Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 313 in total

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  1. Qasim SSB, Zafar MS, Niazi FH, Alshahwan M, Omar H, Daood U
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2020 06;31(9):1144-1162.
    PMID: 32202207 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2020.1744289
    Design and development of novel therapeutic strategies to regenerate lost tissue structure and function is a serious clinical hurdle for researchers. Traditionally, much of the research is dedicated in optimising properties of scaffolds. Current synthetic biomaterials remain rudimentary in comparison to their natural counterparts. The ability to incorporate biologically inspired elements into the design of synthetic materials has advanced with time. Recent reports suggest that functionally graded material mimicking the natural tissue morphology can have a more exaggerated response on the targeted tissue. The aim of this review is to deliver an overview of the functionally graded concept with respect to applications in clinical dentistry. A comprehensive understanding of spatiotemporal arrangement in fields of restorative, prosthodontics, periodontics, orthodontics and oral surgery is presented. Different processing techniques have been adapted to achieve such gradients ranging from additive manufacturing (three dimensional printing/rapid prototyping) to conventional techniques of freeze gelation, freeze drying, electrospinning and particulate leaching. The scope of employing additive manufacturing technique as a reliable and predictable tool for the design and accurate reproduction of biomimetic templates is vast by any measure. Further research in the materials used and refinement of the synthesis techniques will continue to expand the frontiers of functionally graded membrane based biomaterials application in the clinical domain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials*
  2. Chenna D, Shastry S, Das S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2021 Feb;28(1):35-40.
    PMID: 33679218 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2021.28.1.5
    Background: Biomaterials containing platelets have been used to promote healing of ulcers and burns, as well as in implantology and maxillofacial and plastic surgery to achieve wound healing and tissue repair. Commercial devices to prepare autologous biomaterials involve diverse preparation methods that can have high production costs and low yields. Hence, we designed a protocol for preparation of large amounts of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) glue using conventional processing techniques for blood components.

    Methods: Autologous whole blood collected 72 h before surgery was processed to prepare platelet concentrates and cryoprecipitate. In a closed system, calcium was added to the cryoprecipitate to release autologous thrombin and generate a firm fibrin clot. The fibrin clot, platelets and calcium were then placed in a conical flask in which a PRF glue formed. The protocol was validated through determination of pre- and post-platelet counts and fibrinogen amounts in the product.

    Results: Platelets were recovered with 68% efficiency during the preparation. Essentially no platelets or fibrinogen were found in the supernatant of the PRF glue, suggesting that nearly all had been incorporated in a PRF glue having a relatively large (8 cm × 10 cm) size.

    Conclusion: The protocol described here is a cost-effective, simple and closed system that can be used to produce large-size PRF glue to promote repair of major surgical defects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  3. Ahmad MB, Gharayebi Y, Salit MS, Hussein MZ, Ebrahimiasl S, Dehzangi A
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(4):4860-72.
    PMID: 22606014 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13044860
    Polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and poly(amic acid) (PAA) based on aromatic diamine (4-aminophenyl sulfone) (4-APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3,4,4-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) via a sol-gel process in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). The prepared polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR results confirmed the synthesis of polyimide (4-APS/BTDA) and the formation of SiO(2) particles in the polyimide matrix. Meanwhile, the SEM images showed that the SiO(2) particles were well dispersed in the polyimide matrix. Thermal stability and kinetic parameters of the degradation processes for the prepared polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were investigated using TGA in N(2) atmosphere. The activation energy of the solid-state process was calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa's method without the knowledge of the reaction mechanism. The results indicated that thermal stability and the values of the calculated activation energies increased with the increase of the TEOS loading and the activation energy also varied with the percentage of weight loss for all compositions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemical synthesis*; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  4. Wan Daud WR, Djuned FM
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Nov 5;132:252-60.
    PMID: 26256348 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.011
    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemical synthesis; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  5. Mehrali M, Thakur A, Pennisi CP, Talebian S, Arpanaei A, Nikkhah M, et al.
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2017 Feb;29(8).
    PMID: 27966826 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603612
    Given their highly porous nature and excellent water retention, hydrogel-based biomaterials can mimic critical properties of the native cellular environment. However, their potential to emulate the electromechanical milieu of native tissues or conform well with the curved topology of human organs needs to be further explored to address a broad range of physiological demands of the body. In this regard, the incorporation of nanomaterials within hydrogels has shown great promise, as a simple one-step approach, to generate multifunctional scaffolds with previously unattainable biological, mechanical, and electrical properties. Here, recent advances in the fabrication and application of nanocomposite hydrogels in tissue engineering applications are described, with specific attention toward skeletal and electroactive tissues, such as cardiac, nerve, bone, cartilage, and skeletal muscle. Additionally, some potential uses of nanoreinforced hydrogels within the emerging disciplines of cyborganics, bionics, and soft biorobotics are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  6. Ibrahim WN, Muizzuddin Bin Mohd Rosli L, Doolaanea AA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:8059-8074.
    PMID: 33116518 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S269340
    Introduction: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main active compound extracted from Nigella sativa a traditional herb with wide therapeutic applications and recognizable anticancer properties. This study aimed to formulate and characterize TQ-nanoparticles using PLGA as a biocompatible coating material (TQ-PLGA NPs) with the evaluation of its therapeutic properties in human melanoma cancer cells.

    Methods: The TQ-PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and release profile.

    Results: The particle size was 147.2 nm, with 22.1 positive zeta potential and 96.8% encapsulation efficiency. The NPs released 45.6% of the encapsulated TQ within 3 h followed by characteristic sustained release over 7 days with a total of 69.7% cumulative release. TQ-PLGA NPs were taken up effectively by the cells in a time-dependent manner up to 24 h. Higher cell toxicity was determined within the first 24 h in melanoma cells due to the rapid release of TQ from the NPs and its low stability in the cell culture media.

    Conclusion: TQ-PLGA NPs is a potential anticancer agent taking advantage of the sustained release and tailored size that allows accumulation in the cancer tissue by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, stability problems of the active ingredient were address in this study and requires further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  7. Matmin J, Affendi I, Endud S
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2018 Jul 10;8(7).
    PMID: 29996468 DOI: 10.3390/nano8070514
    The conventional synthesis route of nanostructured titania-silica (Ti-SiNS) based on sol-gel requires the use of a surfactant-type template that suffers from hazardous risks, environmental concerns, and a tedious stepwise process. Alternatively, biomaterials have been introduced as an indirect template, but still required for pre-suspended scaffold structures, which hinder their practical application. Herein, we report an easy and industrially viable direct-continuous strategy for the preparation of Ti-SiNS from nanostructured-silica (SiNS) using a hydrolyzed rice starch template. This strategy fits into the conventional industrial process flow, as it allows starch to be used directly in time-effective and less complicated steps, with the potential to upscale. The formation of Ti-SiNS is mainly attributed to Ti attachment in the SiNS frameworks after the polycondensation of the sol-gel composition under acidic-media. The SiNS had pseudo-spherical morphology (nanoparticles with the size of 13 to 22 nm), short order crystal structure (amorphous) and high surface area (538.74 m²·g−1). The functionalized SiNS into Ti-SiNS delivered considerable catalytic activity for epoxidation of 1-naphtol into 1,4-naphthoquinone. The described direct-continuous preparation shows great promise for a cheap, green, and efficient synthesis of Ti-SiNS for advanced applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  8. Cik Rohaida CH, Idris B, Mohd Reusmaazran Y, Rusnah M, Fadzley Izwan AM
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:156-7.
    PMID: 15468865
    A mixture with different compositions of HA and TCP were synthesize in this work by precipitation method using Ca(NO3)2 4H2 and (NH4)2HPO4 as the starting materials. A mixture with HA and TCP phases in different ratios were produced. The powders were sintered from 1000 degrees C to 1250 degrees C. The phase compositions of the mixtures were then studied via XRD. This work shows that the pH value determines the different phase compositions of the HA-TCP mixture. Chemical analyses were carried out by FTIR. The microstructure was observed under SEM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/analysis; Biocompatible Materials/chemical synthesis*
  9. Syva SH, Ampon K, Lasimbang H, Fatimah SS
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 02;11(2):311-320.
    PMID: 26073746 DOI: 10.1002/term.2043
    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMCs) show great differentiation and proliferation potential and also other remarkable features that could serve as an outstanding alternative source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recent reports have demonstrated various kinds of effective artificial niche that mimic the microenvironment of different types of stem cell to maintain and control their fate and function. The components of the stem cell microenvironment consist mainly of soluble and insoluble factors responsible for regulating stem cell differentiation and self-renewal. Extensive studies have been made on regulating HAMCs differentiation into specific phenotypes; however, the understanding of relevant factors in directing stem cell fate decisions in HAMCs remain underexplored. In this review, we have therefore identified soluble and insoluble factors, including mechanical stimuli and cues from the other supporting cells that are involved in directing HAMCs fate decisions. In order to strengthen the significance of understanding on the relevant factors involved in stem cell fate decisions, recent technologies developed to specifically mimic the microenvironments of specific cell lineages are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  10. Naomi R, Ardhani R, Hafiyyah OA, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Sep 13;12(9).
    PMID: 32933133 DOI: 10.3390/polym12092081
    Collagen (Col) is a naturally available material and is widely used in the tissue engineering and medical field owing to its high biocompatibility and malleability. Promising results on the use of Col were observed in the periodontal application and many attempts have been carried out to inculcate Col for gingival recession (GR). Col is found to be an excellent provisional bioscaffold for the current treatment in GR. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to scrutinize an overview of the reported Col effect focusing on in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials in GR application. A comprehensive literature search was performed using EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Springer Link, and Medline & Ovid databases to identify the potential articles on particular topics. The search query was accomplished based on the Boolean operators involving keywords such as (1) collagen OR scaffold OR hybrid scaffold OR biomaterial AND (2) gingiva recession OR tissue regeneration OR dental tissue OR healing mechanism OR gingiva. Only articles published from 2015 onwards were selected for further analysis. This review includes the physicochemical properties of Col scaffold and the outcome for GR. The comprehensive literature search retrieved a total of 3077 articles using the appropriate keywords. However, on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 15 articles were chosen for further review. The results from these articles indicated that Col promoted gingival tissue regeneration for GR healing. Therefore, this systematic review recapitulated that Col enhances regeneration of gingival tissue either through a slow or rapid process with no sign of cytotoxicity or adverse effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  11. Masri S, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Mar 25;13(7).
    PMID: 33805995 DOI: 10.3390/polym13071011
    Skin tissue engineering aimed to replace chronic tissue injury commonly occurred due to severe burn and chronic wound in diabetic ulcer patients. The normal skin is unable to be regenerated until the seriously injured tissue is disrupted and losing its function. 3D-bioprinting has been one of the effective methods for scaffold fabrication and is proven to replace the conventional method, which reported several drawbacks. In light of this, researchers have developed a new fabrication approach via 3D-bioprinting by combining biomaterials (bioinks) with cells and biomolecules followed by a suitable crosslinking approach. This advanced technology has been subcategorised into three different printing techniques including inject-based, laser-based, and extrusion-based printing. However, the printable quality of the currently available bioinks demonstrated shortcomings in the physicochemical and mechanical properties. This review aims to identify the limitations raised by using natural-based bioinks and the optimum temperature for various applied printing techniques. It is essential to ensure maintaining the acceptable printed scaffold property such as the optimum pore sizes and porosity that allow cell migration activity. In addition, the properties required for an ideal bioinks design for better scaffold printability were also summarised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  12. Lo S, Fauzi MB
    Pharmaceutics, 2021 Feb 28;13(3).
    PMID: 33670973 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13030316
    Tissue engineering technology is a promising alternative approach for improvement in health management. Biomaterials play a major role, acting as a provisional bioscaffold for tissue repair and regeneration. Collagen a widely studied natural component largely present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human body. It provides mechanical stability with suitable elasticity and strength to various tissues, including skin, bone, tendon, cornea and others. Even though exogenous collagen is commonly used in bioscaffolds, largely in the medical and pharmaceutical fields, nano collagen is a relatively new material involved in nanotechnology with a plethora of unexplored potential. Nano collagen is a form of collagen reduced to a nanoparticulate size, which has its advantages over the common three-dimensional (3D) collagen design, primarily due to its nano-size contributing to a higher surface area-to-volume ratio, aiding in withstanding large loads with minimal tension. It can be produced through different approaches including the electrospinning technique to produce nano collagen fibres resembling natural ECM. Nano collagen can be applied in various medical fields involving bioscaffold insertion or fillers for wound healing improvement; skin, bone, vascular grafting, nerve tissue and articular cartilage regeneration as well as aiding in drug delivery and incorporation for cosmetic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  13. Naomi R, Ratanavaraporn J, Fauzi MB
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jul 10;13(14).
    PMID: 32664418 DOI: 10.3390/ma13143097
    The use of hybridisation strategy in biomaterials technology provides a powerful synergistic effect as a functional matrix. Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used for drug delivery, and collagen (Col) resembles the extracellular matrix (ECM). This systematic review was performed to scrutinise the outcome of hybrid Col and SF for cutaneous wound healing. This paper reviewed the progress of related research based on in vitro and in vivo studies and the influence of the physicochemical properties of the hybrid in wound healing. The results indicated the positive outcome of hybridising Col and SF for cutaneous wound healing. The hybridisation of these biomaterials exhibits an excellent moisturising property, perfectly interconnected structure, excellent water absorption and retention capacity, an acceptable range of biodegradability, and synergistic effects in cell viability. The in vitro and in vivo studies clearly showed a promising outcome in the acceleration of cutaneous wound healing using an SF and Col hybrid scaffold. The review of this study can be used to design an appropriate hybrid scaffold for cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, this systematic review recapitulated that the hybridisation of Col and SF promoted rapid cutaneous healing through immediate wound closure and reepithelisation, with no sign of adverse events. This paper concludes on the need for further investigations of the hybrid SF and Col in the future to ensure that the hybrid biomaterials are well-suited for human skin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  14. Riha SM, Maarof M, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 May 12;13(10).
    PMID: 34065898 DOI: 10.3390/polym13101546
    Skin tissue engineering has made remarkable progress in wound healing treatment with the advent of newer fabrication strategies using natural/synthetic polymers and stem cells. Stem cell therapy is used to treat a wide range of injuries and degenerative diseases of the skin. Nevertheless, many related studies demonstrated modest improvement in organ functions due to the low survival rate of transplanted cells at the targeted injured area. Thus, incorporating stem cells into biomaterial offer niches to transplanted stem cells, enhancing their delivery and therapeutic effects. Currently, through the skin tissue engineering approach, many attempts have employed biomaterials as a platform to improve the engraftment of implanted cells and facilitate the function of exogenous cells by mimicking the tissue microenvironment. This review aims to identify the limitations of stem cell therapy in wound healing treatment and potentially highlight how the use of various biomaterials can enhance the therapeutic efficiency of stem cells in tissue regeneration post-implantation. Moreover, the review discusses the combined effects of stem cells and biomaterials in in vitro and in vivo settings followed by identifying the key factors contributing to the treatment outcomes. Apart from stem cells and biomaterials, the role of growth factors and other cellular substitutes used in effective wound healing treatment has been mentioned. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of biomaterials and stem cells provided significant effectiveness in therapeutic outcomes mainly in wound healing improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  15. Sharif Hossain ABM, Uddin MM, Veettil VN, Fawzi M
    Data Brief, 2018 Apr;17:162-168.
    PMID: 29877503 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.12.046
    The nanocellulose derived biodegradable plant biomaterial as nano-coating can be used in the medical, biomedical cosmetics, and bioengineering products. Bio-plastic and some synthetic derived materials are edible and naturally biodegradable. The study was conducted to investigate edible nano-biopolymer based nano-coating of capsules and drugs or other definite biomedical materials from corn leaf biomass. Corn leaf biomass was used as an innovative sample to produce edible nano-coating bioplastic for drug and capsule coating and other industrial uses. The data show the negligible water 0.01% absorbed by bio-plastic nanocoating. Odor represented by burning test was under the completely standard based on ASTM. Moreover, data on color coating, tensile strength, pH, cellulose content have been shown under standard value of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials) standard. In addition to that data on the chemical element test like K+,


    CO


    3


    -
    -


    , Cl-, Na+ exhibited positive data compared to the synthetic plastic in the laboratory using the EN (166)) standardization. Therefore, it can be concluded that both organic (cellulose and starch) based edible nano-coating bioplastic may be used for drug and capsule coating as biomedical and medical components in the pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  16. Hee SL, Nik Intan NI, Fazan F
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:77-8.
    PMID: 15468827
    There is a great demand of Hydroxyapatite (HA) material in Orthopaedics and Dental applications due to its similarity to human bone. However, the lack of availability and due to high import cost of this material in Malaysia, research in producing synthetic HA locally is therefore timely. The use of local resources as the raw materials for the production of HA is also desirable in reducing the overall cost of HA. In this study, two HA materials were synthesised from different starting precursors, i.e. commercial pure Ca(OH)2 (HAS) and Ca(OH)2 directly from a local natural limestone deposit (HAL). Whereas a commercially available HA "Captal 60" (HAC) was used as reference. The synthesised powders obtained were fired at 1000 degrees C and at 1250 degrees C. Characterisation evaluations on bulk properties were carried out using XRD, SEM-EDX, ICP and FTIR. The results indicate that both HAS and HAL are comparable to HAC even at 1000 degrees C. Thus, the local natural limestone can be used to form HA. However, the overall appearance of these materials are quite different (HAC - blue, HAS - greenish and HAL - light green). The reasons for this and the subsequent mechanical and bioactive effects of these materials are currently being investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/analysis; Biocompatible Materials/chemical synthesis*
  17. Thilagar S, Jothi NA, Omar AR, Kamaruddin MY, Ganabadi S
    PMID: 18161832
    Skin grafts are indicated when there is a major loss of skin. Full-thickness skin graft is an ideal choice to reconstruct defect of irregular surface that is difficult to immobilize. Full-thickness mesh grafts can be applied to patch large skin defect when there is less donor site in extensively traumatized and burned surgical patients. The concept of using natural biomaterials such as keratin, basic fibroblast growth factor is slowly gaining popularity in the field of medical research to achieve early healing. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of gelatin conjoined with keratin processed from the poultry feather and commercially available basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a sandwich layer in promoting the viability of full-thickness skin mesh grafts. The efficacy was assessed from the observation of clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological findings in three groups of experimental dogs. The clinical observations such as color, appearance and discharge, and hair growth were selected as criteria which indicated good and early acceptance of graft in keratin-gelatin (group II). On bacteriological examination, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus was identified in few animals. Histopathological study of the patched graft revealed early presences of hair follicles; sebaceous gland, and normal thickness of the epidermis in keratin-gelatin in group II treated animals compared with other group (group I-control, group III-bFGF-gelatin).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  18. Rudramurthy GR, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Ghasemzadeh A
    Molecules, 2016 Jun 27;21(7).
    PMID: 27355939 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21070836
    Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered "miracle drugs" and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, which is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare practitioners and is a significant global threat. The major concern with the development of antimicrobial resistance is the spread of resistant organisms. The replacement of conventional antimicrobials by new technology to counteract antimicrobial resistance is ongoing. Nanotechnology-driven innovations provide hope for patients and practitioners in overcoming the problem of drug resistance. Nanomaterials have tremendous potential in both the medical and veterinary fields. Several nanostructures comprising metallic particles have been developed to counteract microbial pathogens. The effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) depends on the interaction between the microorganism and the NPs. The development of effective nanomaterials requires in-depth knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NPs and the biological aspects of microorganisms. However, the risks associated with using NPs in healthcare need to be addressed. The present review highlights the antimicrobial effects of various nanomaterials and their potential advantages, drawbacks, or side effects. In addition, this comprehensive information may be useful in the discovery of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for use against multi-drug-resistant microbial pathogens in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  19. Revati R, Abdul Majid MS, Ridzuan MJM, Normahira M, Mohd Nasir NF, Rahman Y MN, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Jun 01;75:752-759.
    PMID: 28415525 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.02.127
    The mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA) based scaffold were investigated. In this study, a scaffold containing P. purpureum and PLA was produced using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. P. purpureum fibre, also locally known as Napier grass, is composed of 46% cellulose, 34% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin. PLA composites with various P. purpureum contents (10%, 20%, and 30%) were prepared and subsequently characterised. The morphologies, structures and thermal behaviours of the prepared composite scaffolds were characterised using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology was studied using FESEM; the scaffold possessed 70-200μm-sized pores with a high level of interconnectivity. The moisture content and mechanical properties of the developed porous scaffolds were further characterised. The P. purpureum/PLA scaffold had a greater porosity factor (99%) and compression modulus (5.25MPa) than those of the pure PLA scaffold (1.73MPa). From the results, it can be concluded that the properties of the highly porous P. purpureum/PLA scaffold developed in this study can be controlled and optimised. This can be used to facilitate the construction of implantable tissue-engineered cartilage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  20. Alrimawi BH, Chan MY, Ooi XY, Chan SY, Goh CF
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 15;13(4).
    PMID: 33671895 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040578
    Rice starch is a promising biomaterial for thin film development in buccal drug delivery, but the plasticisation and antiplasticisation phenomena from both plasticisers and drugs on the performance of rice starch films are not well understood. This study aims to elucidate the competing effects of sorbitol (plasticiser) and drug (antiplasticiser) on the physicochemical characteristics of rice starch films containing low paracetamol content. Rice starch films were prepared with different sorbitol (10, 20 and 30% w/w) and paracetamol contents (0, 1 and 2% w/w) using the film casting method and were characterised especially for drug release, swelling and mechanical properties. Sorbitol showed a typical plasticising effect on the control rice starch films by increasing film flexibility and by reducing swelling behaviour. The presence of drugs, however, modified both the mechanical and swelling properties by exerting an antiplasticisation effect. This antiplasticisation action was found to be significant at a low sorbitol level or a high drug content. FTIR investigations supported the antiplasticisation action of paracetamol through the disturbance of sorbitol-starch interactions. Despite this difference, an immediate drug release was generally obtained. This study highlights the interplay between plasticiser and drug in influencing the mechanical and swelling characteristics of rice starch films at varying concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
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