Fauna of Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Sabah state of Malaysia, Borneo Island, was evaluated for the first time. Samples from 40 locations were studied, and 31 species of Cladocera were revealed, including three species of Sididae, one species of Daphnidae, one species of Moinidae, four species of Macrothricidae, two species of Ilyocryptidae, and 20 species of Chydoridae. One species of Ilyocryptidae, Ilyocryptus yooni Jeong, Kotov and Lee, 2012, is recorded for Malaysia for the first time, and one more, Anthalona sp., is probably new for science. Of 31 species recorded for Sabah, only three are true planktonic species and 28 are substrate-associated species. Absence of large natural lakes, habitats with most rich cladoceran fauna, can be an important factor limiting diversity of Cladocera in Sabah.
The staggering growth in smartphone and wearable device use has led to a massive scale generation of personal (user-specific) data. To explore, analyze, and extract useful information and knowledge from the deluge of personal data, one has to leverage these devices as the data-mining platforms in ubiquitous, pervasive, and big data environments. This study presents the personal ecosystem where all computational resources, communication facilities, storage and knowledge management systems are available in user proximity. An extensive review on recent literature has been conducted and a detailed taxonomy is presented. The performance evaluation metrics and their empirical evidences are sorted out in this paper. Finally, we have highlighted some future research directions and potentially emerging application areas for personal data mining using smartphones and wearable devices.
Helicobacter pylori (HP) was first described in 1983 by Warren and Marshall.' It is a spiral-shaped bacterium measuring 2-4p,m x 0.5-1.0μm. Since it was discovered, the organism has rarely been isolated from sites other than the stomach.2 Available evidence, therefore, points to the human stomach as the normal habitat of this bacterium. The infection is contracted primarily in childhood.' It has been shown that colonisation by HP is rare under the age of five years, but thereafter, it becomes gradually more frequent, and by sixty years of age more than 50% of individuals may be affected
Most investigations on heavy metals content in fish were either conducted on single markets, ports, seaside markets or direct sampling from natural habitat, and there were very few studies done on fish samples from both wet markets and supermarkets. This paper presents the assessment outcome of Cd and Pb levels in commercial fish sold between wet markets and supermarkets in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In this study, the organs of four commercial fish species (Rastrellinger kanagurta, Epinephelus sexfasciatus, Lates calcarifer, and Decapterus maruadsi) sampled from different markets within the sampling area were assessed using dry ashing-acid digestion method and Flame AAS. Results obtained concluded that Cd and Pb in fishes sampled from supermarkets are generally higher compared to wet markets, while both metals content in the edible organs fall well within the permissible limits for human consumption when compared to the Fourteenth Schedule of the Malaysian Food Regulations 1985.
This review discussed the current status of the Milky Stork Re-introduction Programme in Malaysia and the challenges it faced. Although it has continued for almost seven years, more challenges appeared as time elapsed mainly due to the arising conflicts between the implementation of conservation policy versus the development projects in Kuala Gula. Hence, the released population is struggling to adapt mainly due to the reduction of suitable habitat for nesting and disturbed foraging areas by the continuous anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, the lack of appropriate training among captive storks prior to being released also slows the adaptation of the birds in their new habitat. The increasing pattern of pollution in the area is also highlighted. Several suggestions were given to help improve the current re-introduction programme. These include improvements to the captive training method, improvement of the existing enclosure's condition and environment, protection of remaining mangrove forest, creation of a buffer zone to mitigate the increasing pollution level in the area, close monitoring of the released population, and maintaining continuous support and awareness among the public. Considering the ongoing anthropogenic activities that may impair the status of Kuala Gula as an important bird sanctuary, emphasis should be given to achieve sustainable development throughout the area.
In Oceania, a region challenged by rapid urbanisation and climate change, integrative frameworks are required to enable effective actions on health and sustainability. The Ecohealth approach provides a framework for practice that acknowledges human health is intrinsically linked to ecosystem health. This research communication reports on a study involving interviews with twenty-seven leading health and sustainability thinkers from Oceania and across the globe. In examining their ideas for action, the report presents the study findings in relation to the guiding principles of Ecohealth: systems thinking, transdisciplinarity, participation, sustainability, equity and knowledge-to-action. Implications for Ecohealth practitioners working in Oceania are considered.
Forest canopies are dynamic interfaces between organisms and atmosphere, providing buffered microclimates and complex microhabitats. Canopies form vertically stratified ecosystems interconnected with other strata. Some forest biodiversity patterns and food webs have been documented and measurements of ecophysiology and biogeochemical cycling have allowed analyses of large-scale transfer of CO2, water, and trace gases between forests and the atmosphere. However, many knowledge gaps remain. With global research networks and databases, and new technologies and infrastructure, we envisage rapid advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests and their canopies. Such understanding is vital for the successful management and conservation of global forests and the ecosystem services they provide to the world.
A newly discovered species of homalopsid snake from the genus Gyiophis Murphy & Voris is described from the lowlands of Mawlamyine District in Mon state, southeastern Myanmar. Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is presumed to be closely related to G. maculosa Blanford and G. vorisi Murphy based on the similarities in pholidosis and patterning but can be separated from G. maculosa by the shape of its first three dorsal scale rows that are square, ventral scale pattern that lacks a central spot, and a faint stripe on dorsal scale rows 1-4. It can be further distinguished from G. vorisi by its lower number of ventral scales (129 vs. 142-152), lower number of subcaudals (30/29 vs. 41-58), narrow rostral scale, and having more rows of spots on the dorsum (four vs. three). A preliminary molecular analysis using 1050 base pairs of cytochrome b (cytb) recovered G. salweenensis sp. nov. as the sister species to the Chinese Mud Snake (Myrrophis chinensis). G. maculosa and G. vorisi were unavailable for the analysis. The discovery of G. salweenensis sp. nov. highlights the need for more surveys into the herpetological diversity of eastern Myanmar which remains very much underestimated.
Trophic variation in food web structure occurs among and within ecosystems. The magnitude of variation, however, differs from system to system. In ephemeral pond ecosystems, temporal dynamics are relatively more important than in many systems given that hydroperiod is the ultimate factor determining the presence of an aquatic state. Here, using stable isotopes we tested for changes in trophic chain length and shape over time in these dynamic aquatic ecosystems. We found that lower and intermediate trophic level structure increased over time. We discuss these findings within the context of temporal environmental stability. The dynamic nature of these ephemeral systems seems to be conducive to greater levels of intermediate and lower trophic level diversity, with omnivorous traits likely being advantageous.
A survey on termite species composition was conducted in Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak in February 2015. Overall 19 species of termite belonging to 13 genera and 8 subfamilies was found in the sanctuary. It was recorded the subfamily of Termitinae had the highest number of species (6 species, equal to 31.58% of total species), followed by Nasutermitinae (3 species, 15.79%), Macrotermitinae, Amitermitinae, Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, (2 species, 10.53% respectively), and Heterotermitinae, Termitogetoninae (1 species, 5.26% respectively). Since this rapid survey is the first termite assemblage representation in Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, the preliminary result may serve as the baseline data for termite composition in the area. Therefore, a whole coverage for the area within this sanctuary would definitely increase the number of termite species found in the sanctuary.
A new species of the megascolecid earthworm genus Pontodrilus Perrier, 1874, Pontodrilus longissimus sp. n., is described from seashores of Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. The new species differs from congeners, especially the cosmopolitan P. litoralis (Grube, 1855) in the size of the body, number of segments and the shape of the spermathecae. P. litoralis is redescribed, based on specimens collected from the same region and the same type of habitat. DNA fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I of both species were sequenced. Morphological as well as DNA sequence-based comparisons confirm that P. longissimus sp. n. is a lineage distinct from P. litoralis and in fact a new species. The illustrated descriptions are accompanied by a key to species of Pontodrilus.
The future hospital is a resilient, physical learning facility featuring digital enhancement and leveraging an ecosystem of platforms for the Internet of Things (IoT) and analytics, achieving patient-centric care delivery via multidisciplinary healthcare provider teams coordinated to meet patients' medical, psychological, social and economic needs. It exists in a just ecosystem that assimilates the care spectrum from healthy living, the prevention of disease to acute care and the rehabilitation of patients recuperating from illnesses. It will take some time for these future hospitals to be built or for current hospitals to evolve and/or transform, but efforts to spread wisdom among the stakeholders, healthcare providers and patients must start now. The development of the digital components can also begin today, as can competency building for the healthcare providers who will be staffing these future hospitals, ensuring that they are equipped with competent staff employing patient-centric care processes that cater to patients' current and future needs.
Two new species, Phlegmariurus iminii Kiew (Lycopodiaceae) from limestone karst and P. monticola Kiew from montane habitats, are described from Peninsular Malaysia and a new combination is made for Phlegmariurus pinifolius (Trevis.) Kiew. Phlegmariurus iminii, known from a single hill threatened by quarrying, is Critically Endangered; while P. monticola and P. pinifolius that are relatively widespread are of Least Concern.
Crowdsourcing has changed the way people conduct business. It provides access to work, and employers can source for the best talent, at the best price, with the shortest turnaround time. Research so far has focussed on crowdsourcing implementation. Hence, there is a need to conduct research that can contribute towards crowdsourcing sustainability. Thus, the objectives of this paper are to identify current practices of crowdsourcing in Malaysia and the challenges that face it. A conceptual model for crowdsourcing sustainability ecosystem is then proposed. This study adopted the case-study approach. Two crowdsourcing platforms were examined in the case study. Two techniques were used to obtain the data: observation and interview. Observation was carried out to observe how the crowdsourcing platforms worked. The interviews helped to uncover current practices, challenges in using crowdsourcing and identification of sustainability factors. It is hoped that the proposed conceptual model will facilitate better planning of the ecosystem supporting crowdsourcing and ensure sustainable growth for crowdsourcing. Future research into crowdsourcing can test the proposed conceptual model to validate its components.
Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species' threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents, and that support computation of a range of biodiversity indicators, is necessary to enable better understanding of historical declines and to project - and avert - future declines. We describe and assess a new database of more than 1.6 million samples from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database contains measurements taken in 208 (of 814) ecoregions, 13 (of 14) biomes, 25 (of 35) biodiversity hotspots and 16 (of 17) megadiverse countries. The database contains more than 1% of the total number of all species described, and more than 1% of the described species within many taxonomic groups - including flowering plants, gymnosperms, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, beetles, lepidopterans and hymenopterans. The dataset, which is still being added to, is therefore already considerably larger and more representative than those used by previous quantitative models of biodiversity trends and responses. The database is being assembled as part of the PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems - http://www.predicts.org.uk). We make site-level summary data available alongside this article. The full database will be publicly available in 2015.
The genus Senyumia was previously known from a single species, S.minutiflora (Ridl.) Kiew, A.Weber & B.L.Burtt, from a limestone karst, Gunung Senyum, in Pahang, Malaysia. Senyumiagranitica Kiew, here described and illustrated, is the second species of the genus. It differs from S.minutiflora, not only in its habitat, but also in its shorter leaves, larger, non-resupinate or only partially resupinate flowers and smaller seeds. It is known from a small, fragmented population from a low range of hills. Therefore, under the IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria, it is assessed as Critically Endangered.
Space use and activity patterns by 3 species of small mammals, namely, Tupaia glis, Callosciurus notatus and e. nigrovitatus were determined. The home range size of T. glis ranged from 9,544 to 73,470m2, C. notatus from 6,512 to 16,150m2 and C. nigrovitatus 10,970m2. There was no overlap in the ranges between individuals of the same species and sex but the ranges of different species overlapped. There was no significant difference in the mean daily distance moved among the studied individuals. All individuals showed a bimodal type of activity pattern.
Penggunaan habitat dan corak aktiviti 3 spesies mamalia kecil, Tupaia glis, CalJosciurus notatus dan C. nigrovitatus telah ditentukan. Saiz banjaran kediaman T. glis adalah antara 9,544 hingga 73,470m2, C. notatus daripada 6,512 hingga 16,150m2 dan C. nigrovitatus 10,970m2. Pertindihan banjaran tidak wujud antara spesies atau jantina yang sama. Walau bagaimanapun, berlaku pertindihan banjaran antara spesies yang berbeza. Tiada perbezaan bererti pada purata jarak yang dilalui setiap hari antara individu-individu yang dikaji. Semua individu yang dikaji menunjukan corak aktiviti jenis bimodal.
A study on the chironomids (Diptera:Chironomidae) diversity at pristine ecosystem was carried out at upstream of Sungai Langat, Selangor. The study determines chironomids distribution and composition at 7 streams and river within the upstream site of Langat Catchment. Chironomid was sampled using Surber net and water quality was measured based on Malaysia WQI. The result indicated that Chironomidae was represented by three subfamilies namely Chironominae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae, which comprises of 2502 individuals. Chironominae was the most dominant subfamily (1619 individuals) followed by Orthocladinae (629 individuals) and Tanypodinae (254 individuals). Polypedilum (subfamily: Chironominae) is the most dominant genus found followed by Rheocricotopus (subfamily: Orthocladiinae), Microtendipes and Cryptochironomus. Polypedilum was abundant in all stations except Sg. Langat 3 which was dominated by Rheocricotopus. Sungai Langat 3 has the highest number of individual (1113) which is (44.5%) from total chironomid individual and followed by Sg. Lolo with 468 individuals that were dominated by Polypedilum.
Cobia Rachycentron canadum, is one of the emerging aquaculture species but is usually a non-target resource in fisheries
industry and within Malaysia, their landings are among the highest worldwide. Identification of stocks with unique
morphological characters is important for effective management and sustainable utilization. Morphometric variations
among three different cobia populations from Kedah, Terengganu and Johor were studied. All the morphometric
characteristics varied among the three populations as all the elements of the first Eigen vector were positive. Discriminant
analysis suggested that head depth (HD) and maximum body depth, (MaxD) were the most varied among the populations.
Cobia populations from Kedah and Johor were in a single cluster in the dendrogram with a 63.69% similarity while
Terengganu was in another cluster with a similarity of 8.01% from Kedah and Johor. The differences in the observed
morphometry may be resulted from different trophic activities and/or habitat productiveness explored by each of the
Acanthaceae merupakan famili tumbuhan angiosperma di bawah order Lamiales yang terdiri daripada sekurang-kurangnya 4000 spesies sama ada spesies tropika atau subtropika. Spesies daripada famili ini ditemui di pelbagai habitat dan mempunyai pelbagai morfologi serta corak taburan geografi. Walau bagaimanapun, maklumat mengenai ciri anatomi bagi Acanthaceae masih dangkal sehingga ke hari ini. Objektif kajian ini ialah untuk mengenal pasti jenis trikom yang hadir pada permukaan epidermis adaksial dan abaksial sepal dan juga petal bunga bagi beberapa spesies terpilih daripada Acanthaceae di Semenanjung Malaysia. Kajian ini melibatkan pengumpulan sampel di lapangan, penyediaan spesimen baucer, teknik kajian epidermis petal, cerapan di bawah mikroskop cahaya dan juga cerapan di bawah mikroskop imbasan elektron. Tiga puluh jenis trikom dicerap dalam kajian ini dan daripada jumlah tersebut, 23 jenis trikom dicerap hadir pada permukaan epidermis petal manakala 17 jenis trikom dicerap hadir pada permukaan epidermis sepal. Jenis trikom yang direkodkan ialah trikom ringkas unisel dan ringkas multisel, trikom kelenjar kapitat dan kelenjar peltat serta juga trikom berlengan. Keputusan kajian ini menunjukkan kehadiran dan jenis trikom pada permukaan sepal dan petal mempunyai nilai taksonomi yang berguna untuk tujuan pembezaan dan pengecaman spesies. Maklumat ciri morfologi trikom yang diperoleh daripada kajian ini merupakan maklumat baharu ciri anatomi bunga bagi Acanthaceae.