Cell-based therapy using autologous cells has been suggested as a potential approach for periodontal tissue regeneration. Spheroid systems are a form of three-dimensional cell culture that promotes cell matrix interaction, which could recapitulate the aspect of cell homeostasis in vivo. The aim of this study is to assess the interaction of periodontal fibroblast spheroids with synthetic and collagen-based membranes that have been used in guided tissue regeneration.
A normally restored orbital structure after reconstructive surgery would accelerate the return of orbital function. The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of 2 orbital implants: autogenous grafts and porous polyethylene (Medpor).
In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) used for bone replacement is one of the most active areas of ceramic biomaterials research currently. It has been used clinically for the last 20 years due to its excellent biocompatibility, osseoconduction and osseointegration. Many modifications have been done to develop a stronger, tougher and biocompatible ceramic biomaterial because pure HA is brittle. Researchers in Universiti Sains Malaysia had developed this value added HA that is stronger and less brittle compared to pure HA. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the genotoxic characteristic of the value added HA based material by using Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames test). The Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay of HA was performed on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA using the preincubation method in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system. All the bacterial tester strains treated with and without S9 Mix showed no increase of revertant colonies with increase in concentration of test substance for both the dose finding test and the main test. The number of revertant colonies was less than twice that of the solvent control for all the five bacterial strains and this was reproducible for both the dose finding test and the main test. The numbers of revertant colonies in the negative and positive controls were within the background data of our laboratory. In conclusion the results of the tests showed that the value added HA was considered to have no reverse mutagenic potential under the present test conditions.
Advances in scaffold design and fabrication technology have brought the tissue engineering field stepping into a new era. Conventional techniques used to develop scaffolds inherit limitations, such as lack of control over the pore morphology and architecture as well as reproducibility. Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, a layer-by-layer additive approach offers a unique opportunity to build complex 3D architectures overcoming those limitations that could ultimately be tailored to cater for patient-specific applications. Using RP methods, researchers have been able to customize scaffolds to mimic the biomechanical properties (in terms of structural integrity, strength, and microenvironment) of the organ or tissue to be repaired/replaced quite closely. This article provides intensive description on various extrusion based scaffold fabrication techniques and review their potential utility for TE applications. The extrusion-based technique extrudes the molten polymer as a thin filament through a nozzle onto a platform layer-by-layer and thus building 3D scaffold. The technique allows full control over pore architecture and dimension in the x- and y- planes. However, the pore height in z-direction is predetermined by the extruding nozzle diameter rather than the technique itself. This review attempts to assess the current state and future prospects of this technology.
This report presents physical characterization and cell culture test of porous alumina-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites fabricated through protein foaming-consolidation technique. Alumina and HA powders were mixed with yolk and starch at an adjusted ratio to make slurry. The resulting slip was poured into cylindrical shaped molds and followed by foaming and consolidation via 180 °C drying for 1 h. The obtained green bodies were burned at 600 °C for 1 h, followed by sintering at temperatures of 1200-1550 °C for 2 h. Porous alumina-HA bodies with 26-77 vol.% shrinkage, 46%-52% porosity and 0.1-6.4 MPa compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength of bodies increased with the increasing sintering temperatures. The addition of commercial HA in the body was found to increase the compressive strength, whereas the case is reverse for sol-gel derived HA. Biocompatibility study of porous alumina-HA was performed in a stirred tank bioreactor using culture of Vero cells. A good compatibility of the cells to the porous microcarriers was observed as the cells attached and grew at the surface of microcarriers at 8-120 cultured hours. The cell growth on porous alumina microcarrier was 0.015 h(-1) and increased to 0.019 h(-1) for 0.3 w/w HA-to-alumina mass ratio and decreased again to 0.017 h(-1) for 1.0 w/w ratio.
This study describes the synthesis of Al(2)O(3)/SiC/ZrO(2) functionally graded material (FGM) in bio-implants (artificial joints) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). A suitable suspension that was based on 2-butanone was applied for the EPD of Al(2)O(3)/SiC/ZrO(2), and a pressureless sintering process was applied as a presintering. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was used to densify the deposit, with beneficial mechanical properties after 2 h at 1800 °C in Ar atmosphere. The maximum hardness in the outer layer (90 vol.% Al(2)O(3)+10 vol.% SiC) and maximum fracture toughness in the core layer (75 vol.% Al(2)O(3)+10 vol.% SiC + 15 vol.% ZrO(2)) composite were 20.8±0.3 GPa and 8±0.1 MPa m(1/2), respectively. The results, when compared with results from Al(2)O(3)/ZrO(2) FGM, showed that SiC increased the compressive stresses in the outer layers, while the inner layers were under a residual tensile stress.
Polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and poly(amic acid) (PAA) based on aromatic diamine (4-aminophenyl sulfone) (4-APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3,4,4-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) via a sol-gel process in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). The prepared polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR results confirmed the synthesis of polyimide (4-APS/BTDA) and the formation of SiO(2) particles in the polyimide matrix. Meanwhile, the SEM images showed that the SiO(2) particles were well dispersed in the polyimide matrix. Thermal stability and kinetic parameters of the degradation processes for the prepared polyimide/SiO(2) composite films were investigated using TGA in N(2) atmosphere. The activation energy of the solid-state process was calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa's method without the knowledge of the reaction mechanism. The results indicated that thermal stability and the values of the calculated activation energies increased with the increase of the TEOS loading and the activation energy also varied with the percentage of weight loss for all compositions.
Nanotechnology is seeing higher propensity in various industries, including food and bioactives. New nanomaterials are constantly being developed from both natural biodegradable polymers of plant and animal origins such as polysaccharides and derivatives, peptides and proteins, lipids and fats, and biocompatible synthetic biopolyester polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA), and polycaprolactone (PCL). Applications in food industries include molecular synthesis of new functional food compounds, innovative food packaging, food safety, and security monitoring. The relevance of bioactives includes targeted delivery systems with improved bioavailability using nanostructure vehicles such as association colloids, lipid based nanoencapsulator, nanoemulsions, biopolymeric nanoparticles, nanolaminates, and nanofibers. The extensive use of nanotechnology has led to the need for parallel safety assessment and regulations to protect public health and adverse effects to the environment. This review covers the use of biopolymers in the production of nanomaterials and the propensity of nanotechnology in food and bioactives. The exposure routes of nanoparticles, safety challenges, and measures undertaken to ensure optimal benefits that outweigh detriments are also discussed.
This study aimed to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of a functionally graded femoral prosthesis. The model consisted of a femoral prosthesis created from functionally graded materials (FGMs), cement, and femur. The hip prosthesis was composed of FGMs made of titanium alloy, chrome-cobalt, and hydroxyapatite at volume fraction gradient exponents of 0, 1, and 5, respectively. The stress was measured on the femoral prosthesis, cement, and femur. Stress on the neck of the femoral prosthesis was not sensitive to the properties of the constituent material. However, stress on the stem and cement decreased proportionally as the volume fraction gradient exponent of the FGM increased. Meanwhile, stress became uniform on the cement mantle layer. In addition, stress on the femur in the proximal part increased and a high surface area of the femoral part was involved in absorbing the stress. As such, the stress-shielding area decreased. The results obtained in this study are significant in the design and longevity of new prosthetic devices because FGMs offer the potential to achieve stress distribution that more closely resembles that of the natural bone in the femur.
Osseointegration, defined as a direct structural and functional connection between ordered, living bone and the surface of a load-carrying implant, is critical for implant stability, and is considered a prerequisite for implant loading and long-term clinical success of end osseous dental implants. The implant-tissue interface is an extremely dynamic region of interaction. This complex interaction involves not only biomaterial and biocompatibility issues but also alteration of mechanical environment. The processes of osseointegration involve an initial interlocking between alveolar bone and the implant body, and later, biological fixation through continuous bone apposition and remodeling toward the implant. The process itself is quite complex and there are many factors that influence the formation and maintenance of bone at the implant surface. The aim of this present review is to analysis the current understanding of clinical assessments and factors that determine the success & failure of osseointegrated dental implants.
The effects of locally produced chitosan (CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate) in the intervention of keloid pathogenesis were investigated in vitro. A human keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture model was established to investigate the protein levels of human collagen type-I, III and V in a western blotting analysis, the secreted transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the mRNA levels of TGF-β1's intracellular signaling molecules (SMAD2, 3, 4 and 7) in a real-time PCR analysis. Keratinocyte-fibroblast co-cultures were maintained in DKSFM:DMEM:F12 (2:2:1) medium. Collagen type-I was found to be the dominant form in primary normal human dermal fibroblast (pNHDF) co-cultures, whereas collagen type-III was more abundant in primary keloid-derived human dermal fibroblast (pKHDF) co-cultures. Collagen type-V was present as a minor component in the skin. TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 were expressed more in the pKHDF than the pNHDF co-cultures. Co-cultures with normal keratinocytes suppressed collagen type-III, SMAD2, SMAD4 and TGF-β1 expressions and CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate in association with normal-derived keratinocytes demonstrated an ability to reduce TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 expressions in keloid-derived fibroblast cultures, which may be useful in keloid intervention.
The effects of organic solvents and their binary mixture in the glucose functionalization of bacterial poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates catalyzed by Lecitase™ Ultra were studied. Equal volume binary mixture of DMSO and chloroform with moderate polarity was more effective for the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of the carbohydrate polymer at ≈38.2 (±0.8)% reactant conversion as compared to the mono-phasic and other binary solvents studied. The apparent reaction rate constant as a function of medium water activity (aw) was observed to increase with increasing solvent polarity, with optimum aw of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.7 (±0.1) observed in hydrophilic DMSO, binary mixture DMSO:isooctane and hydrophobic isooctane, respectively. Molecular sieve loading between 13 to 15gL(-1) (±0.2) and reaction temperature between 40 to 50°C were found optimal. Functionalized PHA polymer showed potential characteristics and biodegradability.
This study aims to pre-assess the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of poly(vinyl alcohol)-carboxylmethyl-chitosan-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCP) scaffold. PCP was lyophilised to create supermacroporous structures. 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of PCP scaffolds for chondrocytes attachment and proliferation. The ultrastructural was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Extracellular matrix (ECM) formation was evaluated using collagen type-II staining, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen assays. Histological analysis was conducted on 3-week implanted Sprague-Dawley rats. The MTT, IHC, SEM and TEM analyses confirm that PCP scaffolds promoted cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. The chondrocyte-PCP constructs secreted GAG and collagen type-II, both increased significantly from day-14 to day-28 (P
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) with appropriate surface chemistry exhibit many interesting properties that can be exploited in a variety of biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation. These applications required that the MNPs such as iron oxide Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄ MNPs) having high magnetization values and particle size smaller than 100 nm. This paper reports the experimental detail for preparation of monodisperse oleic acid (OA)-coated Fe₃O₄ MNPs by chemical co-precipitation method to determine the optimum pH, initial temperature and stirring speed in order to obtain the MNPs with small particle size and size distribution that is needed for biomedical applications. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results show that the particle size as well as the magnetization of the MNPs was very much dependent on pH, initial temperature of Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ solutions and steering speed. The monodisperse Fe₃O₄ MNPs coated with oleic acid with size of 7.8 ± 1.9 nm were successfully prepared at optimum pH 11, initial temperature of 45°C and at stirring rate of 800 rpm. FTIR and XRD data reveal that the oleic acid molecules were adsorbed on the magnetic nanoparticles by chemisorption. Analyses of TEM show the oleic acid provided the Fe₃O₄ particles with better dispersibility. The synthesized Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles increased with the particle size.
To evaluate physical properties and cytotoxicity of pure gypsum-based (pure-GYP) and experimental gypsum-based biomaterials mixed with polyacrylic acid (Gyp-PA). The results were compared with calcium hydroxide (CH) and glass ionomer cement (GIC) for application as base/liner materials.
Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) because of its exceptionally high fracture toughness which is close to that of cortical bones has been nominated as a possible successor to calcium phosphate bioceramics. Recent in vitro studies also suggest that forsterite possesses good bioactivity and promotes osteoblast proliferation as well as adhesion. However studies on preparation and sinterability of nanocrystalline forsterite remain scarce. In this work, we use a solid-state reaction with magnesium oxide (MgO) and talc (Mg3Si4(OH)2) as the starting precursors to synthesize forsterite. A systematic investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of preparatory procedures including heat treatment, mixing methods and sintering temperature on development of microstructures as well as the mechanical properties of the sintered forsterite body.
Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care.