The emergence of wireless technologies such as WirelessHART and ISA100 Wireless for deployment at industrial process plants has urged the need for research and development in wireless control. This is in view of the fact that the recent application is mainly in monitoring domain due to lack of confidence in control aspect. WirelessHART has an edge over its counterpart as it is based on the successful Wired HART protocol with over 30 million devices as of 2009. Recent works on control have primarily focused on maintaining the traditional PID control structure which is proven not adequate for the wireless environment. In contrast, Internal Model Control (IMC), a promising technique for delay compensation, disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking has not been investigated in the context of WirelessHART. Therefore, this paper discusses the control design using IMC approach with a focus on wireless processes. The simulation and experimental results using real-time WirelessHART hardware-in-the-loop simulator (WH-HILS) indicate that the proposed approach is more robust to delay variation of the network than the PID.
Rhythmically coordinating with a partner can increase pro-sociality, but pro-sociality does not appear to change in proportion to coordination success, or particular classes of coordination. Pro-social benefits may have more to do with simply coordinating in a social context than the details of the actual coordination (Cross et al., 2016). This begs the question, how stripped down can a coordination task be and still affect pro-sociality? Would it be sufficient simply to imagine coordinating with others? Imagining a social interaction can lead to many of the same effects as actual interaction (Crisp and Turner, 2009). We report the first experiments to explore whether imagined coordination affects pro-sociality similarly to actual coordination. Across two experiments and over 450 participants, mentally simulated coordination is shown to promote some, but not all, of the pro-social consequences of actual coordination. Imagined coordination significantly increased group cohesion and de-individuation, but did not consistently affect cooperation.
Accumulation kinetic trends of cesium and cadmium in the Penaeus monodon were studied using Cs-134 and Cd-109 as a tracer. The objective of this study was to quantify the uptake and loss/depuration kinetic of these two radionuclides in the Penaeus monodon. Uptake and loss/depuration kinetic of these two radionuclides in the Penaeus monodon were varied widely, displayed a simple double kinetic model of linear and exponential trend with time unless modified by moulting at the stage in the mount cycle. Therefore, the variation of Cs-134 and Cd-109 bio-concentration factor could be concluded considerably influence by moulting cycle, environmental and biological condition as well as physico-chemical that direct effects on their uptake and loss/depuration kinetic.
Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques are significant and popular approaches that have been used in recent years to measure and map urban growth patterns. This paper primarily aims to provide a basis for a literature review of urban growth measurement and mapping by using different methods. For this purpose, the general characteristics of measuring and mapping urban growth patterns are described and classified. The strengths and weaknesses of the various methods have been identified from an analysis and discussion of the characteristics of the techniques. Results of reviews confirm that combining quantitative and qualitative techniques, such as Shannon approach and change detection, to measure and map urban growth patterns will improve understanding of the phenomenon of urban growth. Moreover, using social and economic data such as population and income data will improve understanding of the relationships between causes and effects. The integration of social and economic factors with quantitative and qualitative techniques will contribute to a perfect evaluation of urban growth patterns and land use changes, taking technical, social, economic, spatial, and temporal factors into account.
Dengue is the most rapidly increasing arthropodborne
disease globally. The disease burden has increased
exponentially, doubling almost every decade from the
estimated 8.3 million cases in 2010 to about 58.4 million
cases in 2013.1
The number of countries reporting
dengue has also increased. Before 1970, less than 9
countries reported dengue but now it has been reported
in more than 100 countries worldwide. It is transmitted
by two species of Aedes mosquito, Aedes aegypti and Ae.
albopictus. (Copied from article).
Students are characterized according to their own distinct learning styles. Discovering students' learning style is significant in the educational system in order to provide adaptivity. Past researches have proposed various approaches to detect the students' learning styles. Among all, the Bayesian network has emerged as a widely used method to automatically detect students' learning styles. On the other hand, tree augmented naive Bayesian network has the ability to improve the naive Bayesian network in terms of better classification accuracy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the tree augmented naive Bayesian in automatically detecting students' learning style in the online learning environment. The experimental results are promising as the tree augmented naive Bayes network is shown to achieve higher detection accuracy when compared to the Bayesian network.
Various claims have been made about the extinction of Malay Reservation Land in the country. Before
independence, the land depreciation was due to the acquisition of land by the British colonial
government for mining, opening of new villages during the communist threat and the mortgage and
sale activities by the Malay landowners to non-Malays. After independence, land depreciation linked
with the acquisition of land by the government through the Land Acquisition Act, 1960. This study is a
content analysis study involving material derived from the secondary source text and earlier research
findings. Emphasis is given to analyze the statistical size of Malay Reservation Land in the country.
Results show that the allegations regarding the depreciation trend of the Malay Reservation Land is
inaccurate and misleading. While the analysis of the size of the Malay Reservation Land found that the
actual percentage of Malay Reservation Land in 2009 was 30.13 percent instead of 11.83 percent as
claimed. The percentage grew steadily in 2013 to 31.85 percent. The analysis also found that there was
confusion about the actual size of Malay Reservation Land in the country.
In recent years, the utility grid system is more essential for the power
transmission and distribution system because it cannot produce harmful
gases or no discharge waste in the environment. PWM based phase
synchronous invert systems are generally utilised in the high efficiency
energy supply, long distance and higher power quality. The inverter output
voltage depends on the coupling transformer, input sources and invert
controllers. An inverter using a three leg IGBT has been designed for utility
grid and simulated by using MATLAB2014a. In this paper, both sides of
the LCL filters are used for removing the DC ripple current, reducing the
noise and synchronous the output phase between inverter and the utility
grid. The PWM controller has created pulse signal to control the inverter,
electronic switches and precisely synchronise with grid line frequency. In
this system, the input DC voltage 500V, switching frequency 1.65 kHz, grid
frequency 50Hz, 20 km feeder (resistance, inductance and capacitance per
unit length, which are 0.1153, 1.05e-3 and 11.33e-09 ohms/km) with 30MW
three phase load (active and inductive reactive power which are 30e6 W
and 2e6 var) and also a balanced utility grid load of star configuration (00,
1200, and 2400 degree) are considered in the design. On the other hand,
three phase transformer consists of three signal phase transformers, normal
power 100e3, magnetization resistance and inductance which are 500 pu and
416.67pu are considered in this design. The system conversion efficiency
is 99.94% and 99.96%, while the total THD are 0.06% on inverter side
and 0.04% on grid side.
Improving organizational performance is the main objective of any organization. Six
Sigma is one of the most important approaches to improve performance and sustain
competitive advantage. This article reviewed the literature related to organizational
performance and explains the potential impact of Six Sigma and innovation culture on
organizational performance. Given that previous studies have reported inconclusive
results, this paper tries to establish a mechanism to explain the role of Six Sigma in
improving organizational performance. Therefore, based on the theoretical foundation
and comprehensive review of previous literature, a research framework is proposed.
This proposed framework is grounded in the implementation of Six Sigma projects; it
also establishes that innovation culture can help organizations to achieve success in a
turbulent business environment.
Pedestrians' fatality trend in road crashes has been improving in recent years though it remains third in rank behind
motorcyclists and car occupants. Based on the statistics, young pedestrians were the most affected group and the
commonest injury regions were head and legs. Pedestrian crashes occurred primarily in rural areas and straight roads
and at low light environment, and often involve cars and motorcycles. In addition to existing issues of careless and
illegal crossing practices, there are potential new hazards face by pedestrian, which are mobile electronic device use
and electric vehicle, especially when crossing roads. Road safety programs and interventions shall consider these new
This paper investigated the throughput performance of a secondary user (SU) for a random primary user (PU) activity in a realistic experimental model. This paper proposed a sensing and frame duration of the SU to maximize the SU throughput under the collision probability constraint. The throughput of the SU and the probability of collisions depend on the pattern of PU activities. The pattern of PU activity was obtained and modelled from the experimental data that measure the wireless local area network (WLAN) environment. The WLAN signal has detected the transmission opportunity length (TOL) which was analyzed and clustered into large and small durations in the CTOL model. The performance of the SU is then analyzed and compared with static and dynamic PU models. The results showed that the SU throughput in the CTOL model was higher than the static and dynamic models by almost 45% and 12.2% respectively. Furthermore, the probability of collisions in the network and the SU throughput were influenced by the value of the minimum contention window and the maximum back-off stage. The simulation results revealed that the higher contention window had worsened the SU throughput even though the channel has a higher number of TOLs.
Logging activity is one of the most important activities for tropical countries
including Malaysia, as it produces quality trees for papers. One of the important tree
species is the Acacia Mangium which it produces a soft tree for papermaking enterprises.
The papers are exported to Europe and countries which have high demand for paper
due to the rapid development of the printing industry. Thus we analyzed the height for
individual trees. We investigate the maximum height of the trees from 1990 to 2006
and we fit the data using extreme value model. Some of the data are missing and three
imputation methods we used to solve this problem.
Workplace deviant behavior is an action performed voluntarily by an individual and harms the
organizational norms and affects individual, organization or both. Therefore, it is a priority to the
organization to understand and look at the workplace deviant behavior issue because different
individual and environment will cause differences in how an individual behaves. Understanding the
terms, factors, typologies and effects of deviant behavior will enable organization to draw the
rehabilitation plan so deviant behavior will be curbed from the beginning. Overcoming workplace
deviant behavior will result in positive impact to the organization management and financial and will
lead to positive and conducive environment at the workplace.
Leech infestation in otolaryngology is sporadically seen in
remote area of tropical countries, but the cases are usually not
scientifically reported. We are reporting an unusual case of a
land leech removal from external auditory canal (EAC).
After twenty-four years of government efforts, the latest national recycling rate in Malaysia rose from 5% in 1993 to approximately 24.6% in 2017. However, the practice of solid waste recycling in developing countries is still challenging compared to developing countries. Especially in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country where people with different ethics have different living lifestyles. Still, Malaysia faces rapidly increasing solid waste and management costs, lacks appropriate data on solid waste management and recycling, lacks awareness of the 3R's (reduce, reuse and recycle) culture and lacks policies to promote 3R's culture. In addition, prior to the enforcement of ACT 672, information and networks between stakeholders have been limited for more than 20 years. Some scholars believe that the success of recycling practices is mainly influenced by community recycling behaviours. Therefore, in order to improve and evaluate the effectiveness of current national solid waste recycling management systems, research and assessment of community recycling behaviours are essential. This paper aims to evaluate the factors that attract communities to implement recycling in their daily lives and to obtain data through quantitative survey methods. Face-to-face questionnaires are conducted through purposive sampling and collected data is further analysed by PASW statistical tools. The comparison between recyclers and non-recyclers are presented in terms of frequency, means scores and radar chart. The results indicate that policy makers involved in the planning, organisation, and implementation of community recycling programs have to focus on strategies that engage community members and adopt recycling practices to improve environmental impact by changing their attitudes. Based on the results of means scores, the type of age, occupation and place of life must be taken into consideration in order to organize future recycling campaigns or awareness programs. In conclusion, the information will help policymakers make better solid waste recycling management to meet the needs of the public.
Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the most attractive tools employed nowadays by environmental policy-makers as well as business decision-makers to ensure environmentally sustainable production/consumption of various goods/services. LCA is a systematic, rigorous, and standardized approach aimed at quantifying resources consumed/depleted, pollutants released, and the related environmental and health impacts through the course of consumption and production of goods/service. Algal fuels are no exception and their environmental sustainability could be well scrutinized using the LCA methodology. In line with that, this chapter is devoted to present guidelines on the technical aspects of LCA application in algal fuels while elaborating on major standards used, i.e., ISO 14040 and 14044 standards. Overall, LCA practitioners as well as technical experts dealing with algal fuels in both the public and private sectors could be the main target audience for these guidelines.
This study aims at exploring the impact of corruption control on energy efficiency in 60 countries categorized by income: lower middle (LMI), upper middle (UMI), and high (HI). Panel methodology was utilized taking the period of 2000-2017. As cross-sectional dependence is confirmed among the tested equations, the Pesaran (J Appl Econ 22(2):265-312, 2007) unit root test and the augmented mean group estimator proposed by Eberhardt and Teal (2010) were utilized to overcome this matter. The results in general indicate that the lower the corruption is, the more the energy efficiency for all income group economies. Moreover, renewable energy reduces energy efficiency in lower-middle income and high-income economies while its effect is positive in middle-income economies. In addition, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) found to be present in all income group economies. Lastly, causality relationships among energy efficiency, corruption, and GDP were present mostly in upper-middle income and high-income economies. From the results, it was recommended that the countries from all income groups should increase their corruption control for the purpose of enhancing energy efficiency.
A distinct element approach has been introduced for simulating the plugging performance of granular lost circulation materials (LCM) in a fracture. This approach solves the fully coupled fracture walls, fluid and particles system in an interactive environment. The effects of the particle shape, size distribution and concentration on the fracture-plugging performance of the granular LCM have been investigated using the three-dimensional particle flow code (PFC3D). The simulated results showed that the irregular granular LCM could plug a fracture width larger than the sieving granulation by single-particle bridging type. The particle size distribution (PSD) of LCM dominates the plugging depth and efficiency in a fracture and there exists an optimum concentration for maximum effect of LCM additives.
The seasonal variation of spider assemblages in botanical garden was investigated. The spiders were manually collected by diurnal and nocturnal session between two seasons. A total of 19 families from 65 genera and 96 species were recorded. Richness-estimator indicates the inventory were 67% complete within the botanical garden. The capture rate for web-weavers were higher compared with non-web weavers. The comparison value showed the species composition and abundance were similar between seasons. Spider abundance was not affected between wet and dry season in tropical countries.
The changes on the vegetables oil trading environment might change the foundation of palm oil pricing and induce a structural change to the price model. Failing to take it account the structural change in a data series might lead to misspecification of the actual model. This study, however, showed that structural change was not present in the monthly, January 1983 to July 1995, palm oil price, but it was present on the unconditional variance. The underlying model of this series was ARIMA (3, 1, 0) with ARCH (1). The critical change of the unconditional variance took place in April 1989.
Perubahan dalam suasana perdagangan minyak sayuran boleh mengubah asas harga minyak kelapa sawit. Seterusnya ia merangsang perubahan dalam struktur model harga minyak tersebut. Kegagalan untuk mengambil kira perubahan struktur dalam siri data menjadikan model itu tidak menepati spesifikasi daripada model sebenar. Kajian ini mendapati bahawa perubahan struktur tidak berlaku bagi data harga minyak sawit dari Januari 1983 hingga Julai 1995. Tetapi perubahan berlaku pada varians tidak bersyaratnya. Model asas bagi siri ini adalah ARIMA (3,1,0) dengan ARCH(1). Didapati juga bahawa perubahan yang kritikal bagi varians tidak bersyarat berlaku pada bulan April 1989.