs when added into black coffee, were obtained. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Asghar MT, Yusof YA, Mokhtar MN, Yaacob ME, Ghazali HM, Varith J, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Aug;100(10):4012-4019.
    PMID: 32337729 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10446
    BACKGROUND: Coconut sugar has a caramel color with a taste like brown sugar. It is commonly used as natural sweetener. However, coconut sugar has been produced from coconut sap using a traditional method that involves heating the sap at high temperature (>100 °C) in an open pan for a long period (3-5 h). This conventional method results in an over-cooked sugar, which leads to quality deterioration in terms of both its physical and chemical properties. The current study aimed to investigate the processing of coconut sap into sugar syrup using alternative processing techniques such as rotary vacuum evaporation (RE) and microwave evaporation (ME), comparing them with open-heat evaporation (OHE) technique.

    RESULTS: Coconut sugar syrup produced by rotary evaporation at 60 °C and 250 mbar vacuum (RE-60) required the shortest production time (12.2 min) and the lowest processing temperature (54.8 °C) when compared with ME (13 min and 103.2 °C) and OHE (46.8 min and 101.6 °C). It also had a light brownish color with a higher L* value (35.17) than the ME (29.84) and OHE (23.84) methods. It was found to contain higher amounts of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) and lower amounts of disaccharides (sucrose). Furthermore, the amount of energy required for RE-60 (0.35 kWh) was much less than for OHE (0.83 kWh).

    CONCLUSION: This study provided an alternative processing method for the sugar processing industry to produce coconut sugar using the rotary evaporation method at 60 °C under 250 mbar vacuum with better physicochemical qualities, shorter processing time, and minimum input energy. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Murtey MD, Seeni A
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Sep;100(12):4347-4352.
    PMID: 32248531 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10406
    Rice serves as a staple food for one-half of the global population. However, rice production, particularly the rice milling process, results in a substantial amount of paddy waste products (e.g. bran, husk and straw) annually. Because the potentials of bran have been extensively explored in prior studies, the present review focuses exclusively on the phytochemical analysis and pharmacological potentials of husk and straw. This comprehensive review establishes a solid foundation for promoting husk and straw as medicinal substances given their promising pharmacological potentials as bioactive compound sources with therapeutic functions. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
  9. Ling JWA, Chang LS, Babji AS, Lim SJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Oct;100(13):4714-4722.
    PMID: 32468613 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10530
    BACKGROUND: Processing of edible bird's nest (EBN) requires extensive washing to remove impurities and produces huge amounts of EBN co-products, which contain mainly feathers with glycoproteins attached, which are usually discarded. This study was conducted to recover the valuable EBN glycoproteins from the waste material. Enzymatic hydrolysis was applied to recover EBN glycopeptides from EBN co-products (EBNcoP ) and processed cleaned EBN (EBNclean ) was used as control, which were then freeze-dried into EBN hydrolysates (EBNhcoP and EBNhclean , respectively).

    RESULTS: The recovery yield for EBNhclean and EBNhcoP were 89.09 ± 0.01% and 47.64 ± 0.26%, respectively, indicating nearly 50% of glycopeptide can be recovered from the waste material. Meanwhile, N-acetylneuraminic acid, a major acid sugar in EBN glycoproteins, of EBNhcoP increased by 229% from 58.6 ± 3.9 to 192.9 ± 3.1 g kg-1 , indicating the enzymatic hydrolysis removed impurities and thus enhanced the N-acetylneuraminic acid content. Total soluble protein was more than 330 g kg-1 for all the samples. Colour parameter showed that hydrolysate samples have greater L* (lightness) values. Chroma result indicates the intensity of all the samples were low (

  10. Soo YT, Ng SW, Tang TK, Ab Karim NA, Phuah ET, Lee YY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Aug 15;101(10):4161-4172.
    PMID: 33428211 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11054
    BACKGROUND: Palm pressed fibre (PPF) is a cellulose-rich biomass residue produced during palm oil extraction. Its high cellulose content allows the isolation of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC has attracted scientific interest due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility and low cost. The present study isolated CNC from PPF using a cation exchange resin, which is an environmentally friendly and less harsh hydrolysis method than conventional mineral acid hydrolysis. Isolated CNC was used to stabilise an oil-in-water emulsion and the emulsion stability was evaluated in terms of droplet size, morphology and physical stability.

    RESULTS: PPF was subjected to alkali and bleach treatment prior to hydrolysis, which successfully removed 54% and 75% of non-cellulosic components (hemicellulose and lignin, respectively). Hydrolysis conditions of 5 h, 15:1 (w/w) resin-to-pulp ratio and 50 °C produced CNC particles of 50-100 nm in length. CNC had a crystallinity index of 42% and appeared rod-like morphologically. CNC-stabilised emulsion had better stability when used in combination with soy lecithin (SL), a well-established, commonly used food stabiliser. Emulsion stabilised by the binary mixture of CNC and SL had droplet size, morphology and physical stability comparable to those of emulsion stabilised using SL.

    CONCLUSIONS: CNC was successfully isolated from PPF through a cation exchange resin. This offers an alternative usage for the underutilised PPF to be converted into value-added products. Isolated CNC was also found to have promising potential in the stabilisation of Pickering emulsions. These results provide useful information indicating CNC as a natural and sustainable stabiliser for food, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Ojukwu M, Ofoedu C, Seow EK, Easa AM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jul;101(9):3732-3741.
    PMID: 33301191 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11004
    BACKGROUND: Rice flour does not contain gluten and lacks cohesion and extensibility, which is responsible for the poor texture of rice noodles. Different technologies have been used to mitigate this challenge, including hydrothermal treatments of rice flour, direct addition of protein in noodles, use of additives such as hydrocolloids and alginates, and microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Recently, the inclusion of soy protein isolate (SPI), MTG, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) in the rice noodles system yielded rice noodles with improved texture and more compact microstructure, hence the need to optimize the addition of SPI, MTG, and GDL to make quality rice noodles.

    RESULTS: Numerical optimization showed that rice noodles prepared with SPI, 68.32 (g kg-1 of rice flour), MTG, 5.06 (g kg-1 of rice flour) and GDL, 5.0 (g kg-1 of rice flour) gave the best response variables; hardness (53.19 N), springiness (0.76), chewiness (20.28 J), tensile strength (60.35 kPa), and cooking time (5.15 min). The pH, sensory, and microstructure results showed that the optimized rice noodles had a more compact microstructure with fewer hollows, optimum pH for MTG action, and overall sensory panelists also showed the highest preference for the optimized formulation, compared to other samples selected from the numerical optimization and desirability tests.

    CONCLUSION: Optimization of the levels of SPI, MTG, and GDL yielded quality noodles with improved textural, mechanical, sensory, and microstructural properties. This was partly due to the favourable pH value of the optimized noodles that provided the most suitable conditions for MTG crosslinking and balanced electrostatic interaction of proteins. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Ahmad Loti NN, Mohd Noor MR, Chang SW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jul;101(9):3582-3594.
    PMID: 33275806 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10987
    BACKGROUND: Chili is one of the most important and high-value vegetable crops worldwide. However, pest and disease infections are among the main limiting factors in chili cultivation. These diseases cannot be eradicated but can be handled and monitored to mitigate the damage. Hence, the use of an automated identification system based on images will promote quick identification of chili disease. The features extracted from the images are of utmost importance to develop such an accurate identification system.

    RESULTS: In this research, chili pest and disease features extracted using the traditional approach were compared with features extracted using a deep-learning-based approach. A total of 974 chili leaf images were collected, which consisted of five types of diseases, two types of pest infestations, and a healthy type. Six traditional feature-based approaches and six deep-learning feature-based approaches were used to extract significant pests and disease features from the chili leaf images. The extracted features were fed into three machine learning classifiers, namely a support vector machine (SVM), a random forest (RF), and an artificial neural network (ANN) for the identification task. The results showed that deep learning feature-based approaches performed better than the traditional feature-based approaches. The best accuracy of 92.10% was obtained with the SVM classifier.

    CONCLUSION: A deep-learning feature-based approach could capture the details and characteristics between different types of chili pests and diseases even though they possessed similar visual patterns and symptoms. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Mustapa MAC, Batcha MFN, Amin L, Arham AF, Mahadi Z, Yusoff NAM, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Oct;101(13):5457-5468.
    PMID: 33709409 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11194
    BACKGROUND: Genetically modified (GM) crops have become a controversial global issue since their commercialization in 1996. However, despite technological advancements, only a few studies have investigated farmers' attitudes towards GM crops in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to analyse such attitudes and their determining factors. A validated questionnaire was distributed to farmers in the Cameron Highlands, Pahang (n = 176). SPSS software was used to analyse the descriptive statistics of the farmers' attitudes to GM crops, while SmartPLS software was used to determine the predictors.

    RESULTS: Descriptive analysis shows that the farmers claimed to have a high level of self-efficacy, and perceived GM crops as possessing high benefits which translate into a highly positive attitude towards GM crops. However, at the same time, they rated GM crops as involving moderate risks and would incur moderate costs to farm, as well as acknowledging a low level of support from the government. The structural equation model (SEM) analysis demonstrates that five factors have been identified as direct predictors of attitude to GM crops: government support (ß = 0.364, P 

  14. Abdul Manan SF, Li J, Hsieh CF, Faubion J, Shi YC
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Sep 08.
    PMID: 34498279 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11523
    BACKGROUND: Lipids account for 2.0-2.5% of wheat flour by dry weight and affect properties and quality of cereal foods. A new method was developed to extract non-starch lipids from wheat flour. Wheat flour was first hydrolyzed with a protease and followed by extraction of non-starch lipids by water-saturated butanol (WSB).

    RESULT: Protein hydrolysis by protease followed by extraction of non-starch lipids with WSB increased yield to 1.9 ± 0.3% from 1.0 ± 0.1% with no protease treatment. The lipid profile showed a significant increase in phospholipid compounds extracted with protease hydrolysis (5.9 ± 0.8 nmol·g-1 ) versus without enzymatic treatment (2.4 ± 1.3 nmol g-1 ).

    CONCLUSION: Improved lipid extraction yield and phospholipid compounds following protease-assisted extraction method provided additional insight towards the understanding of protein-lipid interaction in wheat flour. The new protease-assisted extraction method may be applied to analyzing non-starch lipids in other types of wheat flours and other cereal flours. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Tan PY, Tan TB, Chang HW, Mwangi WW, Tey BT, Chan ES, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Nov;101(14):5963-5971.
    PMID: 33840091 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11249
    BACKGROUND: Throughout the past decade, Pickering emulsion has been increasingly utilized for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds due to its high stability and biocompatibility. In the present work, palm tocotrienols were initially encapsulated in a calcium carbonate Pickering emulsion, which was then subjected to alginate gelation and subsequent chitosan coating. The effects of wall material (alginate and chitosan) concentrations, gelation pH and time, and chitosan coating time on the encapsulation efficiency of palm tocotrienols were explored.

    RESULTS: Our findings revealed that uncoated alginate microcapsules ruptured upon drying and exhibited low encapsulation efficiency (13.81 ± 2.76%). However, the addition of chitosan successfully provided a more complex and rigid external wall structure to enhance the stability of the microcapsules. By prolonging the crosslinking time from 5 to 30 min and increasing the chitosan concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%, the oil encapsulation efficiency was increased by 28%. Under the right gelation pH (pH 4), the extension of gelation time from 1 to 12 h resulted in an increase in alginate-Ca2+ crosslinkings, thus strengthening the microcapsules.

    CONCLUSION: With the optimum formulation and process parameters, a high encapsulation efficiency (81.49 ± 1.75%) with an elevated oil loading efficiency (63.58 ± 2.96%) were achieved. The final product is biocompatible and can potentially be used for the delivery of palm tocotrienols. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Kuan YH, Nafchi AM, Huda N, Ariffin F, Karim AA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(5):1663-1671.
    PMID: 27465360 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7970
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that duck feet are a rich source of gelatin extractable from avian sources. In this study, the physicochemical and functional properties of avian gelatin extracted from duck feet (DFG) with acetic acid were compared with those of commercial bovine gelatin (BG).

    RESULTS: The yield of DFG obtained in this study was 7.01 ± 0.31%. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the imino acid content was slightly lower for DFG compared with BG (P < 0.05). Differences in molecular size and amino acids between DFG and BG were also observed. The isoelectric points of DFG and BG were at pH 8 and 5 respectively, and the overall protein solubility of BG was higher than that of DFG. Gels prepared from BG exhibited higher bloom strength, viscosity and clarity and were darker in colour compared with DFG gels (P < 0.05). The gelling and melting points of BG were 21.8 and 29.47 °C respectively, while those of DFG were 20.5 and 27.8 °C respectively. BG exhibited slightly better emulsifying and foaming properties compared with DFG.

    CONCLUSION: Although some differences between DFG and BG were observed, the disparities were small, which indicates that DFG could be exploited commercially as an alternative source of gelatin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Tan JC, Chuah CH, Cheng SF
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Apr;97(6):1784-1789.
    PMID: 27470073 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7975
    BACKGROUND: Conventional palm oil milling involves multiple stages after fruit collection; in particular, oil clarification introduces water into the pressed oil, which results in a large quantity of wastewater.

    RESULTS: A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (<1.0%) and an acceptable anisidine value (<3.0 meq kg(-1) ). The oil had a fatty acid composition not resembling those of conventional crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil. In the pretreatment, the leached oil had 6.3% lauric acid whereas the solvent extracted oil had only 1.5% lauric acid. Among the factors affecting the oil quality, microwave pretreatment affected the oil quality significantly; however, an optimised duration that would ensure high efficiency in solvent extraction also resulted in ruptured fruitlets, although not to the extent of causing excessive oxidation. In fact, microwave pretreatment should exceed 12 min; after only 15 min, the oil had 1-methylcyclopentanol (12.96%), 1-tetradecanol (9.44%), 1-nonadecene (7.22%), nonanal (7.13%) and 1-tridecene (5.09%), which probably arose from the degradation of fibres.

    CONCLUSION: Microwave pretreatment represents an alternative milling process for crude palm oil compared with conventional processes in the omission of wet treatment with steam. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Deng YF, Liu YY, Zhang YT, Wang Y, Liang JB, Tufarelli V, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Jun;97(8):2382-2391.
    PMID: 27664398 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8050
    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and role of inulin in the mitigation of enteric sulfur-containing odor gases hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3 SH) in pigs were examined in this study. Twelve Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire male finisher pigs (60.7 ± 1.9 kg), housed individually in open-circuit respiration chambers, were randomly assigned to two dietary groups, namely basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) inulin. At the end of the 45 day experiment, pigs were slaughtered and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, sulfate radical (SO42- ) concentration, population of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and expression of methionine gamma-lyase (MGL) gene were determined in contents from the caecum, colon (two segments) and rectum. Metabonomic analysis was used to compare differences in biochemical composition, and the Illumina MiSeq procedure to investigate differences in bacterial components, in the different parts of the large intestine between inulin-supplemented and inulin-free (control) groups.

    RESULTS: Inulin decreased (P < 0.05) the average daily enteric H2 S and CH3 SH production by 12.4 and 12.1% respectively. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the large intestinal content were significantly increased (P < 0.05) with inulin treatment, whereas valerate concentration and MGL mRNA expression decreased (P < 0.05). The growth of Lactobacillus, Butyrivibrio, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium butyricum was stimulated, while that of Desulfovibrio, the dominant SRB, was inhibited, and there was an accumulation of SO42- in the large intestinal content of the inulin-supplemented pigs, suggesting that inulin mitigates H2 S generation from the SO42- reduction pathway by reducing the growth of SRB.

    CONCLUSION: The results showed that inulin mitigates CH3 SH generation via three methionine degradation metabolic pathways and H2 S generation from two cysteine degradation metabolic pathways, thus resulting in increased synthesis of these two sulfur-containing amino acids in the pig large intestine. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Ahmad Azam A, Abas F, Shaari K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Sep;97(12):4169-4179.
    PMID: 28233369 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8288
    BACKGROUND: Java tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying method. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e. shade, microwave and freeze drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of OS leaves was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools.

    RESULTS: A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

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