Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 226 in total

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  1. Rajendran R, Pandi A, Ramchary A, Thiagarajan H, Panneerselvam J, Niraikulam A, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2019 Feb;46(1):133-141.
    PMID: 30374769 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-018-4453-8
    Urease is a potent metalloenzyme with diverse applications. This paper describes the scale up and purification of an extracellular urease from Arthrobacter creatinolyticus MTCC 5604. The urease production was scaled-up in 3.7 L and 20 L fermentor. A maximum activity of 27 and 27.8 U/mL and a productivity of 0.90 and 0.99 U/mL/h were obtained at 30 h and 28 h in 3.7 and 20 L fermentor, respectively. Urease was purified to homogeneity with 49.85-fold purification by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography with a yield of 36% and a specific activity of 1044.37 U/mg protein. The enzyme showed three protein bands with molecular mass of 72.6, 11.2 and 6.1 kDa on SDS-PAGE and ~ 270 kDa on native PAGE. The cytotoxic effect of urease was assessed in vitro using cancer cell lines (A549 and MG-63) and normal cell line (HEK 293). Urease showed its inhibitory effects on cancer cell lines through the generation of toxic ammonia, which in turn increased the pH of the surrounding medium. This increase in extracellular pH, enhanced the cytotoxic effect of weak base chemotherapeutic drugs, doxorubicin (50 µM) and vinblastine (100 µM) in the presence of urease (5 U/mL) and urea (0-4 mM) significantly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/methods
  2. Om AD, Jasmani S, Ismail N, Yeong SY, Abol-Munafi AB
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2013 Oct;39(5):1277-86.
    PMID: 23494207 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-013-9782-x
    A new proteomics technology has been implemented to study the protein repertoires of developing oocytes of giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus). Knowledge of the chemical composition and physiochemical properties of vitellogenin (Vtg) is necessary to interpret the functional and biological properties attributed during ovulation. Vtg, as a biomarker indicator in sex determination, has been analyzed to determine the sex and maturational status of fish in the absence of the gonad tissue. A male giant grouper was induced by 2 mg/kg of 17ß-estradiol (E2), and blood was sampled at days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10. SDS-PAGE 1D electrophoresis was used to analyze Vtg protein, and Vtg identification was done with 4800 Plus MALDI TOF/TOF™ mass spectrophotometer (Applied Biosystems/MDS SCIEX, USA). Meanwhile, MS/MS de novo sequencing identified the proteins by matching sequences of tryptic peptides to the known sequences of other species. Vtg was confirmed by MASCOT at 95% significant level, and molecular mass was 187 kDa. Protein resolved on SDS-PAGE as a double band of approximately the same mass as determined with MALDI-TOF. The N-terminal sequences and identification of Vtg were also determined. The potential of using MS methods to understand the structure and function of Vtg is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/veterinary
  3. Huang CH, Liew LM, Mah KW, Kuo IC, Lee BW, Chua KY
    Clin Exp Allergy, 2006 Mar;36(3):369-76.
    PMID: 16499649
    Sensitization to mite and cockroach allergens is common, and diagnosis and therapy of allergy can be further complicated by the presence of allergen isoforms and panallergens. Purified recombinant and native allergens are useful for studies to resolve such problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/methods
  4. Sunderasan E, Bahari A, Arif SA, Zainal Z, Hamilton RG, Yeang HY
    Clin Exp Allergy, 2005 Nov;35(11):1490-5.
    PMID: 16297147 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02371.x
    BACKGROUND:
    Hev b 4 is an allergenic natural rubber latex (NRL) protein complex that is reactive in skin prick tests and in vitro immunoassays. On SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Hev b 4 is discerned predominantly at 53-55 kDa together with a 57 kDa minor component previously identified as a cyanogenic glucosidase. Of the 13 NRL allergens recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies, the 53-55 kDa Hev b 4 major protein is the only candidate that lacks complete cDNA and protein sequence information.

    OBJECTIVE:
    We sought to clone the transcript encoding the Hev b 4 major protein, and characterize the native protein and its recombinant form in relation to IgE binding.

    METHODS:
    The 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method was employed to obtain the complete cDNA of the Hev b 4 major protein. A recombinant form of the protein was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The native Hev b 4 major protein was deglycosylated by trifluoromethane sulphonic acid. Western immunoblots of the native, deglycosylated and recombinant proteins were performed using both polyclonal antibodies and sera from latex-allergic patients.

    RESULTS:
    The cDNA encoding the Hev b 4 major protein was cloned. Its open reading frame matched lecithinases in the conserved domain database and contained 10 predicted glycosylation sites. Detection of glycans on the Hev b 4 lecithinase homologue confirmed it to be a glycoprotein. The deglycosylated lecithinase homologue was discerned at 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE, this being comparable to the 38.53 kDa mass predicted by its cDNA. Deglycosylation of the lecithinase homologue resulted in the loss of IgE recognition, although reactivity to polyclonal rabbit anti-Hev b 4 was retained. IgE from latex-allergic patients also failed to recognize the non-glycosylated E. coli recombinant lecithinase homologue.

    CONCLUSION:
    The IgE epitopes of the Hev b 4 lecithinase homologue reside mainly in its carbohydrate moiety, which also account for the discrepancy between the observed molecular weight of the protein and the value calculated from its cDNA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/methods
  5. Fazielawanie NM, Siraj SS, Harmin SA, Ina-Salwany MY
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2013 Apr;39(2):191-200.
    PMID: 22878544 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-012-9690-5
    A study was conducted to isolate, partial characterize Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) vitellogenin (vtg). Two-year-old juvenile L. calcarifer (n = 10) were given three intraperitoneal injections of 17-β estradiol (E2) at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight to induce vitellogenesis. Blood was collected 3 days after the last injection, and plasma was purified through gel filtration chromatography. A broad single symmetrical peak consisting of vtg molecule was produced. Protein concentration was 0.059 mg/ml as determined by Bradfrod assay using bovine serum albumin as a standard. The protein appeared as one circulating form in Native PAGE considering the dimeric form of putative vtg with molecular weight of 545 kDa. In SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, two major bands appeared at 232.86 and 118.80 kDa and minor bands at 100.60, 85.80 and 39.92 kDa, respectively. The purified vtg was used to generate a polyclonal antibody, and the specificity of antibody was assessed by Western blot analysis. Two major bands were immunoreacted, but no cross-reactivity was observed with plasma from non-induced males. The protein was characterized as phosphoglycolipoprotein as it positively stained for the presence of lipid, phosphorus and carbohydrate using Sudan Black B, methyl green and periodic acid/Schiff reagent solution, respectively. The amino acid composition was analyzed by high sensitivity amino acid analysis that showed high percentage of non-polar amino acids (~48 %). The results suggest the potential utilization of vtg as a basis tool to further study about reproductive physiology of this important economical species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/veterinary
  6. Nallapan Maniyam M, Sjahrir F, Latif Ibrahim A, Cass AE
    PMID: 25723061 DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2015.987524
    The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63 mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20 mM KCN within 80 min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  7. Barbour A, Philip K, Muniandy S
    PLoS One, 2013;8(10):e77751.
    PMID: 24147072 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077751
    BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are small lanthionine-containing bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. Salivaricin 9 is a newly discovered lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus salivarius. In this study we present the mechanism of action of salivaricin 9 and some of its properties. Also we developed new methods to produce and purify the lantibiotic from strain NU10.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Salivaricin 9 was found to be auto-regulated when an induction assay was applied and this finding was used to develop a successful salivaricin 9 production system in liquid medium. A combination of XAD-16 and cation exchange chromatography was used to purify the secondary metabolite which was shown to have a molecular weight of approximately 3000 Da by SDS-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS analysis indicated the presence of salivaricin 9, a 2560 Da lantibiotic. Salivaricin 9 is a bactericidal molecule targeting the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells. The membrane permeabilization assay showed that salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane and induced pore formation which resulted in cell death. The morphological changes of test bacterial strains incubated with salivaricin 9 were visualized using Scanning Electron Microscopy which confirmed a pore forming mechanism of inhibition. Salivaricin 9 retained biological stability when exposed to high temperature (90-100°C) and stayed bioactive at pH ranging 2 to 10. When treated with proteinase K or peptidase, salivaricin 9 lost all antimicrobial activity, while it remained active when treated with lyticase, catalase and certain detergents.

    CONCLUSION: The mechanism of antimicrobial action of a newly discovered lantibiotic salivaricin 9 was elucidated in this study. Salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane of its targeted cells and induced pore formation. This project has given new insights on lantibiotic peptides produced by S. salivarius isolated from the oral cavities of Malaysian subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  8. Lau YL, Fong MY, Idris MM, Ching XT
    PMID: 23082548
    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection is essential in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. Numerous studies have shown that the recombinant production of several Toxoplasma antigens, including dense granule antigens (GRAs) has high potential as diagnostic reagents. In the present study, we produced GRA2 using Pichia pastoris system. RNA of T. gondii RH strain tachyzoite was used as a template to produce cDNA clones of full-length GRA2 via reverse transcriptase PCR. Amplicons were inserted into pPICZalpha A and the recombinant plasmid transformed into P. pastoris, X-33 strain. The expressed recombinant protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. A recombinant protein of -28 kDa was produced, which could be detected by toxoplasmosis positive human sera indicating that the recombinant protein retained its antigenicity. The present study indicates that P. pastoris-expressed GRA2 should be useful for detection of Toxoplasma infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  9. Ellias MF, Zainal Ariffin SH, Karsani SA, Abdul Rahman M, Senafi S, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:647240.
    PMID: 22919344 DOI: 10.1100/2012/647240
    Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014'' Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 3-10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins-Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3-have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  10. Khoo TK, Noordin R, Santhanam A
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2012 Apr;50(4):256-64.
    PMID: 22611913
    A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for the detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. panLF Rapid kit is suitable for this purpose since it can detect all species of lymphatic filaria. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant B. malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. There is an increase demand for the test due to its attributes of being rapid, sensitive and specific results, as well as its field-applicability. The main aim of this paper is to obtain high recovery and purity of recombinant antigen BmSXP via a modified method of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The highest product yield of 11.82 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) was obtained when IMAC was performed using the optimized protocol of 10 mM imidazole concentration in lysis buffer, 30 mM imidazole concentration in wash buffer, and 10 column volume wash buffer containing 300 mM salt concentration. This gave a 54% protein recovery improvement over the manufacturer's protocol which recorded a product yield of only 7.68 mg/g DCW. The recovered BmSXP recombinant antigen showed good western blot reactivity, high sensitivity (31/32, 97%) and specificity (32/32, 100%) in ELISA, thus attesting to its good purity and quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  11. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Arip M, Murad S
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Jan;2(1):50-4.
    PMID: 23569834 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60189-5
    Objective: To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn).
    Methods: Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools.
    Results: SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase.
    Conclusions: It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies.
    Keywords: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Major allergen, MALDI-TOF, Tropomyosin, Arginine kinase, SDS-PAGE, Immunoblotting, 2-DE electrophoresis, IgE reactivity
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  12. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Arip M, Murad S
    PMID: 20578555
    Allergy to different classes of mollusks, including squid, which are members of the class Cephalopods has been reported. Tropomyosin, a major muscle protein, is the only well-recognized allergen in squid. The aim of this study was to characterize IgE-binding proteins of local Loligo edulis (white squid) consumed in Malaysia. Protein profiles and IgE-binding proteins were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 23 patients with positive skin prick test to raw squid extract. SDS-PAGE of the raw extract exhibited 21 protein bands (10-170 kDa) but those ranging from 19 to 29 kDa and 41 to 94 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. Immunoblotting of raw extract demonstrated 16 IgE-binding bands, ranging from 13 to 170 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein, corresponding to squid tropomyosin, was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 50 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. Our findings indicate that the allergen extract used for diagnosis of squid allergy should contain both the 36 kDa and 50 kDa proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  13. Hwa WE, Subramaniam G, Mansor MB, Yan OS, Gracie, Anbazhagan D, et al.
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2010 Apr;131:578-83.
    PMID: 20424311
    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. have gained increasing significance as opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. Carbapenem resistance is often associated with the loss and/or decrease in outer membrane proteins (OMP) and overexpression of multidrug efflux systems. However, carbapenem-hydrolysing beta-lactamases of Ambler Class B (metallo-enzymes) and Ambler Class D (oxacillinases) have also been detected in Acinetobacter spp. In this study we have investigated the role of the iron regulated outer membrane protein (IROMPs) and the loss of a 29-kDa OMP in carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  14. Bakar AF, Alitheen NB, Keong YS, Hamid M, Ali SA, Ali AM
    Hybridoma (Larchmt), 2009 Jun;28(3):199-203.
    PMID: 19519247 DOI: 10.1089/hyb.2007.0531
    Hybridoma clone C3A8, which is a fusion product between splenic lymphocytes of Balb/c mice immunized with MCF7 breast carcinoma cells and SP2/0 myelomas, was produced and characterized. A stable clone that secreted IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) with kappa light chain was obtained through limiting dilutions. Cell-ELISA screening, flow cytometry analysis, and immunofluorescence staining revealed that the MAb C3A8 had bound specifically and strongly to MCF7 and HT29 but cross reacted weakly or not on HeLa cell line. The MAb C3A8 reacted positively with paraffin-embedded tissues of human breast and colon cancers but there were no positive reactions on normal tissues. Western blot analysis showed the MAb recognized a 55 kDa protein, which was present in the extract of MCF7 and HT29 cell lines. Our results demonstrated that MAb C3A8 could be used for basic and clinical research of breast and colon cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  15. Gan CY, Cheng LH, Easa AM
    J Food Sci, 2009 Mar;74(2):C141-6.
    PMID: 19323728 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01053.x
    Soy protein isolate (SPI) gels were produced using single cross-linking agents (SCLA) of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) via incubation for 5 or 24 h (SCLA-MTG). When powdered SCLA-MTG gels were heated for 2 h with ribose (R2) (2 g/100 mL), dark brown gels were formed, and these were designated as combined cross-linking agent (CCLA) gels: MTG5(R2) and MTG24(R2). The results showed that the levels of Maillard-derived browning and cross-links of MTG5(R2) and MTG24(R2) gels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than a control gel produced without MTG (SCLA-R2) even though the percentage of ribose remaining after heating of these gels was similar, indicating that a similar amount of ribose was consumed during heating. epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine bonds formed during incubation of SPI with MTG may have reduced the free amino group of SPI to take part in the Maillard reaction; nevertheless, ribose took part in the Maillard reaction and initiated the Maillard cross-linkings within the CCLA gels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  16. Othman MI, Majid MI, Singh M, Subathra S, Seng L, Gam LH
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2009 Mar;52(Pt 3):209-19.
    PMID: 18564057 DOI: 10.1042/BA20070271
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and IDC (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) is the most common type of invasive breast cancer. The changes in the biological behaviour of cancer tissue can be predicted by measuring the differential protein expression of normal and cancerous tissues. Using a combination of SDS/PAGE and LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem MS), we identified 82 common and differentially expressed proteins from normal and cancerous breast tissues in 20 Malaysian Chinese patients with IDC. These proteins are extracted from the normal and cancerous tissue of patients and therefore represent the actual proteins involved in cancer development. Proteins identified possibly have significant roles in the development of breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese patients in view of their consistent expression in most of the patients, although some of the proteins had not been detected in earlier studies that were mostly carried out in Western countries. This observation suggests that molecular mechanisms leading to breast cancer development in this region may not be identical with those leading to IDC in Western regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  17. Leow TC, Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Extremophiles, 2007 May;11(3):527-35.
    PMID: 17426920
    A thermoalkaliphilic T1 lipase gene of Geobacillus sp. strain T1 was overexpressed in pGEX vector in the prokaryotic system. Removal of the signal peptide improved protein solubility and promoted the binding of GST moiety to the glutathione-Sepharose column. High-yield purification of T1 lipase was achieved through two-step affinity chromatography with a final specific activity and yield of 958.2 U/mg and 51.5%, respectively. The molecular mass of T1 lipase was determined to be approximately 43 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. T1 lipase had an optimum temperature and pH of 70 degrees C and pH 9, respectively. It was stable up to 65 degrees C with a half-life of 5 h 15 min at pH 9. It was stable in the presence of 1 mM metal ions Na(+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+ ), but inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+). Tween 80 significantly enhanced T1 lipase activity. T1 lipase was active towards medium to long chain triacylglycerols (C10-C14) and various natural oils with a marked preference for trilaurin (C12) (triacylglycerol) and sunflower oil (natural oil). Serine and aspartate residues were involved in catalysis, as its activity was strongly inhibited by 5 mM PMSF and 1 mM Pepstatin. The T(m) for T1 lipase was around 72.2 degrees C, as revealed by denatured protein analysis of CD spectra.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  18. Lau CC, Abdullah N, Shuib AS, Aminudin N
    J Agric Food Chem, 2012 Dec 19;60(50):12341-8.
    PMID: 23190208 DOI: 10.1021/jf3042159
    Mushrooms are high in protein content, which makes them potentially a good source of antihypertensive peptides. Among the mushrooms tested, protein extracts from Pleurotus cystidiosus (E1Pc and E5Pc) and Agaricus bisporus (E1Ab and E3Ab) had high levels of antihypertensive activity. The protein extracts were fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) into six fractions. Fraction 3 from E5Pc (E5PcF3) and fraction 6 from E3Ab (E3AbF6) had the highest antihypertensive activities. SDS-PAGE analysis showed E5PcF3 consisted mainly of low molecular weight proteins, whereas E3AbF6 contained a variety of high to low molecular weight proteins. There were 22 protein clusters detected by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis with five common peaks found in E5PcF3 and E3AbF6, which had m/z values in the range of 3940-11413. This study suggests that the antihypertensive activity in the two mushroom species could be due to proteins with molecular masses ranging from 3 to 10 kDa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  19. Zuridah H, Bahaman AR, Mohd Azmi ML, Mutalib AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Jun;59(2):153-9.
    PMID: 15559163 MyJurnal
    A total of 157 stool samples were examined for Group A rotaviruses in diarrheic children admitted to 8 different major hospitals in Malaysia. The overall incidence rate in this study was 19.7% (31 of 157) with a variation of 9.5% to 39.1% in different locations. Majority of the infections detected were in those under 2 years of age and there were fewer admissions in the older age group. The stool samples were initially screened for rotavirus Group A by latex agglutination method and followed by RNA electrophoresis. The size and the characteristics wheel-shaped morphology of the viral preparations when examined by electron-microscopy further confirmed the presence of rotaviruses in the positive stool samples. Analysis of the RNA pattern showed that majority of the isolates, 51.6% (16 of 31) were Type IIC ('long' with comigration of RNA segments 7 and 8), 35.5% (11 of 31) with Type IIG ('long' with comigration of segments 7, 8, 9), 9.7% (3 of 31) with Type IG ('short' with comigration of RNA segments 7, 8, 9) and 3.2% (1 of 31) of mixed or atypical pattern. It appeared that over a 12 year interval, only one new or unusual rotavirus electropherotype was found. This is the first comprehensive report on the electropherotypes of rotaviruses covering eight different geographical locations in Malaysia and the data obtained is useful for understanding the geographic distribution and types of rotaviruses transmitting in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  20. Rajagopalu D, Show PL, Tan YS, Muniandy S, Sabaratnam V, Ling TC
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2016 Sep;122(3):301-6.
    PMID: 26922478 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2016.01.016
    The feasible use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to establish a viable protocol for the recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. fruiting bodies was evaluated. Cold-stored (4.00±1.00°C) H. erinaceus recorded the highest laccase activities of 2.02±0.04 U/mL among all the processed techniques. The evaluation was carried out in twenty-five ATPSs, which composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with various molecular weights and potassium phosphate salt solution to purify the protein from H. erinaceus. Optimum recovery condition was observed in the ATPS which contained 17% (w/w) PEG with a molecular weight of 8000 and 12.2% (w/w) potassium phosphate solution, at a volume ratio (VR) of 1.0. The use of ATPS resulted in one-single primary recovery stage process that produced an overall yield of 99% with a purification factor of 8.03±0.46. The molecular mass of laccases purified from the bottom phase was in the range of 55-66 kDa. The purity of the partitioned laccase was confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
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