Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 121 in total

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  1. Asri RIM, Harun WSW, Samykano M, Lah NAC, Ghani SAC, Tarlochan F, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Aug 01;77:1261-1274.
    PMID: 28532004 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.04.102
    Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys.
  2. TermehYousefi A, Azhari S, Khajeh A, Hamidon MN, Tanaka H
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Aug 01;77:1098-1103.
    PMID: 28531983 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.04.040
    Haptic sensors are essential devices that facilitate human-like sensing systems such as implantable medical devices and humanoid robots. The availability of conducting thin films with haptic properties could lead to the development of tactile sensing systems that stretch reversibly, sense pressure (not just touch), and integrate with collapsible. In this study, a nanocomposite based hemispherical artificial fingertip fabricated to enhance the tactile sensing systems of humanoid robots. To validate the hypothesis, proposed method was used in the robot-like finger system to classify the ripe and unripe tomato by recording the metabolic growth of the tomato as a function of resistivity change during a controlled indention force. Prior to fabrication, a finite element modeling (FEM) was investigated for tomato to obtain the stress distribution and failure point of tomato by applying different external loads. Then, the extracted computational analysis information was utilized to design and fabricate nanocomposite based artificial fingertip to examine the maturity analysis of tomato. The obtained results demonstrate that the fabricated conformable and scalable artificial fingertip shows different electrical property for ripe and unripe tomato. The artificial fingertip is compatible with the development of brain-like systems for artificial skin by obtaining periodic response during an applied load.
  3. Mohd Bakhori SK, Mahmud S, Ling CA, Sirelkhatim AH, Hasan H, Mohamad D, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Sep 01;78:868-877.
    PMID: 28576061 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.04.085
    ZnO with two different morphologies were used to study the inhibition of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans which are closely associated with tooth cavity. Rod-like shaped ZnO-A and plate-like shaped ZnO-B were produced using a zinc boiling furnace. The nanopowders were characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to confirm the properties of the ZnO polycrystalline wurtzite structures. XRD results show that the calculated crystallite sizes of ZnO-A and ZnO-B were 36.6 and 39.4nm, respectively, whereas DLS revealed particle size distributions of 21.82nm (ZnO-A) and 52.21nm (ZnO-B). PL spectra showed ion vacancy defects related to green and red luminescence for both ZnO particles. These defects evolved during the generation of reactive oxygen species which contributed to the antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was investigated using microdilution technique towards S. sobrinus and S. mutans at different nanopowder concentrations. Results showed that ZnO-A exhibited higher inhibition on both bacteria compared with ZnO-B. Moreover, S. mutans was more sensitive compared with S. sobrinus because of its higher inhibition rate.
  4. Hamidi MFFA, Harun WSW, Samykano M, Ghani SAC, Ghazalli Z, Ahmad F, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Sep 01;78:1263-1276.
    PMID: 28575965 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.016
    Biocompatible metals have been revolutionizing the biomedical field, predominantly in human implant applications, where these metals widely used as a substitute to or as function restoration of degenerated tissues or organs. Powder metallurgy techniques, in specific the metal injection moulding (MIM) process, have been employed for the fabrication of controlled porous structures used for dental and orthopaedic surgical implants. The porous metal implant allows bony tissue ingrowth on the implant surface, thereby enhancing fixation and recovery. This paper elaborates a systematic classification of various biocompatible metals from the aspect of MIM process as used in medical industries. In this study, three biocompatible metals are reviewed-stainless steels, cobalt alloys, and titanium alloys. The applications of MIM technology in biomedicine focusing primarily on the MIM process setting parameters discussed thoroughly. This paper should be of value to investigators who are interested in state of the art of metal powder metallurgy, particularly the MIM technology for biocompatible metal implant design and development.
  5. Chen TF, Siow KS, Ng PY, Majlis BY
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Oct 01;79:613-621.
    PMID: 28629060 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.091
    Our studies focused on improving the biocompatibility properties of two microfluidic prototyping substrates i.e. polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) and off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE-80) polymer by Ar and N2plasma treatment. The contact angle (CA) measurement showed that both plasma treatments inserted oxygen and nitrogen moieties increased the surface energy and hydrophilicity of PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer which corresponded to an increase of nitrogen to carbon ratios (N/C), as measured by XPS, to provide a conducive environment for cell attachments and proliferation. Under the SEM observation, the surface topography of PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer showed minimal changes after the plasma treatments. Furthermore, ageing studies showed that plasma-treated PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer had stable hydrophilicity and nitrogen composition during storage in ambient air for 15days. After in vitro cell culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on these surfaces for 24h and 72h, both trypan blue and alamar blue assays indicated that PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer treated with N2plasma had the highest viability and proliferation. The polar nitrogen moieties, specifically amide groups, encouraged the HUVECs adhesion on the plasma-treated PUMA and OSTE-80 surfaces. Interestingly, PUMA polymer treated with Ar and N2plasma showed different HUVECs morphology which was spindle and cobblestone-shaped respectively after 72h of incubation. On the contrary, a monolayer of well-spread HUVECs formed on the Ar and N2plasma-treated OSTE-80 polymers. These variable morphologies observed can be ascribed to the adherence HUVECs on the different elastic moduli of these surfaces whereby further investigation might be needed. Overall, Ar and N2plasma treatment had successfully altered the surface properties of PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer by increasing its surface energy, hydrophilicity and chemical functionalities to create a biocompatible surface for HUVECs adhesion and proliferation.
  6. Zulkifli FH, Hussain FSJ, Zeyohannes SS, Rasad MSBA, Yusuff MM
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Oct 01;79:151-160.
    PMID: 28629002 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.028
    Green porous and ecofriendly scaffolds have been considered as one of the potent candidates for tissue engineering substitutes. The objective of this study is to investigate the biocompatibility of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), prepared by the green synthesis method as a potential host material for skin tissue applications. The substrates which contained varied concentrations of AgNO3(0.4%-1.6%) were formed in the presence of HEC, were dissolved in a single step in water. The presence of AgNPs was confirmed visually by the change of color from colorless to dark brown, and was fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The outcomes exhibited significant porosity of >80%, moderate degradation rate, and tremendous value of water absorption up to 1163% in all samples. These scaffolds of HEC/AgNPs were further characterized by SEM, UV-Vis, ATR-FTIR, TGA, and DSC. All scaffolds possessed open interconnected pore size in the range of 50-150μm. The characteristic peaks of Ag in the UV-Vis spectra (417-421nm) revealed the formation of AgNPs in the blend composite. ATR-FTIR curve showed new existing peak, which implies the oxidation of HEC in the cellulose derivatives. The DSC thermogram showed augmentation in Tgwith increased AgNO3concentration. Preliminary studies of cytotoxicity were carried out in vitro by implementation of the hFB cells on the scaffolds. The results substantiated low toxicity of HEC/AgNPs scaffolds, thus exhibiting an ideal characteristic in skin tissue engineering applications.
  7. Bapat RA, Chaubal TV, Joshi CP, Bapat PR, Choudhury H, Pandey M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Oct 01;91:881-898.
    PMID: 30033323 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.05.069
    Oral cavity is a gateway to the entire body and protection of this gateway is a major goal in dentistry. Plaque biofilm is a major cause of majority of dental diseases and although various biomaterials have been applied for their cure, limitations pertaining to the material properties prevent achievement of desired outcomes. Nanoparticle applications have become useful tools for various dental applications in endodontics, periodontics, restorative dentistry, orthodontics and oral cancers. Off these, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used in medicine and dentistry due to its antimicrobial properties. AgNPs have been incorporated into biomaterials in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation. Due to greater surface to volume ratio and small particle size, they possess excellent antimicrobial action without affecting the mechanical properties of the material. This unique property of AgNPs makes these materials as fillers of choice in different biomaterials whereby they play a vital role in improving the properties. This review aims to discuss the influence of addition of AgNPs to various biomaterials used in different dental applications.
  8. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Pandey M, Kesharwani P
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Oct 01;91:868-880.
    PMID: 30033322 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.05.054
    Localised and targeted potential of nanocarrier for the eminent anticancer agent paclitaxel (PTX) could provide a great platform towards improvement of efficacy with reduction in associated toxicities, whereas incorporation of TPGS could further facilitate delivery in MDR through alteration of its inherent physicochemical properties. Current article therefore puts into perspective on nanocarrier-based recent researches of PTX with special stress towards TPGS-nanoparticle-mediated delivery in the improvement of cancer treatment and then accompanied with the discussion on distinct influence of the fabrication process. Such dynamic fabrications of the nanoparticulate therapy stimulate cellular interaction with frontier area for future research in tumor targeting potential.
  9. Khurana RK, Kumar R, Gaspar BL, Welsby G, Welsby P, Kesharwani P, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Oct 01;91:645-658.
    PMID: 30033299 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.05.010
    The current studies envisage unravelling the underlying cellular internalisation mechanism of the systematically developed docetaxel (DTH) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched self-nanoemulsifying lipidic micellar systems (SNELS). The concentration-, time- and cytotoxicity-related effects of DTH-SNELS on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 and non-TNBC MCF-7 cell lines were assessed through Presto-blue assay. Subsequently, rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) loaded SNELS were employed for evaluating their internalisation through flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, establishing it to be "clathrin-mediated" endocytic pathway. Apoptosis assay (65% cell death) and cell cycle distribution (47% inhibition at G2/M phase) further corroborated the cytotoxicity of DTH-SNELS towards cancerous cells. Biodistribution, histopathology and haematology studies indicated insignificant toxicity of the optimized formulation on vital organs. Preclinical anticancer efficacy studies using 7,12-dimethylbenzantracene (DMBA)-induced model construed significant reduction in breast tumor-volume. Overall, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies indicated the intracellular localization and cytotoxicity, suggesting DTH-SNELS as promising delivery systems for breast tumor therapeutics including TNBC.
  10. Sabbagh F, Muhamad II, Nazari Z, Mobini P, Taraghdari SB
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Nov 01;92:20-25.
    PMID: 30184743 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.06.022
    This study conducted on the structure of modified acrylamide-based hydrogel by synthesizing the nano composites. The hydrogels employed in this study were provided through a combination of acrylamide monomers, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles by crosslinking polymerization. N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine and ammonium persulfate as the initiator was applied in the structure of the polymer. Findings of the study considered the nano composites consisting of MgO have the highest swelling ratio compared to pure Aam hydrogels. Thus, MgO is an appropriate nanoparticle to be used in the nano composites. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD Design) was applied to optimize the preparation variables of a hydrogel consisted of MgO, NaCMC. With the swelling ratio for acrylamide-based hydrogel as the response, the effects of two variables, i.e. MgO and NaCMC were investigated. The effects of pH, temperature, MgO, and NaCMC on the drug release were investigated using the CCD design. The predicted appropriate drug release conditions for the hydrogel at the highest rate of temperature (37.50 °C) and pH: 4.10, is at its highest value, while the lower drug release is at temperature 38 °C and pH 3.50. With the desired value of MgO (0.01 g) and amount of NaCMC (0.1 g).
  11. Izadiyan Z, Basri M, Fard Masoumi HR, Abedi Karjiban R, Salim N, Kalantari K
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jan 01;94:841-849.
    PMID: 30423770 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.015
    Nanoemulsions have been used as a drug carrier system, particularly for poorly water-soluble drugs. Sorafenib is a poorly soluble drug and also there is no parenteral treatment. The aim of this study is the development of nanoemulsions for intravenous administration of Sorafenib. The formulations were prepared by high energy emulsification method and optimized by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Here, the effect of independent composition variables of lecithin (1.16-2.84%, w/w), Medium-Chain Triglycerides (2.32-5.68%, w/w) and polysorbate 80 (0.58-1.42%, w/w) amounts on the properties of Sorafenib-loaded nanoemulsion was investigated. The three responses variables were particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. Optimization of the conditions according to the three dependent variables was performed for the preparation of the Sorafenib-loaded nanoemulsions with the minimum value of particle size, suitable rage of zeta potential, and polydispersity index. A formulation containing 0.05% of Sorafenib kept its properties in a satisfactory range over the evaluated period. The composition with 3% Medium-Chain Triglycerides, 2.5% lecithin and 1.22% polysorbate 80 exhibited the smallest particle size and polydispersity index (43.17 nm and 0.22, respectively) with the zeta potential of -38.8 mV was the optimized composition. The fabricated nanoemulsion was characterized by the transmission electron microscope (TEM), viscosity, and stability assessment study. Also, the cytotoxicity result showed that the optimum formulations had no significant effect on a normal cell in a low concentration of the drug but could eliminate the cancer cells. The dose-dependent toxicity made it a suitable candidate for parenteral applications in the treatment of breast cancer. Furthermore, the optimized formulation indicated good storage stability for 3 months at different temperatures (4 ± 2 °C, 25 ± 2 °C and 45 ± 2 °C).
  12. Kosiha A, Lo KM, Parthiban C, Elango KP
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jan 01;94:778-787.
    PMID: 30423764 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.021
    Three metal(II) complexes [CoLCl2], [CuLCl2] and [ZnL2Cl2] {L = 2‑chloro‑3‑((3‑dimethylamino)propylamino)naphthalene‑1,4‑dione} have been synthesized and characterized using analytical, thermal and spectral techniques (FT-IR, UV-Vis, ESR and ESI-MS). The structure of the L has been confirmed by single crystal XRD study. The complexes show good binding propensity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) having relatively higher binding constant values (104 M-1) than the ligand. Fluorescence spectral studies indicate that [CoLCl2] binds relatively stronger with CT DNA through intercalative mode, exhibiting higher binding constant (2.22 × 105 M-1). Agarose gel electrophoresis run on plasmid DNA (pUC18) prove that all the complexes showed efficient DNA cleavage via hydroxyl radical mechanism. The complexes were identified as potent anticancer agents against two human cancer cell lines (MCF7 and A549) by comparing with cisplatin. Co(II) complex demonstrated greater cytotoxicity against MCF7 and A549 cells with IC50 values at 19 and 22 μM, respectively.
  13. Taha A, Akram M, Jawad Z, Alshemary AZ, Hussain R
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Nov 01;80:93-101.
    PMID: 28866230 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.117
    Microwave assisted wet precipitation method was used to synthesize calcium deficient strontium doped β-tricalcium phosphate (Sr-βTCP) with a chemical formula of Ca2.96-xSrx(PO4)2. Sr-βTCP was reacted with monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O, MCPM] in presence of water to furnish corresponding Sr containing brushite cement (Sr-Brc). The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Strontium content in the prepared samples was determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The effect of Sr2+ions on the structural, mechanical, setting properties and drug release of the cement is reported. Incorporation of Sr2+ions improved the injectability, setting time and mechanical properties of the Brc. The release profiles of antibiotics incorporated in Brc and Sr-Brc confirmed that the Sr incorporation into the Brc results in the efficient release of the antibiotics from the cement.
  14. Vimalraj S, Rajalakshmi S, Raj Preeth D, Vinoth Kumar S, Deepak T, Gopinath V, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Feb 01;83:187-194.
    PMID: 29208278 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.09.005
    Copper(II) complex of quercetin Cu+Q, mixed ligand complexes, quercetin-Cu(II)-phenanthroline [Cu+Q(PHt)] and quercetin-Cu(II)-neocuproine [Cu+Q(Neo)] have been synthesized and characterized. From the FT-IR spectroscopic studies, it was evident that C-ring of quercetin is involved in the metal chelation in all the three copper complexes. C-ring chelation was further proven by UV-Visible spectra and the presence of Cu(II) from EPR spectroscopic investigations. These complexes were found to have osteogenic and angiogenic properties, observed through in vitro osteoblast differentiation and chick embryo angiogenesis assay. In osteoblast differentiation, quercetin-Cu(II) complexes treatment increased calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity at the cellular level and stimulated Runx2 mRNA and protein, ALP mRNA and type 1 collagen mRNA expression at the molecular level. Among the complexes, Q+Cu(PHt) showed more effects on osteoblast differentiation when compared to that of other two copper complexes. Additionally, Q+Cu(Neo) showed more effect compared to Q+Cu. Furthermore, the effect of these complexes on osteoblast differentiation was confirmed by the expression of osteoblast specific microRNA, pre-mir-15b. The chick embryo angiogenesis assay showed that angiogenic parameters such as blood vessel length, size and junctions were stimulated by these complexes. Thus, the present study demonstrated that quercetin copper(II) complexes exhibit as a pharmacological agent for the orthopedic application.
  15. Nasiri R, Hamzehalipour Almaki J, Idris AB, Abdul Majid FA, Nasiri M, Salouti M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Dec 01;69:1147-58.
    PMID: 27612812 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.07.076
    Engineering of a physiologically compatible, stable and targetable SPIONs-CA-FA formulation was reported. Initially fabricated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with citric acid (CA) to hamper agglomeration as well as to ameliorate biocompatibility. Folic acid (FA) as a targeting agent was then conjugated to the citric acid coated SPIONs (SPIONs-CA) for targeting the specific receptors expressed on the FAR+ cancer cells. Physiochemical characterizations were then performed to assure required properties like stability, size, phase purity, surface morphology, chemical integrity and magnetic properties. In vitro evaluations (MTT assay) were performed on HeLa, HSF 1184, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231cell lines to ensure the biocompatibility of SPIONs-CA-FA. There were no morphological changes and lysis in contact with erythrocytes recorded for SPIONs-CA-FA and SPIONs-CA. High level of SPIONs-CA-FA binding to FAR+ cell lines was assured via qualitative and quantitative in vitro binding studies. Hence, SPIONs-CA-FA was introduced as a promising tool for biomedical applications like magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery. The in vitro findings presented in this study need to be compared with those of in vivo studies.
  16. Osman AF, M Fitri TF, Rakibuddin M, Hashim F, Tuan Johari SAT, Ananthakrishnan R, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 May 01;74:194-206.
    PMID: 28254285 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.11.137
    Polymer-clay based nanocomposites are among the attractive materials to be applied for various applications, including biomedical. The incorporation of the nano sized clay (nanoclay) into polymer matrices can result in their remarkable improvement in mechanical, thermal and barrier properties as long as the nanofillers are well exfoliated and dispersed throughout the matrix. In this work, exfoliation strategy through pre-dispersing process of the organically modified montmorillonite (organo-MMT) nanofiller was done to obtain ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) nanocomposite with improved flexibility, toughness, thermal stability and biostability. Our results indicated that the degree of organo-MMT exfoliation affects its cytotoxicity level and the properties of the resulting EVA nanocomposite. The pre-dispersed organo-MMT by ultrasonication in water possesses higher degree of exfoliation as compared to its origin condition and significantly performed reduced cytotoxicity level. Beneficially, this nanofiller also enhanced the EVA flexibility, thermal stability and biostability upon the in vitro exposure. We postulated that these were due to plasticizing effect and enhanced EVA-nanofiller interactions contributing to more stable chemical bonds in the main copolymer chains. Improvement in copolymer flexibility is beneficial for close contact with human soft tissue, while enhancement in toughness and biostability is crucial to extend its life expectancy as insulation material for implantable device.
  17. Barahuie F, Saifullah B, Dorniani D, Fakurazi S, Karthivashan G, Hussein MZ, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 May 01;74:177-185.
    PMID: 28254283 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.11.114
    We have synthesized graphene oxide using improved Hummer's method in order to explore the potential use of the resulting graphene oxide as a nanocarrier for an active anticancer agent, chlorogenic acid (CA). The synthesized graphene oxide and chlorogenic acid-graphene oxide nanocomposite (CAGO) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry analysis, Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The successful conjugation of chlorogenic acid onto graphene oxide through hydrogen bonding and π-π interaction was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, FTIR analysis and X-ray diffraction patterns. The loading of CA in the nanohybrid was estimated to be around 13.1% by UV-vis spectroscopy. The release profiles showed favourable, sustained and pH-dependent release of CA from CAGO nanocomposite and conformed well to the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Furthermore, the designed anticancer nanohybrid was thermally more stable than its counterpart. The in vitro cytotoxicity results revealed insignificant toxicity effect towards normal cell line, with a viability of >80% even at higher concentration of 50μg/mL. Contrarily, CAGO nanocomposite revealed enhanced toxic effect towards evaluated cancer cell lines (HepG2 human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line, and HeLa human cervical cancer cell line) compared to its free form.
  18. Touri M, Moztarzadeh F, Osman NAA, Dehghan MM, Mozafari M
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Mar 01;84:236-242.
    PMID: 29519434 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.11.037
    Tissue engineering scaffolds with oxygen generating elements have shown to be able to increase the level of oxygen and cell survivability in specific conditions. In this study, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with the composition of 60% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 40% beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), which have shown a great potential for bone tissue engineering applications, were fabricated by a direct-write assembly (robocasting) technique. Then, the three-dimensional (3D)-printed scaffolds were coated with different ratios of an oxygen releasing agent, calcium peroxide (CPO), which encapsulated within a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix through dip-coating, and used for in situ production of oxygen in the implanted sites. The structure, composition and morphology of the prepared scaffolds were characterized by different techniques. The oxygen release kinetics and biological investigations of the scaffolds were also studied in vitro. The results showed that oxygen release behaviour was sustained and dependant on the concentration of CPO encapsulated in the PCL coating matrix. It was also demonstrated that the coated scaffolds, having 3% CPO in the coating system, could provide a great potential for promoting bone ingrowth with improving osteoblast cells viability and proliferation under hypoxic conditions. The findings indicated that the prepared scaffolds could play a significant role in engineering of large bone tissue implants with limitations in oxygen diffusion.
  19. Dayaghi E, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Hamzah E, Akhavan-Farid A, Ismail AF, Aziz M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Sep;102:53-65.
    PMID: 31147024 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.010
    Recently, porous magnesium and its alloys are receiving great consideration as biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application. However, they presented poor antibacterial performance and corrosion resistance which limited their clinical applications. In this study, Mg-Zn (MZ) scaffold containing different concentrations of tetracycline (MZ-xTC, x = 1, 5 and 10%) were fabricated by space holder technique to meet the desirable antibacterial activity and corrosion resistance properties. The MZ-TC contains total porosity of 63-65% with pore sizes in the range of 600-800 μm in order to accommodate bone cells. The MZ scaffold presented higher compressive strength and corrosion resistance compared to pure Mg scaffold. However, tetracycline incorporation has less significant effect on the mechanical and corrosion properties of the scaffolds. Moreover, MZ-xTC scaffolds drug release profiles show an initial immediate release which is followed by more stable release patterns. The bioactivity test reveals that the MZ-xTC scaffolds are capable of developing the formation of HA layers in simulated body fluid (SBF). Next, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were utilized to assess the antimicrobial activity of the MZ-xTC scaffolds. The findings indicate that those scaffolds that incorporate a high level concentration of tetracycline are tougher against bacterial organization than MZ scaffolds. However, the MTT assay demonstrates that the MZ scaffolds containing 1 to 5% tetracycline are more effective to sustain cell viability, whereas MZ-10TC shows some toxicity. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the MZ-(1-5)TC was considerably higher than that of MZ-10TC on the 3 and 7 days, implying higher osteoblastic differentiation. All the findings suggest that the MZ-xTC scaffolds containing 1 to 5% tetracycline is a promising candidate for bone tissue healing due to excellent antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.
  20. Majeed S, Aripin FHB, Shoeb NSB, Danish M, Ibrahim MNM, Hashim R
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Sep;102:254-263.
    PMID: 31146998 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.041
    The aim of the current study was to biosynthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the bacterial strain of Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579) extracellularly. When bacterial extract was challenged with 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) the color of the extract changed into brown confirms the formation of nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were capped with bovine serum albumin (BSA). UV- visible spectroscopy showed the absorption peak at 420 nm indicates the formation of AgNPs. Fourier Infra -red (FTIR) attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy showed amide and amine group associated with AgNPs that stabilizes the nanoparticles. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed a strong peak of silver confirms the presence of silver. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis was used to determine the protein degradation showed less protein degradation at higher temperature confirms the stability of nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the AgNPs are well dispersed and spherical, and 5.37 nm to 17.19 whereas albumin coated nanoparticles are size ranges from 11.26 nm to 23.85 nm. The anticancer effect of capped AgNPs (cAgNPs) showed the IC50 value against breast cancer MCF-7 at 80 μg/mL, intestinal colon cancer HCT- 116 60 μg/mL, and bone cancer osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line80 μg/mL while against normal fibroblast cells 3T3 cells showed the IC50 value at 140 μg/mL. Lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH) showed higher toxicity on MCF-7, HCT-116, and MG-63 cells. The apoptotic study clearly showed the blebbing of membrane, chromatin condensation due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by ethidium bromide and acridine orange dual staining method. The DNA analysis showed the complete fragmentation of the DNA of treated cells when compared with control cells.
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