Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 922 in total

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  1. Radwan H, Hashim M, Hasan H, Abbas N, Obaid RRS, Al Ghazal H, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2022 Oct 14;128(7):1401-1412.
    PMID: 34294166 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114521002762
    During the first 1000 d of life, gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) are considered critical determinants of nutritional status. This study examined the effect of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) during pregnancy on GWG and PPWR at 2 and 6 months among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), using data from the Mother-Infant Study Cohort. The latter is a prospective study, for which pregnant women were recruited (n 243) during their third trimester and were followed up for 18 months. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements were obtained. An eighty-six-item FFQ was used to examine dietary intake during pregnancy. Adherence to the MD was assessed using the alternate MD (aMED) and the Lebanese MD (LMD). Adherence to the MD, PPWR2 (2 months) and PPWR6 (6 months) were considered high if participants belonged to the third tertile of the respective measures. Results indicated that 57·5 % of participants had excessive GWG while 50·7 % and 45 % retained ≥ 5 kg at 2 and 6 months postpartum, respectively. After adjustment, adherence to both MD scores was associated with lower odds of excessive GWG (aMED, OR:0·41, 95 % CI:0·18, 0·93; LMD, OR:0·40, 95 % CI: 0·16, 0·98). Adherence to MD was also associated with PPWR2 (aMED: OR: 0·23, 95 % CI: 0·06, 0·88) and PPWR6 (aMED OR:0·26; 95 % CI:0·08-0·86; LMD, OR:0·32; 95 % CI: 0·1, 0·98). The findings of this study showed that adherence to the MD may reduce GWG and PPWR and, hence, underscored the importance of promoting the MD for better health of the mother and infant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  2. Ahmad Bahathig A, Abu Saad H
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Sep 08;19(18).
    PMID: 36141585 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191811314
    This cluster-randomized study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention focused on physical activity, nutrition, and body image perception among girls in intermediate schools in Saudi Arabia. A seminar was delivered to the mothers of the girls in the experimental group. The experimental group then attended six interactive sessions within 3 months featuring physical activity, nutrition, and body image perception, followed by a 3-month follow-up period. A total of 138 respondents (68 in the experimental group and 70 in the control group) completed the intervention. Each participant's body mass index-for-age z-score and waist circumference were measured, and they completed a physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body image perception questionnaires before and after the intervention and at the follow-up. The intervention was evaluated using within- and between-groups generalized estimating equations. There were no significant changes in the respondents' body mass index-for-age z-score or waist circumference (p > 0.05). However, immediate significant improvements were seen in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body image satisfaction among the experimental group, and these improvements remained at follow-up (p < 0.001). These differences were more significant among the experimental group than among the control group. We found this intervention effective. Future studies can adapt this intervention for adolescent boys and extend its duration to improve the body mass index outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  3. Hasbullah FY, Mohd Yusof BN, Abdul Ghani R, Mat Daud Z', Appannah G, Abas F, et al.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Dec 14;19(24).
    PMID: 36554678 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192416797
    While it is known that women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus (post-GDM) have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), evidence of lifestyle practices from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is still scarce. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with MetS in women post-GDM. This cross-sectional study involved 157 women post-GDM (mean age 34.8 ± 5.6 years) sampled from Selangor, Malaysia. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics and obstetric history. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. MetS was diagnosed according to the 2009 Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 22.3%. Western dietary pattern consumption was correlated with MetS, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and triglyceride levels. Independent factors associated with MetS were lower education level (odds ratio, OR 4.017, p = 0.007), pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.192, p = 0.002), and Caesarean delivery (OR 3.798, p = 0.009). The study identified the maternal and dietary factors associated with MetS in women post-GDM in Malaysia. Community-based interventions that include dietary modification are warranted to prevent MetS and its complications, thus helping to reduce the overall disease burden.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  4. Zulfarina MS, Sharif R, Sharkawi AM, Mokhtar SA, Shuid AN, Naina-Mohamed I
    Public Health Nutr, 2023 Jan;26(1):122-131.
    PMID: 35321764 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980022000726
    OBJECTIVE: Misreporting of energy intake (EI) in nutritional epidemiology is common and even severe among adolescents. Thus, the current study aims to examine the presence, bias and impact introduced by implausible reporters.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: Central and eastern regions of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sampling was employed to select 917 secondary school-going adolescents (aged 15-17 years).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of under-reporters was 17·4 %, while no over-reporters were identified. Under-reporters had higher body composition and lower dietary intakes (except for vitamin C, Cr and Fl) compared with plausible reporters (P < 0·05). Adolescents with overweight and obesity had a higher odds of under-reporting compared with under-/normal weight adolescents (P < 0·001). In model 3, the highest regression coefficient (R2 = 0·404, P < 0·001) was obtained after adjusting for reporting status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to under-report their food intake and consequently affect nutrient intakes estimates. Future analyses that include nutrient intake data should adjust for reporting status so that the impact of misreporting on study outcomes can be conceded and consequently improve the accuracy of dietary-related results.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  5. Low NY, Chan CY, Subramaniam S, Chin KY, Ima Nirwana S, Muhammad N, et al.
    Ann Hum Biol, 2022 Dec;49(7-8):299-304.
    PMID: 36373795 DOI: 10.1080/03014460.2022.2147585
    BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used surrogate tool to screen for obesity/adiposity, but it cannot differentiate between lean and fat mass. Thus, alternative tools to detect excess adiposity should be identified.

    AIM: This study aimed to compare the performance of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in predicting Malaysians with excess body fat defined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 399 men and women aged ≥40 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. The body composition of the subjects, including body fat percentage, was measured by DXA. The weight, height, WC and WHtR of the subjects were also determined.

    RESULTS: BMI [sensitivity = 55.7%, specificity = 86.1%, area under curve (AUC) = 0.709] and WC (sensitivity = 62.7%, specificity = 90.3%, AUC = 0.765) performed moderately in predicting excess adiposity. Their performance and sensitivity improved with lower cut-off values. The performance of WHtR (sensitivity = 96.6%, specificity = 36.1, AUC = 0.664) was optimal at the standard cut-off value and no modification was required.

    CONCLUSION: The performance of WC in identifying excess adiposity was greater than BMI and WHtR based on AUC values. Modification of cut-off values for BMI and WC could improve their performance and should be considered by healthcare providers in screening individuals with excess adiposity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  6. Cho Y, Chang Y, Choi HR, Kang J, Kwon R, Lim GY, et al.
    Nutrients, 2022 Jul 08;14(14).
    PMID: 35889762 DOI: 10.3390/nu14142805
    The role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vasomotor symptom (VMS) risk in premenopausal women is unknown. We examined the prevalence of early-onset VMSs according to NAFLD status in lean and overweight premenopausal women. This cross-sectional study included 4242 premenopausal Korean women (mean age 45.4 years). VMSs (hot flashes and night sweats) were assessed using the Korean version of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire. Hepatic steatosis was determined using liver ultrasound; lean was defined as a body mass index of <23 kg/m2. Participants were categorized into four groups: NAFLD-free lean (reference), NAFLD-free overweight, lean NAFLD, and overweight NAFLD. Compared with the reference, the multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for VMSs in NAFLD-free overweight, lean NAFLD, and overweight NAFLD were 1.22 (1.06−1.41), 1.38 (1.06−1.79), and 1.49 (1.28−1.73), respectively. For moderate-to-severe VMSs, the multivariable-adjusted PRs (95% CIs) comparing NAFLD-free overweight, lean NAFLD, and overweight NAFLD to the reference were 1.38 (1.10−1.74), 1.73 (1.16−2.57), and 1.74 (1.37−2.21), respectively. NAFLD, even lean NAFLD, was significantly associated with an increased risk of prevalent early-onset VMSs and their severe forms among premenopausal women. Further studies are needed to determine the longitudinal association between NAFLD and VMS risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  7. Chan WK
    Clin Mol Hepatol, 2023 Feb;29(Suppl):S58-S67.
    PMID: 36472052 DOI: 10.3350/cmh.2022.0350
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver conditions that are characterized by excess accumulation of fat in the liver, and is diagnosed after exclusion of significant alcohol intake and other causes of chronic liver disease. In the majority of cases, NAFLD is associated with overnutrition and obesity, although it may be also found in lean or non-obese individuals. It has been estimated that 19.2% of NAFLD patients are lean and 40.8% are non-obese. The proportion of patients with more severe liver disease and the incidence of all-cause mortality, liver-related mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among non-obese and obese NAFLD patients varies across studies and may be confounded by selection bias, underestimation of alcohol intake, and unaccounted weight changes over time. Genetic factors may have a greater effect towards the development of NAFLD in lean or non-obese individuals, but the effect may be less pronounced in the presence of strong environmental factors, such as poor dietary choices and a sedentary lifestyle, as body mass index increases in the obese state. Overall, non-invasive tests, such as the Fibrosis-4 index, NAFLD fibrosis score, and liver stiffness measurement, perform better in lean or non-obese patients compared to obese patients. Lifestyle intervention works in non-obese patients, and less amount of weight loss may be required to achieve similar results compared to obese patients. Pharmacological therapy in non-obese NAFLD patients may require special consideration and a different approach compared to obese patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  8. Hanifah RA, Majid HA, Jalaludin MY, Al-Sadat N, Murray LJ, Cantwell M, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S5.
    PMID: 25436933 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S5
    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  9. Yang WY, Burrows T, Collins CE, MacDonald-Wicks L, Williams LT, Chee WS
    J Trop Pediatr, 2014 Dec;60(6):472-5.
    PMID: 25273889 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmu052
    This study aimed to identify the prevalence of energy misreporting amongst a sample of Malay children aged 9-11 years (n = 14) using a range of commonly used cut points. Participants were interviewed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls over three occasions. The Goldberg equations (1991 and 2000), Torun cut points and the Black and Cole method were applied to the data. Up to 11 of 14 children were classified as misreporters, with more under-reporters (between seven and eight children) than over-reporters (four or less children). There were significant differences in the proportion of children classified as energy misreporters when applying basal metabolic rate calculated using FAO/UNU/WHO (1985) and Malaysian-specific equations (p < 0.05). The results show that energy misreporting is common amongst Malay children, varying according to cut point chosen. Objective evaluation of total energy expenditure would help identify which cut point is appropriate for use in Malay paediatric populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  10. Shafaghi K, Shariff ZM, Taib MN, Rahman HA, Mobarhan MG, Jabbari H
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2014;23(2):225-31.
    PMID: 24901091 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.11
    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children aged 12 to 14 years in the city of Mashhad, Iran and its association with parental body mass index.
    METHODS: A total of 1189 secondary school children (579 males and 610 females) aged 12- 14 years old were selected through a stratified multistage random sampling. All adolescents were measured for weight and height. Household socio-demographic information and parental weight and height were self-reported by parents. Adolescents were classified as overweight or obese based on BMI-for age Z-score. Multivariable logistic Regression (MLR) determined the relationship between parental BMI and adolescent overweight and obesity.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children in Mashhad was 17.2% and 11.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of male (30.7%) than female (27.4%) children were overweight or obese. BMI of the children was significantly related to parental BMI (p<0.001), gender (p= 0.02), birth order (p<0.01), parents' education level (p<0.001), father's employment status (p<0.001), and family income (p<0.001). MLR showed that the father's BMI was significantly associated with male BMI (OR: 2.02) and female BMI (OR: 1.59), whereas the mother's BMI was significantly associated with female BMI only (OR: 0.514).
    CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of overweight/obesity among the research population compared with previous studies in Iran could be related to the changing lifestyle of the population. The strong relationship with parental BMI was probably related to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Strategies to address childhood obesity should consider the interaction of these factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  11. Jingya B, Ye H, Jing W, Xi H, Tao H
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:180863.
    PMID: 24453807 DOI: 10.1155/2013/180863
    To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students' physical health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  12. Jalali-Farahani S, Chin YS, Amiri P, Mohd Taib MN
    Child Care Health Dev, 2014 Sep;40(5):731-9.
    PMID: 23952615 DOI: 10.1111/cch.12103
    The study aimed to determine the association between body mass index (BMI)-for-age and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among high school students in Tehran.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  13. Liu A, Byrne NM, Kagawa M, Ma G, Poh BK, Ismail MN, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2011 Nov;106(9):1390-7.
    PMID: 21736824 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511001681
    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  14. Wee HL, Cheung YB, Loke WC, Tan CB, Chow MH, Li SC, et al.
    Value Health, 2008 Mar;11 Suppl 1:S105-14.
    PMID: 18387053 DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2008.00374.x
    To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a multiethnic Asian population in Singapore, and to explore if the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of alternative BMI cutoffs for Asians could be further strengthened by evidence of higher risk of impaired HRQoL using these criteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  15. Zalilah MS, Mirnalini K, Khor GL, Merlin A, Bahaman AS, Norimah K
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Mar;61(1):48-58.
    PMID: 16708734 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to report on the estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and multi-stage random sampling of secondary schools to select 5 urban and 9 rural schools in Kedah and Penang. A total of 6555 male and female adolescents (11-15 years old) of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were measured for weights and heights for body mass index calculation. Information on household demographic and socioeconomic were obtained from parents through self-administered questionnaires. Analyses of body mass index distribution by location, ethnicity, gender and age were conducted using Chi-square test of SPSS 11.5. More of the rural (12.1%) and urban (19.4%) adolescents were underweight and overweight, respectively. While in all ethnic, gender and age groups, rural adolescents were more likely to be underweight, more of the urban adolescents were overweight. The prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indians (19.2%) and lowest in Chinese (7.2%). The prevalence of overweight in the three ethnic groups was in the range of 18-19%. More male than female adolescents were underweight (15% vs 7.8%) and overweight (19.5% vs 16.7%). Consistent patterns were also observed across location, ethnic and age groups. As age increased, the prevalence of overweight decreased across the ethnic and gender groups. The reported findings can serve as current reference on body mass index distribution of Malaysian adolescents and a basis for future efforts in health and nutrition interventions for Malaysian children and adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  16. Moy FM, Gan CY, Zaleha MK
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2004;13(4):324-9.
    PMID: 15563435
    Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and <5th percentile for overweight and underweight respectively, there were a total of 7.3% of overweight students and 14.8% of underweight students. When analysed by gender; 7.5% of boys and 7.1% girls were overweight, while 16.2% of the boys and 13.3% of the girls were underweight. The youngest age group (11 years old) had the highest prevalence of underweight as well as overweight. With increasing age, the prevalence of underweight and overweight decreased and more children were in the normal weight range. The overall prevalence of overweight among the three ethnic groups was similar. However the prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indian students (24.9%), followed by Malays (18.9%) and Chinese (9.5%) (P <0.001). The results showed that both the problems of under- and over-nutrition co-exist in the capital city of Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  17. Zalbahar N, Jan Mohamed HJ, Loy SL, Najman J, McIntyre HD, Mamun A
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2016 09;10 Suppl 1:S35-S47.
    PMID: 26321098 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.08.002
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parental body mass index (BMI) is strongly linked with the development of offspring overweight and obesity. However, there are a limited number of studies focusing on the association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on offspring growth and body composition in early life, particularly in developing countries.

    METHODS: Data from the University Sains Malaysia (USM) Pregnancy Cohort which consists of 153 mother-offspring pairs were used. Data were collected using interview-administered questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and generalised equation estimation (GEE) were used to examine the direction and impact of the association between parental BMI and child growth and body composition (weight for age, height for age, body mass index for age, weight for height and fat mass at age 2m, 6m, and 12m). Potential confounders, including validated measures of maternal diets and physical activity during pregnancy, were considered.

    RESULTS: Of 153 parents, one-quarter of the mothers and 42.2% of the fathers, respectively, were overweight or obese before pregnancy. A significant association was found between maternal BMI and child's weight for height z-score (WHZ) and body mass index for age z-score (BAZ).

    CONCLUSIONS: Having high pre-pregnancy BMI may increase BMI and WAZ of offspring in early life. Findings from this study emphasise the importance of monitoring maternal weight status, particularly before and during pregnancy and early life of offspring among Malaysians.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  18. Yong HY, Mohd Shariff Z, Koo SJ, Binti Sa'ari NS
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2016 Sep;42(9):1094-101.
    PMID: 27226139 DOI: 10.1111/jog.13039
    AIM: Both inadequate and excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have immediate and long-term health risks for women and infants. This study investigated rate of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its associated factors in Malaysian pregnant women.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at maternal and child health clinics in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan between November 2010 and April 2012. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic, obstetric, dietary intake and physical activity information. Current weight and height were measured using standard procedures. GWG rate was calculated as the average weekly weight gain in that particular trimester of pregnancy and further categorized according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations.
    RESULTS: Mean GWG rate for all pre-pregnancy BMI categories in the second and third trimesters was higher than the IOM recommendations. Overweight women (adjusted OR, 4.26; 95%CI: 1.92-9.44) and women <153 cm tall (adjusted OR, 1.96; 95%CI: 1.21-3.18) tend to have inadequate GWG rate. Women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; ≥25.0 kg/m(2) ; overweight: adjusted OR, 3.88; 95%CI: 2.12-7.09; obese: adjusted OR, 2.34; 95%CI: 1.28-4.29) and low physical activity (adjusted OR, 1.74; 95%CI: 0.77-3.97) were two-threefold more likely to have excessive GWG.
    CONCLUSION: Both inadequate and excessive GWG can have detrimental effects on the health of mothers and infants. Pre-pregnancy BMI, height and physical activity should be emphasized in prenatal care to ensure that women have adequate GWG rate.
    Study site: maternal and child health clinics (Klinik Kesihatan), Selangor and Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  19. Purttiponthanee S, Rojroongwasinkul N, Wimonpeerapattana W, Thasanasuwan W, Senaprom S, Khouw I, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016 07;28(5 Suppl):85S-93S.
    PMID: 27183975 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516647774
    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  20. Lim TO, Ding LM, Zaki M, Suleiman AB, Fatimah S, Siti S, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Mar;55(1):108-28.
    PMID: 11072496 MyJurnal
    We describe the distribution of body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) by age, sex and ethnicity in Malaysian adults. A national sample of 28,737 individuals aged 20 or older had usable data. They were selected by stratified 2-stage cluster sampling. Percentile tables and curves by age, sex and ethnicity are presented. The body weight and BMI distributions were right skewed, while that of height was symmetrical. BMI distribution showed the expected increase with age, while that of height decrease with age. Differences in BMI between the 2 sexes and among the 4 ethnic groups were observed. Indian had the highest BMI, followed by Malay, Chinese and other indigenous ethnic group.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-1996)
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
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