Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 2561 in total

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  1. Le Van Thien, Ngo Thi Tuong Chau, Pham Thi Ngoc Lan, Hiroyuki Futamata
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1051-1060.
    Pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS) was found to be poorly colonised with thermophilic microorganisms. However,
    evidence to support the need for inoculation to facilitate PPMS composting has only been demonstrated in one instance.
    In this study, we aimed to: screen and identify PPMS digesting thermophilic bacterial strains; investigate effects of the
    mixture of selected thermophilic bacterial strains on PPMS digestion; and utilize this mixture as start inoculum in PPMS
    composting and assess the quality of compost product. The results showed that eleven thermophilic bacterial strains were
    isolated from Bai Bang PPMS by the enrichment culture method. Among these, three strains which reflected high growth
    rates on the plates of Minimal Media Agar supplemented with Bai Bang PPMS and showed hydrolytic and ligninolytic
    activities on the agar plates containing appropriate inductive substrates were selected. Based on the morphological,
    biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, they were identified as Bacillus subtilis. The inoculation
    with the mixture of selected strains enhanced remarkably Bai Bang PPMS digestion. The dry weight decrease, volatile
    suspended solids removal, dehydrogenase and protease activities in the inoculated sludge were 2.1-, 1.5-, 1.3- and 1.2-
    fold higher, respectively, compared to the non-inoculated sludge. The assessment of compost quality based on stability
    using the alkaline trap method and maturity using the germination and root elongation test showed that the inoculated
    compost was stable and mature while the non-inoculated compost was unstable and immature. These thermophilic
    bacterial strains therefore have great potential for Bai Bang PPMS composting.
  2. Jesús Luengo Fereira, Heraclio Reyes Rivas, Luz Elena Carlos Medrano, Iovanna Toscano, Minerva Anaya Alvarez
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:971-976.
    This study has been carried out to evaluate the clinical and radiographic CTZ (Chloramphenicol-Tetracycline-Zinc
    Eugenol Oxide) antibiotic paste in pulpotomies of primary molars. A Quasi-experimental study in 43 primary molars
    of children aged 3 to 7 years. Pulpotomies were performed on the selected patients with the CTZ antibiotic paste. Teeth
    were restored with glass ionomer and preformed steel metal crowns. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed
    at 6 and 12 months. SPSS V-19 program for data analysis and chi-square test was used up to 5%. Success rates were
    observed during the evaluation periods of time. 93% (x2
    = 0.446, p>0.05) and 88.4% (x2
    = 0.431, p>0.05) of the clinical form;
    97.7% (x2
    = 0.534, p>0.05) and 93% (x2
    = 0.553, p>0.05) were radiographic, at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The CTZ antibiotic
    paste is an alternative in the treatment of pulpotomy of molars. It provides an antimicrobial effect, decreased operative time, without
    causing trauma to the pediatric patient.
  3. Mohd Nizar K, Abd Jamil Z, Isharudin M, Hazandy A
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:961-969.
    The presence of abundant oil palm residues in Malaysia prompted the need to utilize this waste to avoid environmental
    pollution. This waste was abundant at the oil palm mill and accounted for almost 50% of production. The study was
    conducted to determine the morphological effect of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) sludge on the maize growth performance
    and gas exchange. Physicochemical, growth morphology and gas exchange was measured after treated with POME sludge
    from different treatment pond systems: Mixing, anaerobic, facultative, algae and dumping. The results indicated the
    pH, C, and CEC of mixing the < anaerobic < facultative < algae < dumping ponds. There was a significant presence of
    macronutrient (N, Mg, Ca, Fe, S) in the treated POME sludge, contrary to the presence of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and
    Pb) elements which were not significantly different in all the treatments and lower than WHO/FAO standard. Root Shoot
    Ratio (RSR) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) indicated significant difference in biomass accumulation and yield compared to
    the control. The gas exchange variable was a significant difference on stomata conductivity (Gs) and transpiration rate
    (E). However, the POME sludge from the facultative, algae and dumping ponds showed positive correlations between net
    photosynthesis, stomata conductivity and transpiration rate. Indeed, the increased transpiration rate (E) was correlated
    with stomata conductance (Gs) after treatment with anaerobic, facultative, algae and dumping ponds. In conclusion, the
    POME sludge amendment was able to increase the maize biomass and yield.
  4. Maria Abu Bakar, Azman Jalar, Roslina Ismail, Azman Jalar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1011-1016.
    Sifat fizik dan mekanik sambungan pateri pada papan litar bercetak (PCB) sangat bergantung kepada bahan pateri
    dan permukaan penglogaman PCB. Kemajuan penyelidikan dan pembangunan bahan pateri bebas plumbum membuka
    peluang untuk menghasilkan sambungan pateri yang mempunyai kebolehtahanan yang tinggi. PCB/Cu merupakan PCB
    tanpa kemasan digunakan sebagai sampel kawalan manakala dua PCB yang lain iaitu PCB/ImSn (immersion tin) dan
    PCB/ENiG (electroless nickel immersion gold) dipilih untuk mengkaji kestabilan sambungan pateri. Sambungan pateri
    pada kemasan permukaan yang berbeza didedahkan kepada penyimpanan suhu tinggi (HTS) pada suhu 175°C selama
    1000 jam untuk mengkaji perubahan sifat mikromekanik. Ujian pelekukan nano memberikan sifat mikromekanik yang
    bersifat setempat. Perubahan kekerasan antarasambungan SAC 0307 selepas HTS ialah 66 MPa bagi PCB/Cu, 107
    MPa bagi PCB/ImSn dan 45 MPa bagi PCB/ENiG. Analisis terhadap sifat mikromekanik mendapati bahawa PCB/ENiG
    menunjukkan perubahan nilai yang minimum berbanding dengan PCB/Cu dan PCB/ImSn. Ini menunjukkan PCB/ENiG
    memberikan kestabilan sifat mikromekanik yang tinggi selepas didedahkan pada HTS pada suhu 175°C selama 1000 jam.
  5. Shittu Abdullahi, Supian Samat, Muhamad Samudi Yasir, Aznan Fazli Ismail
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1017-1023.
    This research reports the annual effective dose of dwellers based on the finding of natural radioactivity concentrations in
    Malaysian tiles. A total of 30 tiles samples obtained from the manufacturer or bought directly from local hardware store.
    Natural radioactivity was analyzed using gamma spectrometry system for 12 h counting times. The activity concentration
    of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the analyzed samples ranged from 37.50 – 158.05 Bq kg-1, 42.22 – 80.19 Bq kg-1 and 349.46 –
    750.18 Bq kg-1, respectively. The determined radium equivalent activity was below than the recommended limit of 370
    Bq kg-1. The external dose received by dwellers due to natural radionuclides in tiles were projected for 1, 5, 10, 20 and
    50 years through six exposure pathways using Resrad-build computer code. The results showed that the annual effective
    dose received by dwellers increased for the investigated timelines but still lower than the annual recommended limit of
    1500 µSv. The simulation result also indicates that radon gas was the primary radiation exposure which contributes
    80-94 % from the total radiation exposure to dwellers.
  6. Roslinda Shamsudin, Syed Nuzul Fadzli Syed Adam, Siti Rohani Zainuddin, Banjuraizah Johar, Firuz Zainuddin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1025-1031.
    The purpose of this study was to prepare macroporous glass ceramic scaffold by sol-gel glass synthesis and powder
    sintering method. Sodium nitrate was added during sol-gel process to obtain glass ceramic with mol composition of
    42.11% SiO2
    - 18.42% CaO - 29.82% Na2
    O - 9.65% P2
    O5
    . The glass particles were found to be thermally stable above
    900°C as indicated by TGA/DTA analysis. The dried glass particles obtained from sol-gel process were compacted and
    sintered at 1000°C for 3 h soaking time. Sintering crystallized the glass by 71.5% of crystallinity with tetracalcium catenahexaphosphate
    (V) (Ca4
    (P6
    O19) as the main crystalline phase as revealed by XRD analysis. Although glass crystallized
    during sintering, it showed a good in vitro bioactivity as apatite-like layer were deposited on the glass ceramic surface
    when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days. SEM analysis proved the macroporous structure formation with
    pore size ranges between 30 and 350 µm due to foaming effect which occurred during sintering. Besides that, the glass
    ceramic surface formed into vitrified-like due to fluxing effect during sintering thus affected the porosity and densification
    measurement done by Archimedes test. In conclusion, the presence of sodium oxide in sol-gel glass ceramic composition
    by 29.82 mol % with sintering temperature at 1000°C is able to produce bioactive and macroporous glass ceramic that
    potentially be used as medical scaffold material.
  7. Fazly Amri Mohd, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Othman A. Karim, Rawshan Ara Begum, Siti Norsakinah Selamat
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:991-997.
    Malaysia has a long coastline stretching over 4,809 km where more than 1,300 km of beaches are experiencing erosion.
    Coastal erosion is recognised as the permanent loss of land and habitats along the shoreline resulting in the changes
    of the coast. Thus, it is important to detect and monitor shoreline changes especially in Pahang coast by identifying the
    rate of shoreline erosion and accretion. This study used temporal data and high spatial resolution imagery (SPOT 5) using
    remote sensing and GIS techniques to monitor shoreline changes along 10 study locations, which is from Cherating to
    Pekan of the Pahang coast. The total length of shoreline changes is about 14 km (14035.10 m) where all these areas are
    very likely to experience erosion ranging from 0.1 to 94.7 ha. On the other hand, these coastal areas found a minimal
    accretion with increased sediment from 0.1 to 2.8 ha. Overall, the coastal areas are exposed to higher erosion process
    than accretion with a very high vulnerability of erosion rate from 1.8 to 20.9 meter per year. The findings on monitoring
    shoreline changes and identifying vulnerable erosion areas might be useful in the policy and decision making for
    sustainable coastal management.
  8. Azman Jalar, Roslina Ismail, Maria Abu Bakar, Azman Jalar, Najib Saedi Ibrahim, Mohd Ariffin Ambak
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1005-1010.
    Pewarnaan pes pateri membuka suatu ruang kepada keperluan dalam teknologi untuk proses pengenalpastian, penandaan,
    piawaian, pengujian dan penilaian terhadap antarasambungan pes pateri. Dua jenis pigmen pewarna iaitu hijau (G)
    dan bercahaya dalam gelap (GD) digunakan untuk mengkaji kesan pewarnaan sambungan pateri ke atas kestabilan
    antarasambungan pateri Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC 305). Pes pateri tanpa warna digunakan sebagai sampel kawalan untuk
    membandingkan keputusan kajian. Uji kaji penuaan sesuhu digunakan untuk melihat perubahan pertumbuhan sebatian
    antara logam (IMC). Pigmen pewarna GD dengan peratusan sebanyak 5% telah menunjukkan kestabilan pertumbuhan
    IMC dengan perubahan pertumbuhan yang paling rendah iaitu sebanyak 5.6 µm bagi sambungan pateri yang berwarna
    berbanding dengan peratusan pigmen pewarna yang lebih tinggi dengan perubahan pertumbuhan IMC sehingga 9 µm
    selepas didedahkan kepada penuaan sesuhu pada 150°C selama 1000 jam. Walau bagaimanapun, kestabilan pertumbuhan
    IMC dengan penggunaan pes pateri berwarna adalah lebih rendah berbanding dengan pes pateri tidak berwarna.
    Maka penambahan pigmen pewarna hendaklah dipertimbangkan dengan mengambil kira kestabilan mikrostruktur dan
    pertumbuhan lapisan IMC supaya tidak menjejaskan kualiti dan kebolehharapan sesuatu sambungan pateri.
  9. Nur Akmar Jamil, Gan SM, Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis, Susthitha Menon P
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1033-1038.
    Artikel ini menganalisis biosensor resonans plasmon permukaan (SPR) dengan lapisan grafin yang meningkatkan
    kecekapan biosensor urea kerana penerapannya yang tinggi. Tatasusunan Kretschmann merupakan teknik yang paling
    berkesan digunakan untuk pengujaan plasmon. Dalam kajian ini, kami menganalisis kesan ekalapisan MoS2 dengan
    lapisan grafin yang didepositkan pada bahan plasmon, iaitu logam emas (Au), di dalam tatasusunan ini. Simulasi untuk
    menganalisis tatasusunan ini adalah berdasarkan kepada kaedah perbezaan terhingga domain masa (FDTD). Prestasi
    biosensor SPR dapat dipantau dengan menganalisis kepekaan dan lebar penuh pada separuh maksimum (FWHM) spektrum
    SPR. Pengukuran diperhatikan pada panjang gelombang 670 nm dan 785 nm untuk pengesanan urea. Indeks molar dan
    indeks biasan berbeza (RI) daripada 1.335 sehingga 1.342 untuk lapisan penderiaan. Keputusan menunjukkan peratus
    peningkatan kepekaan biosensor Au/MoS2
    /grafin berbanding biosensor Au konvensional adalah 98% dan 202% masingmasing
    pada panjang gelombang 670 nm dan 785 nm. Ini menunjukkan bahawa cadangan biosensor SPR yang novel ini
    adalah lebih sensitif untuk pengesanan urea.
  10. Julie Elvyana Romli, Norhamidi Muhamad, Abu Bakar Sulong, Farhana Mohd Foudzi, Nor Nabilla Kadiman
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1039-1043.
    Kajian mengenai grafin kini semakin meluas disebabkan sifat kebolehaliran terma yang mampu meningkatkan potensi
    bahan komposit. Penambahan grafin dalam matriks kuprum dikaji dengan menggunakan gabungan bahan pengikat
    iaitu polietilena glikol (PEG), polimetil metakrilat (PMMA) dan asid stearik. Penggunaan grafin sebagai bahan pengisi
    dalam matriks kuprum merupakan pendekatan baru yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kebolehaliran terma produk
    yang dihasilkan. Namun, penambahan grafin dalam matriks kuprum boleh menyebabkan ketidaksamarataan zarah
    komposit kerana penggumpalan zarah-zarah grafin. Oleh itu, kaedah sonikasi dan pengacauan magnetik semasa proses
    pra-campuran digunakan bagi menghasilkan bahan suapan yang sebati dan penyerakan grafin yang lebih baik tanpa
    penggumpalan. Suhu proses sonikasi telah ditetapkan pada 55˚C dengan masa sonikasi yang berbeza iaitu 30 minit, 60
    minit dan 90 minit. Bagi proses pengacauan magnetik, parameter yang digunakan adalah 55˚C, selama 21 jam pada
    kelajuan yang berbeza iaitu 300, 350 dan 400 rpm. Analisis imej Pancaran Medan Mikroskopi Elektron Pengimbasan
    (FESEM) dan Pemetaan EDX telah dijalankan bagi mengkaji penyerakan grafin dalam komposit kuprum grafin. Keputusan
    menunjukkan hasil yang lebih baik diperoleh selepas proses sonikasi dan pengacauan magnetik dijalankan. Penyerakan
    terbaik yang lebih seragam dan sebati diperoleh pada masa sonikasi 60 min dan pengacauan magnetik pada kelajuan
    sederhana iaitu 350 rpm. Zarah grafin didapati kurang bertumpu pada satu tempat dan penggumpalan semula juga
    tidak berlaku. Penyerakan sebati ini menjadikan hubungan antara muka zarah-zarah grafin dan kuprum menjadi lebih
    baik seterusnya mampu mengurangkan keliangan bagi penghasilan jasad akhir.
  11. Noorashikin Md Noor, Simon Kumar Das, Zaidi Che Cob, Mazlan Abd. Ghaffar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1077-1084.
    The effects of salinity on the gastric emptying time (GET) and absorption of nutrient along the alimentary tract of tiger
    grouper (TG) × giant grouper (GG) (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus) hybrid were studied. Juveniles TG×GG
    hybrid grouper (10.0 ± 0.5 cm total length; 50.5 ± 2.0 g) were reared in different salinities (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 parts per
    thousand (ppt)) and fed with commercial pellet diet during the 60-day experimental period. The fish were then slaughtered
    sequentially at different time intervals after initial feeding to obtain GET. Our results showed that low salinity (10-20 ppt)
    lead to a shorter GET in the hybrid grouper. The shortest and longest GETs were observed in 15 ppt (12 h) and 30 ppt (18
    h) treatments, respectively. Apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) using ash contents was measured to determine the
    absorption of nutrient in each treatment. The absorption of macronutrient in TG×GG hybrid grouper was increased as
    the salinity decreased. The highest absorption occurred in 15 ppt (72% protein, 75% lipid, 68% carbohydrate and 74%
    energy) while the lowest absorption occurred in 30 ppt (59% protein, 64% lipid, 34% carbohydrate and 55% energy).
    The findings of this study suggested that 15 ppt salinity facilitates faster digestion and maximize the nutrient absorption
    of TG×GG hybrid and may enhance the growth rate of this newly developed grouper species.
  12. Muhammad Ridwan Fahmi, Che Zulzikrami Azner Abidin, Ong Sa, Abdul Haqi Ibrahim, Siti Nasuha Sabri, Nur Aqilah Razali, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1085-1091.
    Oxidation of p-Cresol was investigated by using ozonation process. The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness
    of ozonation on oxidation of micropollutant such as p-Cresol. Ozonation performance was evaluated based on p-Cresol
    concentration reduction and chemical oxidation demand (COD) reduction. It was found ozonation at pH11 achieved
    the highest p-Cresol degradation, with 95.8% of p-Cresol reduced and 96.0% of COD reduced, for an initial 50 mgL-1
    of p-Cresol. The degradation of p-Cresol could be expressed by second-order of kinetic model. The second-order rate
    constant k increases as the initial pH increased, but decreases with the increasing of initial p-Cresol concentrations.
    Besides, the absorption spectra of p-Cresol over ozonation time were analyzed by spectrophotometry. The evolution of
    absorption spectra of p-Cresol degradation suggests that the oxidation of p-Cresol follows three stages mechanisms
    with cycloaddition as the first step to produce aromatic intermediates followed by ring-opening reactions, degradation
    of the intermediates, and subsequently achieved mineralization.
  13. Wan Elina Faradilla Wan Khalid, Lee YH, Mohamad Nasir Mat Arip
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:941-949.
    Cellulose nanomaterial with rod-like structure and highly crystalline order, usually formed by elimination of the amorphous region from cellulose during acid hydrolysis. Cellulose nanomaterial with the property of biocompatibility and nontoxicity can be used for enzyme immobilization. In this work, urease enzyme was used as a model enzyme to study the surface modification of cellulose nanomaterial and its potential for biosensor application. The cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) surface was modified using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation to introduce the carboxyl group at C6 primary alcohol. The success of enzyme immobilization and surface modification was confirmed using chemical tests and measured using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The immobilization strategy was then applied for biosensor application for urea detection. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were used for electroanalytical characterization of the urea biosensor.
  14. Hasmida Mohd-Nasir, Siti Hamidah Mohd-Setapar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:951-959.
    Consumer consciousness on the concept of natural-based ingredients triggers the natural cosmetics market to grow. The
    active compounds in natural ingredients offer valuable bioactivities such as antioxidant, photoprotection, anti-aging
    and anti-inflammatory actions that useful for skincare, hair care and dental care. This review presents an overview on
    natural ingredient, especially plant-derived, used in cosmetic products and the examples of Malaysian plants used for
    cosmetic purposes.
  15. Maazullah Khan, Abdurab, Muhammad Hanif, Mansoor Khan Khattak, Muhammad Ramzan
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1061-1067.
    Air heating by solar collectors is renewable technology providing hot air for different purposes. The present research
    emphasizes on analysis of energy, exergy and efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater. The analysis model was tested
    on five different air mass flow rates of 0.5 (Natural), 1.31, 2.11, 2.72 and 3.03 kgs-1 under three different tilt angles of
    25, 35 (Recommended) and 50o
    . The data was replicated three times making a total of 45 treatments. A two factorial
    completely randomized design was used to find if there is any significant difference among the treatments. The results
    showed that the solar collector gave better performance at air mass flow of 3.03 kgs-1 under tilt of 35o
    . At maximum
    air mass flow rate of 3.03 kgs-1and optimum tilt angle of 35o
    the maximum energetic efficiency of 51%, while minimum
    exergetic efficiency of 24% and maximum overall efficiency of 71% were recorded. It was concluded that to get maximum
    thermal efficiencies of 71% from flat plate solar collector used as an air heater must be operated at high air mass flow
    rates of 3.03 kgs-1under 35o
    tilt angle at Peshawar, Pakistan.
  16. Kohilavani Naganthran, Roslinda Nazar, Ioan Pop
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1069-1076.
    This study offers the numerical solutions for the problem of mixed convection stagnation-point flow along a permeable
    vertical flat plate in an Oldroyd-B fluid. The present investigation considers the effects of thermal radiation and heat
    generation/absorption in the fluid flow. The similarity transformation simplifies the complex model and the bvp4c function
    generates the numerical solutions according to the variations in the governing parameters. A higher degree of shrinking
    hastens flow separations. The dual solutions are visible in the range of buoyancy opposing flow. The results from this study
    may be useful for the scientist to understand the behaviour of the dilute polymer solutions in the industrial applications,
    for example, the drag reduction in pipe flows.
  17. Nadiya Akmal Baharum, Rofina Yasmin Othman, Boon Chin Tan, Kamilatulhusna Zaidi, Norzulaani Khalid, Nadiya Akmal Baharum, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2291-2300.
    PR-10 is a member of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes elicited by the plant’s defense mechanism during pathogen attack.
    Elevated expression of PR-10 upon different pathogen invasions has been observed in many plant species suggesting
    its role as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal gene. However, the effect of PR-10 in mitigating the infection of
    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in banana has not been reported. In this
    study, the coding sequences of PR-10 gene isolated from Foc resistant Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis (MaPR-10)
    were integrated into a local Foc susceptible commercial banana cultivar, Berangan via co-cultivation of embryogenic
    cell suspension and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Out of 17 putative transgenic lines established, 11 of them positively
    harbored MaPR-10. Among these, Line-19 plantlets showed the most rapid in-vitro propagation and successfully overexpressed the transgene. Following a nursery challenge experiment with a virulent Foc race 4 (CI HIR) isolate, about 30%
    of Line-19 plants showed a one-week delay in disease progression when compared to the untransformed controls. From
    the final evaluation performed in the 5th week-post-inoculation, the leaf symptoms index (LSI) and rhizome discoloration
    index (RDI) of Line-19 was 3.4 and 6.1, respectively, indicating the disease had progressed. The findings of this study
    enrich the current existing knowledge on the roles of PR-10 in combating fungal disease in plants.
  18. Lai WH, Mohamad Yusof Maskat
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2699-2704.
    This study was carried out to determine the effects of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) on the flavour compounds
    (eugenol and limonene), moisture and oil content in chicken nuggets during frying. Chicken nugget added with 500
    ppm eugenol and limonene were coated with HPMC solution (0, 0.75 and 1.5%) and then with a commercial coating
    (ADABI, Malaysia). Chicken nuggets were fried at 180o
    C for 4 min. Quantity of eugenol and limonene in the substrate
    (chicken meat) and coating were measured alongwith the moisture and oil content. The results showed that 0.75 and
    1.5% HPMC were not able to retain either eugenol or limonene in both substrate and coating portion of the nuggets
    when compared to control except for eugenol in the substrate portion when using 1.5% HPMC. Application of HPMC
    also resulted in reduced moisture loss and oil absorption. The reduced moisture loss and oil absorption in the coating
    and substrate of the chicken nuggets showed that HPMC was able to form a barrier that restricted the migration of
    moisture from the nuggets and absorption of oil into the nuggets. However, only the 1.5% HPMC barrier formed was
    able to reduce the loss of eugenol in the nugget substrate. Both 0.75 and 1.5% HPMC was not able to significantly
    reduce the loss of limonene during frying.
  19. Yee Hung Yeap, Teng Wei Koay, Boon Hoe Lim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2269-2289.
    Engineering the CO2
    -fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) to improve photosynthesis
    has long been sought. Rubisco large subunits (RbcL) are highly-conserved but because of certain undefined sequence
    differences, plant Rubisco research cannot fully utilise the robust heterologous Escherichia coli expression system and its
    GroEL folding machinery. Previously, a series of chimeric cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus Rubisco, incorporated
    with sequences from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, were expressed in E. coli; differences in RbcL sections
    essential for holoenzyme formation were pinpointed. In this study, the remaining sections, presumably not crucial for
    holoenzyme formation and also the small subunit (RbcS), are substituted to further ascertain the possible destabilising
    effects of multiple section mutations. To that end, combinations of Synechococcus RbcL Sections 1 (residues 1-47), 2
    (residues 48-97), 5 (residues 198-247) and 10 (residues 448-472), and RbcS, were swapped with collinear Chlamydomonas
    sections and expressed in E. coli. Interestingly, only the chimera with Sections 1 and 2 together produces holoenzyme and
    an interaction network of complementing amino acid changes is delineated by crystal structure analysis. Furthermore,
    sequence-based analysis also highlighted possible GroEL binding site differences between the two RbcLs.
  20. Andi R. Rosandy, Seng JL, Jalifah Latip, Muntaz A. Bakar, Rozida M. Khalid, Munir A. Murad A, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2693-2698.
    A new dipeptide, (-)-glaciantarcin (1) and three known compounds, cyclo(-Pro-Gly) (2), 1-(2-deoxypentofuranosyl)-5-
    methyl-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione (3) and vidarabine (Ara-A) (4), were isolated from Glaciozyma antarctica PI12,
    a cold-adapted yeast. The chemical structures were elucidated by FT-IR, NMR and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity
    and antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were evaluated by using the MTT bioassay on MCF-7 (human breast cancer
    cell line), PC-3 (human prostate cancer cell line) and HEK-293 (normal human embryonic kidney cell line) and DPPH
    free radical scavenging activity, respectively. At concentration of 400 µM, all compounds showed the highest activity
    on MCF-7, with compound 1 at 65%, compound 2 (70%), compound 3 (66%) and compound 4 (58%) cell viability. All
    compounds exhibited weak antioxidant properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of compounds
    1-4 from Glaciozyma antactica.
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