Forest canopies are dynamic interfaces between organisms and atmosphere, providing buffered microclimates and complex microhabitats. Canopies form vertically stratified ecosystems interconnected with other strata. Some forest biodiversity patterns and food webs have been documented and measurements of ecophysiology and biogeochemical cycling have allowed analyses of large-scale transfer of CO2, water, and trace gases between forests and the atmosphere. However, many knowledge gaps remain. With global research networks and databases, and new technologies and infrastructure, we envisage rapid advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests and their canopies. Such understanding is vital for the successful management and conservation of global forests and the ecosystem services they provide to the world.
A new species of the megascolecid earthworm genus Pontodrilus Perrier, 1874, Pontodrilus longissimus sp. n., is described from seashores of Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. The new species differs from congeners, especially the cosmopolitan P. litoralis (Grube, 1855) in the size of the body, number of segments and the shape of the spermathecae. P. litoralis is redescribed, based on specimens collected from the same region and the same type of habitat. DNA fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I of both species were sequenced. Morphological as well as DNA sequence-based comparisons confirm that P. longissimus sp. n. is a lineage distinct from P. litoralis and in fact a new species. The illustrated descriptions are accompanied by a key to species of Pontodrilus.
Trophic variation in food web structure occurs among and within ecosystems. The magnitude of variation, however, differs from system to system. In ephemeral pond ecosystems, temporal dynamics are relatively more important than in many systems given that hydroperiod is the ultimate factor determining the presence of an aquatic state. Here, using stable isotopes we tested for changes in trophic chain length and shape over time in these dynamic aquatic ecosystems. We found that lower and intermediate trophic level structure increased over time. We discuss these findings within the context of temporal environmental stability. The dynamic nature of these ephemeral systems seems to be conducive to greater levels of intermediate and lower trophic level diversity, with omnivorous traits likely being advantageous.
A newly discovered species of homalopsid snake from the genus Gyiophis Murphy & Voris is described from the lowlands of Mawlamyine District in Mon state, southeastern Myanmar. Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is presumed to be closely related to G. maculosa Blanford and G. vorisi Murphy based on the similarities in pholidosis and patterning but can be separated from G. maculosa by the shape of its first three dorsal scale rows that are square, ventral scale pattern that lacks a central spot, and a faint stripe on dorsal scale rows 1-4. It can be further distinguished from G. vorisi by its lower number of ventral scales (129 vs. 142-152), lower number of subcaudals (30/29 vs. 41-58), narrow rostral scale, and having more rows of spots on the dorsum (four vs. three). A preliminary molecular analysis using 1050 base pairs of cytochrome b (cytb) recovered G. salweenensis sp. nov. as the sister species to the Chinese Mud Snake (Myrrophis chinensis). G. maculosa and G. vorisi were unavailable for the analysis. The discovery of G. salweenensis sp. nov. highlights the need for more surveys into the herpetological diversity of eastern Myanmar which remains very much underestimated.
Two new species, Phlegmariurus iminii Kiew (Lycopodiaceae) from limestone karst and P. monticola Kiew from montane habitats, are described from Peninsular Malaysia and a new combination is made for Phlegmariurus pinifolius (Trevis.) Kiew. Phlegmariurus iminii, known from a single hill threatened by quarrying, is Critically Endangered; while P. monticola and P. pinifolius that are relatively widespread are of Least Concern.
A survey on termite species composition was conducted in Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak in February 2015. Overall 19 species of termite belonging to 13 genera and 8 subfamilies was found in the sanctuary. It was recorded the subfamily of Termitinae had the highest number of species (6 species, equal to 31.58% of total species), followed by Nasutermitinae (3 species, 15.79%), Macrotermitinae, Amitermitinae, Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, (2 species, 10.53% respectively), and Heterotermitinae, Termitogetoninae (1 species, 5.26% respectively). Since this rapid survey is the first termite assemblage representation in Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, the preliminary result may serve as the baseline data for termite composition in the area. Therefore, a whole coverage for the area within this sanctuary would definitely increase the number of termite species found in the sanctuary.
This review discussed the current status of the Milky Stork Re-introduction Programme in Malaysia and the challenges it faced. Although it has continued for almost seven years, more challenges appeared as time elapsed mainly due to the arising conflicts between the implementation of conservation policy versus the development projects in Kuala Gula. Hence, the released population is struggling to adapt mainly due to the reduction of suitable habitat for nesting and disturbed foraging areas by the continuous anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, the lack of appropriate training among captive storks prior to being released also slows the adaptation of the birds in their new habitat. The increasing pattern of pollution in the area is also highlighted. Several suggestions were given to help improve the current re-introduction programme. These include improvements to the captive training method, improvement of the existing enclosure's condition and environment, protection of remaining mangrove forest, creation of a buffer zone to mitigate the increasing pollution level in the area, close monitoring of the released population, and maintaining continuous support and awareness among the public. Considering the ongoing anthropogenic activities that may impair the status of Kuala Gula as an important bird sanctuary, emphasis should be given to achieve sustainable development throughout the area.
The future hospital is a resilient, physical learning facility featuring digital enhancement and leveraging an ecosystem of platforms for the Internet of Things (IoT) and analytics, achieving patient-centric care delivery via multidisciplinary healthcare provider teams coordinated to meet patients' medical, psychological, social and economic needs. It exists in a just ecosystem that assimilates the care spectrum from healthy living, the prevention of disease to acute care and the rehabilitation of patients recuperating from illnesses. It will take some time for these future hospitals to be built or for current hospitals to evolve and/or transform, but efforts to spread wisdom among the stakeholders, healthcare providers and patients must start now. The development of the digital components can also begin today, as can competency building for the healthcare providers who will be staffing these future hospitals, ensuring that they are equipped with competent staff employing patient-centric care processes that cater to patients' current and future needs.
Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species' threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents, and that support computation of a range of biodiversity indicators, is necessary to enable better understanding of historical declines and to project - and avert - future declines. We describe and assess a new database of more than 1.6 million samples from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database contains measurements taken in 208 (of 814) ecoregions, 13 (of 14) biomes, 25 (of 35) biodiversity hotspots and 16 (of 17) megadiverse countries. The database contains more than 1% of the total number of all species described, and more than 1% of the described species within many taxonomic groups - including flowering plants, gymnosperms, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, beetles, lepidopterans and hymenopterans. The dataset, which is still being added to, is therefore already considerably larger and more representative than those used by previous quantitative models of biodiversity trends and responses. The database is being assembled as part of the PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems - http://www.predicts.org.uk). We make site-level summary data available alongside this article. The full database will be publicly available in 2015.
The genus Senyumia was previously known from a single species, S.minutiflora (Ridl.) Kiew, A.Weber & B.L.Burtt, from a limestone karst, Gunung Senyum, in Pahang, Malaysia. Senyumiagranitica Kiew, here described and illustrated, is the second species of the genus. It differs from S.minutiflora, not only in its habitat, but also in its shorter leaves, larger, non-resupinate or only partially resupinate flowers and smaller seeds. It is known from a small, fragmented population from a low range of hills. Therefore, under the IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria, it is assessed as Critically Endangered.
A study on the chironomids (Diptera:Chironomidae) diversity at pristine ecosystem was carried out at upstream of Sungai Langat, Selangor. The study determines chironomids distribution and composition at 7 streams and river within the upstream site of Langat Catchment. Chironomid was sampled using Surber net and water quality was measured based on Malaysia WQI. The result indicated that Chironomidae was represented by three subfamilies namely Chironominae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae, which comprises of 2502 individuals. Chironominae was the most dominant subfamily (1619 individuals) followed by Orthocladinae (629 individuals) and Tanypodinae (254 individuals). Polypedilum (subfamily: Chironominae) is the most dominant genus found followed by Rheocricotopus (subfamily: Orthocladiinae), Microtendipes and Cryptochironomus. Polypedilum was abundant in all stations except Sg. Langat 3 which was dominated by Rheocricotopus. Sungai Langat 3 has the highest number of individual (1113) which is (44.5%) from total chironomid individual and followed by Sg. Lolo with 468 individuals that were dominated by Polypedilum.
Kedatangan spesies burung hijrah ke Hutan Paya Laut Matang, Perak merupakan suatu fenomena unik dan amat berpotensi untuk dikomersialkan. Namun begitu sejak sepuluh tahun kebelakangan ini kedatangan spesies burung hijrah ke kawasan ini mencatatkan penurunan yang membimbangkan. Pembangunan di sekitar kawasan Hutan Paya Laut Matang dikenal pasti menjadi faktor utama penurunan ini. Selain itu, pengurusan dan pemantauan terhadap spesies burung hijrah yang tidak bersistematik juga menyumbang kepada permasalahan ini. Kaedah pengurusan dan pemantauan burung hijrah secara konvensional masih diamalkan oleh Jabatan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN) dalam merekod data dan maklumat yang diperoleh. Oleh itu kajian ini dilakukan dengan memperkenalkan pendekatan teknologi Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) dan Penderiaan Jauh sebagai aplikasi utama yang dapat membantu dalam memperbaiki pengurusan dan pemantauan burung hijrah. Aplikasi GIS digunakan dalam memetakan data parameter kajian yang diperoleh menggunakan perisian yang bersesuaian iaitu ArcGIS 10.1 dan Penderiaan Jauh digunakan untuk memodelkan parameter kajian menggunakan aplikasi dalam perisian ERDAS Imagine 8.5. Sebanyak enam parameter kajian digunakan dalam kajian ini iaitu suhu, taburan hujan, makanan, ketinggian, gunatanah dan liputan tanah. Pemodelan setiap parameter kajian ini membolehkan kesan setiap parameter kajian terhadap taburan burung hijrah dalam suatu kawasan ditunjukkan dalam bentuk pemetaan. Hasil pemodelan ini juga membolehkan parameter yang terpenting dan paling mempengaruhi taburan burung hijrah bagi kawasan Hutan Paya Laut Matang dikenal pasti. Maklumat ini membolehkan DWNP lebih memahami keperluan burung hijrah dalam pemilihan habitat mereka. Selain itu, hasil pemodelan ini membantu DWNP dalam mengatur strategi pelaksanaan program pemeliharaan dan pemuliharaan di kawasan sekitar Hutan Paya Laut Matang bagi memastikan kedatangan spesies burung hijrah secara berterusan.
Acanthaceae merupakan famili tumbuhan angiosperma di bawah order Lamiales yang terdiri daripada sekurang-kurangnya 4000 spesies sama ada spesies tropika atau subtropika. Spesies daripada famili ini ditemui di pelbagai habitat dan mempunyai pelbagai morfologi serta corak taburan geografi. Walau bagaimanapun, maklumat mengenai ciri anatomi bagi Acanthaceae masih dangkal sehingga ke hari ini. Objektif kajian ini ialah untuk mengenal pasti jenis trikom yang hadir pada permukaan epidermis adaksial dan abaksial sepal dan juga petal bunga bagi beberapa spesies terpilih daripada Acanthaceae di Semenanjung Malaysia. Kajian ini melibatkan pengumpulan sampel di lapangan, penyediaan spesimen baucer, teknik kajian epidermis petal, cerapan di bawah mikroskop cahaya dan juga cerapan di bawah mikroskop imbasan elektron. Tiga puluh jenis trikom dicerap dalam kajian ini dan daripada jumlah tersebut, 23 jenis trikom dicerap hadir pada permukaan epidermis petal manakala 17 jenis trikom dicerap hadir pada permukaan epidermis sepal. Jenis trikom yang direkodkan ialah trikom ringkas unisel dan ringkas multisel, trikom kelenjar kapitat dan kelenjar peltat serta juga trikom berlengan. Keputusan kajian ini menunjukkan kehadiran dan jenis trikom pada permukaan sepal dan petal mempunyai nilai taksonomi yang berguna untuk tujuan pembezaan dan pengecaman spesies. Maklumat ciri morfologi trikom yang diperoleh daripada kajian ini merupakan maklumat baharu ciri anatomi bunga bagi Acanthaceae.
Cobia Rachycentron canadum, is one of the emerging aquaculture species but is usually a non-target resource in fisheries
industry and within Malaysia, their landings are among the highest worldwide. Identification of stocks with unique
morphological characters is important for effective management and sustainable utilization. Morphometric variations
among three different cobia populations from Kedah, Terengganu and Johor were studied. All the morphometric
characteristics varied among the three populations as all the elements of the first Eigen vector were positive. Discriminant
analysis suggested that head depth (HD) and maximum body depth, (MaxD) were the most varied among the populations.
Cobia populations from Kedah and Johor were in a single cluster in the dendrogram with a 63.69% similarity while
Terengganu was in another cluster with a similarity of 8.01% from Kedah and Johor. The differences in the observed
morphometry may be resulted from different trophic activities and/or habitat productiveness explored by each of the
The growth of residential and commercial areas threatens vegetation and ecosystems. Thus, an urgent urban management
issue involves determining the state and the quantity of urban tree species to protect the environment, as well as controlling
their growth and decline. This study focused on the detection of urban tree species by considering three types of tree
species, namely, Mesua ferrea L., Samanea saman, and Casuarina sumatrana. New rule sets were developed to detect these
three species. In this regard, two pixel-based classification methods were applied and compared; namely, the method of
maximum likelihood classification and support vector machines. These methods were then compared with object-based
image analysis (OBIA) classification. OBIA was used to develop rule sets by extracting spatial, spectral, textural and color
attributes, among others. Finally, the new rule sets were implemented into WorldView-2 imagery. The results indicated
that the OBIA based on the rule sets displayed a significant potential to detect different tree species with high accuracy.
Litter decomposition is vital for carbon and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, and this process has now
been thoroughly demonstrated to be regulated by various mechanisms. The total environment has been continuously
changing in recent decades, especially in high-latitude regions; these alterations, however, profoundly contribute to the
decomposition process, but a comprehensive recognition has not available. Here we reviewed the empirical observations
and current knowledge regarding how hydrological leaching and freeze-thaw events modulate early decomposition of
plant litter. Leaching contributes a considerable percentage of mass loss and carbon and nutrient release in early stage of
decomposition, but the magnitudes are different between species levels depending on the chemical traits. Frequent freezing
and thawing events could positively influence decomposition rate in cold biomes but also hamper soil decomposer and
there is no general and predictable pattern has been emerged. Further experiments should be manipulated to estimate
how the altered freezing and thawing effect on carbon and nutrient release from plant litter to better understanding the
changing environment on litter decomposition.
Space use and activity patterns by 3 species of small mammals, namely, Tupaia glis, Callosciurus notatus and e. nigrovitatus were determined. The home range size of T. glis ranged from 9,544 to 73,470m2, C. notatus from 6,512 to 16,150m2 and C. nigrovitatus 10,970m2. There was no overlap in the ranges between individuals of the same species and sex but the ranges of different species overlapped. There was no significant difference in the mean daily distance moved among the studied individuals. All individuals showed a bimodal type of activity pattern.
Penggunaan habitat dan corak aktiviti 3 spesies mamalia kecil, Tupaia glis, CalJosciurus notatus dan C. nigrovitatus telah ditentukan. Saiz banjaran kediaman T. glis adalah antara 9,544 hingga 73,470m2, C. notatus daripada 6,512 hingga 16,150m2 dan C. nigrovitatus 10,970m2. Pertindihan banjaran tidak wujud antara spesies atau jantina yang sama. Walau bagaimanapun, berlaku pertindihan banjaran antara spesies yang berbeza. Tiada perbezaan bererti pada purata jarak yang dilalui setiap hari antara individu-individu yang dikaji. Semua individu yang dikaji menunjukan corak aktiviti jenis bimodal.
Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest harbours 59 species, two subspecies and five varieties of mosses in 32 genera and 16 families that had been identified from a total of 589 specimens collected from the area. These figures represent 11.8% out of the 558 taxa, 20.2% out of the 158 genera and 34.7% out of the 46 families of mosses reported for Peninsular Malaysia. The total also represents 14.9% of the 442 taxa, 24.0% of the 133 genera and 40.0% of the 40 families of mosses recorded in Pahang. The largest family of mosses found in this limestone forest is Calymperaceae followed by Fissidentaceae. There are two new records for Pahang, Calymperespallidum Mitt. and Taxitheliumbinsteadii Broth. & Dixon. The analysis of species similarities of mosses found in the study area with some other selected areas showed that Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest had a high percentage of species similarity with Perlis State Park at Wang Kelian, another limestone forest, at 38%. Corticol is the main habitat utilised by mosses in Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest with 47 taxa, followed by the lignicol and calcicol each with 35 and 26 taxa, respectively.
Mosquitoes are principal vectors of major vector-borne diseases. They are widely found throughout urban and rural areas in Malaysia. They are responsible for various vector-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria, filariasis and encephalitis. A total of 158 mosquito larvae specimens were collected from the National Zoo, Malaysia, from 11 types of breeding habitats during the study period from end of May 2007 to July 2007. Aedes albopictus was the predominant species (35.4%), followed by Tripteroides aranoides (26.6%), Lutzia halifaxii (11.4%), Aedes alboscutellatus (10.1%), Aedes caecus (8.9%), Armigeres spp. (4.4%), Malaya genurostris (2.5%) and Culex vishnui (0.6%). It is important to have a mosquito free environment in a public place like the zoo. Routine larval surveillance should be implemented for an effective mosquito control program in order to reduce mosquito population.
This study was carried out during the period 1989-2011. The following areas were included: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Climax tropical forest and anthropogenically transformed ecosystems, including those damaged by the chemical warfare program of the United States in Vietnam, were investigated. Some regularities in the structure dynamics and functioning of forests ecosystems under a tropical monsoon climate have been revealed. The principles of classification of tropical forests have been elaborated. The major results of investigation of the tropical monsoon forests in Vietnam are given.