Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 1946 in total

  1. Aida HN, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, Satho T, Nurita AT, Salmah MR, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;1(6):472-7.
    PMID: 23569816 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60103-2
    OBJECTIVE: To generate life table characteristics for the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) under uncontrolled conditions, incorporating both the aquatic and the adult stages.

    METHODS: Ten females derived from wild pupae were allowed to fully blood-feed on restrained mice. 774 eggs were hatched in seasoned water. F1 larvae were followed for development until their F2 counterparts emerged as adults. Some population parameters were monitored (F1) or estimated (F2).

    RESULTS: A. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to 1:1. Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. A high proportion of females completed a reproductive cycle and the obtained parity rate was predicted to lead to higher fecundity in the next generation.

    CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that natural A. albopictus populations in Penang seem largely determined by quick development in combination with low immature loss and increased oviposition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/growth & development*
  2. Aiken SR, Frost DB, Leigh CH
    Soc Sci Med Med Geogr, 1980 Sep;14D(3):307-16.
    PMID: 7455728
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/growth & development
  3. Aisha AF, Abu-Salah KM, Alrokayan SA, Ismail Z, Abdulmajid AM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jan;25(1):7-14.
    PMID: 22186303
    Parkia speciosa Hassk is a traditional medicinal plant with strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties. This study aims to investigate the total phenolic content, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effect of eight extracts from P. speciosa empty pods. The extracts were found to contain high levels of total phenols and demonstrated strong antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging test. In rat aortic rings, P. speciosa extracts significantly inhibited the microvessel outgrowth from aortic tissue explants by more than 50%. The antiangiogenic activity was further confirmed by tube formation on matrigel matrix involving human endothelial cells. Cytotoxic effect was evaluated by XTT test on endothelial cells as a model of angiogenesis versus a panel of human cancer and normal cell lines. Basically the extracts did not show acute cytotoxicity. Morphology examination of endothelial cells indicated induction of autophagy characterized by formation of plenty of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The extracts were found to work by decreasing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  4. Aisha AF, Ismail Z, Abu-Salah KM, Siddiqui JM, Ghafar G, Abdul Majid AM
    PMID: 23842450 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-168
    Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth Inhibitors/administration & dosage*; Growth Inhibitors/isolation & purification; Growth Inhibitors/chemistry; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  5. Aizat WM, Ibrahim S, Rahnamaie-Tajadod R, Loke KK, Goh HH, Noor NM
    Data Brief, 2018 Feb;16:1091-1094.
    PMID: 29854898 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.09.063
    Proteomics is often hindered by the lack of protein sequence database particularly for non-model species such as Persicaria minor herbs. An integrative approach called proteomics informed by transcriptomics is possible [1], in which translated transcriptome sequence database is used as the protein sequence database. In this current study, the proteome profile were profiled using SWATH-MS technology complemented with documented transcriptome profiling [2], the first such report in this tropical herb. The plant was also elicited using a phytohormone, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and protein changes were elucidated using label-free quantification of SWATH-MS to understand the role of such signal molecule in this herbal species. The mass spectrometry proteomics data was deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD005749. This data article refers to the article entitled "Proteomics (SWATH-MS)-informed by transcriptomics approach of Persicaria minor leaves upon methyl jasmonate elicitation" [3].
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators
  6. Ajdari Z, Ebrahimpour A, Abdul Manan M, Hamid M, Mohamad R, Ariff AB
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2011;2011:426168.
    PMID: 22190851 DOI: 10.1155/2011/426168
    Monacolins, as natural statins, form a class of fungal secondary metabolites and act as the specific inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. The interest in using the fermented products as the natural source of monacolins, instead of statin drugs, is increasing enormously with its increasing demand. In this study, the fermented products were produced by Monascus purpureus FTC5391 using submerged and solid state fermentations. Two commercial Monascus-fermented products were also evaluated for comparison. Improved methods of monacolins extraction and identification were developed for the assessment of monacolins in the fermented products. Methanol and ethanol were found to be the most favorable solvents for monacolins extraction due to their ability to extract higher amount of monacolin K and higher numbers of monacolin derivatives. Problem related to false-positive results during monacolins identification was solved by adding monacolin lactonization step in the assessment method. Using this improved method, monacolin derivatives were not detected in all Monascus-fermented products tested in this study, suggesting that their hypocholesterolemic effects may be due to other compounds other than monacolins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Monascus/growth & development*
  7. Ajorlo M, Abdullah RB, Yusoff MK, Halim RA, Hanif AH, Willms WD, et al.
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Oct;185(10):8649-58.
    PMID: 23604787 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-013-3201-8
    This study investigates the applicability of multivariate statistical techniques including cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and factor analysis (FA) for the assessment of seasonal variations in the surface water quality of tropical pastures. The study was carried out in the TPU catchment, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The dataset consisted of 1-year monitoring of 14 parameters at six sampling sites. The CA yielded two groups of similarity between the sampling sites, i.e., less polluted (LP) and moderately polluted (MP) at temporal scale. Fecal coliform (FC), NO3, DO, and pH were significantly related to the stream grouping in the dry season, whereas NH3, BOD, Escherichia coli, and FC were significantly related to the stream grouping in the rainy season. The best predictors for distinguishing clusters in temporal scale were FC, NH3, and E. coli, respectively. FC, E. coli, and BOD with strong positive loadings were introduced as the first varifactors in the dry season which indicates the biological source of variability. EC with a strong positive loading and DO with a strong negative loading were introduced as the first varifactors in the rainy season, which represents the physiochemical source of variability. Multivariate statistical techniques were effective analytical techniques for classification and processing of large datasets of water quality and the identification of major sources of water pollution in tropical pastures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  8. Al Farraj DA, Hadibarata T, Yuniarto A, Syafiuddin A, Surtikanti HK, Elshikh MS, et al.
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2019 Jun;42(6):963-969.
    PMID: 30888502 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-019-02096-8
    Polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and toxic pollutants that are dangerous to humans and living organism in aquatic environment. Normally, PAHs has lower molecular weight such as phenanthrene and naphthalene that are easy and efficient to degrade, but high-molecular-weight PAHs such as chrysene and pyrene are difficult to be biodegraded by common microorganism. This study investigated the isolation and characterization of a potential halophilic bacterium capable of utilizing two high-molecular-weight PAHs. At the end of the experiment (25-30 days of incubation), bacterial counts have reached a maximum level (over 40 × 1016 CFU/mL). The highest biodegradation rate of 77% of chrysene in 20 days and 92% of pyrene in 25 days was obtained at pH 7, temperature 25 °C, agitation of 150 rpm and Tween 80 surfactant showing to be the most impressive parameters for HMWPAHs biodegradation in this research. The metabolism of initial compounds revealed that Hortaea sp. B15 utilized pyrene to form phthalic acid while chrysene was metabolized to form 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The result showed that Hortaea sp. B15 can be promoted for the study of in situ biodegradation of high molecular weight PAH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development*
  9. Al-Areeqi MA, Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Anuar TS, Al-Adhroey AH, Atroosh WM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2017 04;22(4):493-504.
    PMID: 28151567 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12848
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii infections among rural communities in Yemen.

    METHODS: In a community-based study, faecal samples were collected from 605 participants and examined by wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining and nested multiplex PCR techniques. Demographic, socio-economic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Overall, 324 (53.6%) of the samples were positive for Entamoeba cysts and/or trophozoites by microscopic examination. Molecular analysis revealed that 20.2%, 15.7% and 18.2% of the samples were positive for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed different sets of species-specific risk factors among these communities. Educational level was identified as the significant risk factor for E. histolytica; age and gender were the significant risk factors for E. moshkovskii; and sources of drinking water and consumption of unwashed vegetables were the significant risk factors for E. dispar. Moreover, living in coastal/foothill areas and presence of other infected family members were risk factors for both E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii infections.

    CONCLUSION: The study reveals that Entamoeba spp. infection is highly prevalent among rural communities in Yemen, with E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii differentiated for the first time. Identifying and treating infected family members, providing health education pertinent to good personal and food hygiene practices and providing clean drinking water should be considered in developing a strategy to control intestinal parasitic infections in these communities, particularly in the coastal/foothill areas of the country.

    Matched MeSH terms: Entamoeba/growth & development*
  10. Al-Baldawi IA, Abdullah SR, Anuar N, Suja F, Idris M
    J. Hazard. Mater., 2013 May 15;252-253:64-9.
    PMID: 23500791 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.01.067
    In this study, bulrush (Scirpus grossus) was subjected to a 72 day phytotoxicity test to assess its ability to phytoremediate diesel contamination in simulated wastewater at different concentrations (0, 8700, 17,400 and 26,100mg/L). Diesel degradation by S. grossus was measured in terms of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH-D). The TPH-D concentration in the synthetic wastewater was determined with the liquid-liquid extraction method and gas chromatography. S. grossus was found to reduce TPH-D by 70.0 and 80.2% for concentrations of 8700 mg/L and 17,400mg/L, respectively. At a diesel concentration of 26,100mg/L, S. grossus died after 14 days. Additionally, the biomass of S. grossus plants was found to increase throughout the phytotoxicity test, confirming the ability of the plant to survive in water contaminated with diesel at rates of less than 17,400mg/L.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyperaceae/growth & development
  11. Al-Dulaimi RI, Ismail N, Ibrahim MH
    Ann Agric Environ Med, 2014;21(1):42-8.
    PMID: 24847548
    Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water) on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.).
    Matched MeSH terms: Abelmoschus/growth & development; Seedlings/growth & development
  12. Al-Gheethi AA, Mohamed RM, Jais NM, Efaq AN, Abd Halid A, Wurochekke AA, et al.
    J Water Health, 2017 Oct;15(5):741-756.
    PMID: 29040077 DOI: 10.2166/wh.2017.080
    The present study aims to investigate the influence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in public market wastewater on the removal of nutrients in terms of ammonium (NH4-) and orthophosphate (PO43) using Scenedesmus sp. The removal rates of NH4- and orthophosphate PO43- and batch kinetic coefficient of Scenedesmus sp. were investigated. The phycoremediation process was carried out at ambient temperature for 6 days. The results revealed that the pathogenic bacteria exhibited survival potential in the presence of microalgae but they were reduced by 3-4 log at the end of the treatment process. The specific removal rates of NH4- and PO43- have a strong relationship with initial concentration in the public market wastewater (R2 = 0.86 and 0.80, respectively). The kinetic coefficient of NH4- removal by Scenedesmus sp. was determined as k = 4.28 mg NH4- 1 log10 cell mL-1 d-1 and km = 52.01 mg L-1 (R2 = 0.94) while the coefficient of PO43- removal was noted as k = 1.09 mg NH4- 1 log10 cell mL-1 d-1 and km = 85.56 mg L-1 (R2 = 0.92). It can be concluded that Scenedesmus sp. has high competition from indigenous bacteria in the public market wastewater to remove nutrients, with a higher coefficient of removal of NH4- than PO43.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scenedesmus/growth & development; Microalgae/growth & development
  13. Al-Haddawi MH, Jasni S, Israf DA, Zamri-Saad M, Mutalib AR, Sheikh-Omar AR
    Res. Vet. Sci., 2001 Jun;70(3):191-7.
    PMID: 11676614
    Sixteen 8- to 9-week-old Pasteurella multocida-free New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two equal groups. The first group was inoculated intranasally with P multocida serotype D:1 strain and the second group that was inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) only was used as a control group. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from the nasal cavity of all infected rabbits in group 1 and from tracheal swabs of seven rabbits in this group. Four rabbits in group 1 died with clinical signs of septicaemia, two rabbits had mucopurulent nasal discharge and pneumonic lesions and the other two did not show any clinical signs or gross lesions. The ultrastructural changes detected were deciliation or clumping of cilia of ciliated epithelium, cellular swelling, vacuolation and sloughing. The subepithelial capillaries showed congestion, intravascular fibrin deposition, platelets aggregation and endothelial injury. Pasteurella multocida was observed attached to the injured endothelial cells. Heterophils, mast cells, vacuolated monocytes and macrophages infiltrated the lamina propria and between the degenerated epithelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pasteurella multocida/growth & development*
  14. Al-Namnam NM, Hariri F, Thong MK, Rahman ZA
    J Oral Biol Craniofac Res, 2018 08 29;9(1):37-39.
    PMID: 30202723 DOI: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2018.08.007
    Crouzon syndrome exhibits considerable phenotypic heterogeneity, in the aetiology of which genetics play an important role. FGFR2 mediates extracellular signals into cells and the mutations in the FGFR2 gene cause this syndrome occurrence. Activated FGFs/FGFR2 signaling disrupts the balance of differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis via its downstream signal pathways. However, very little is known about the cellular and molecular factors leading to severity of this phenotype. Revealing the molecular pathology of craniosynostosis will be a great value for genetic counselling, diagnosis, prognosis and early intervention programs. This mini-review summarizes the fundamental and recent scientific literature on genetic disorder of Crouzon syndrome and presents a graduated strategy for the genetic approach, diagnosis and the management of this complex craniofacial defect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2
  15. Al-Obaidi JR
    Electrophoresis, 2016 05;37(10):1257-63.
    PMID: 26891916 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201600031
    Mushrooms are considered an important food for their traditionally famous nutritional and medicinal values, although much information about their potential at the molecular level is unfortunately unknown. Edible mushrooms include fungi that are either collected wild or cultivated. Many important species are difficult to cultivate but attempts have been made with varying degrees of success, with the results showing unsatisfactory economical cultivation methods. Recently, proteomic analysis has been developed as a powerful tool to study the protein content of fungi, particularly basidiomycetes. This mini-review article highlights the contribution of proteomics platforms to the study of edible mushrooms, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in developmental stages. This includes extracellular and cytoplasmic effector proteins that have potential or are involved in the synthesis of anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, in blood pressure control, in the supply of vitamins and minerals, and in other responses to environmental changes. The contribution of different proteomics techniques including classical and more advanced techniques is also highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Agaricales/growth & development
  16. Al-Obaidi JR, Halabi MF, AlKhalifah NS, Asanar S, Al-Soqeer AA, Attia MF
    Biol. Res., 2017 Aug 24;50(1):25.
    PMID: 28838321 DOI: 10.1186/s40659-017-0131-x
    Jojoba is considered a promising oil crop and is cultivated for diverse purposes in many countries. The jojoba seed produces unique high-quality oil with a wide range of applications such as medical and industrial-related products. The plant also has potential value in combatting desertification and land degradation in dry and semi-dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, issues such as its male-biased ratio, relatively late flowering and seed production time hamper the cultivation of this plant. The development of efficient biotechnological platforms for better cultivation and an improved production cycle is a necessity for farmers cultivating the plant. In the last 20 years, many efforts have been made for in vitro cultivation of jojoba by applying different molecular biology techniques. However, there is a lot of work to be done in order to reach satisfactory results that help to overcome cultivation problems. This review presents a historical overview, the medical and industrial importance of the jojoba plant, agronomy aspects and nutrient requirements for the plant's cultivation, and the role of recent biotechnology and molecular biology findings in jojoba research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Angiosperms/growth & development*
  17. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Hussaini J, Khor GH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:908098.
    PMID: 25485304 DOI: 10.1155/2014/908098
    To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/metabolism
  18. Al-Obaidi MMJ, Bahadoran A, Har LS, Mui WS, Rajarajeswaran J, Zandi K, et al.
    Virus Res., 2017 04 02;233:17-28.
    PMID: 28279803 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2017.02.012
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes inflammation in central nervous system (CNS), neuronal death and also compromises the structural and functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the BBB disruption and apoptotic process in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-infected transfected human brain microvascular endothelial cells (THBMECs). THBMECs were overlaid by JEV with different MOIs (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0) and monitored by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) in a real-time manner in order to observe the barrier function of THBMECs. Additionally, the level of 43 apoptotic proteins was quantified in the virally infected cells with different MOIs at 24h post infection. Infection of THBMEC with JEV induced an acute reduction in transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) after viral infection. Also, significant up-regulation of Bax, BID, Fas and Fasl and down-regulation of IGFBP-2, BID, p27 and p53 were observed in JEV infected THBMECs with 0.5 and 10 MOIs compared to uninfected cells. Hence, the permeability of THBMECs is compromised during the JEV infection. In addition high viral load of the virus has the potential to subvert the host cell apoptosis to optimize the course of viral infection through deactivation of pro-apoptotic proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2/genetics; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2/metabolism
  19. Al-Obaidi MMJ, Desa MNM
    Cell. Mol. Neurobiol., 2018 Oct;38(7):1349-1368.
    PMID: 30117097 DOI: 10.1007/s10571-018-0609-2
    This review aims to elucidate the different mechanisms of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption that may occur due to invasion by different types of bacteria, as well as to show the bacteria-host interactions that assist the bacterial pathogen in invading the brain. For example, platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is responsible for brain invasion during the adhesion of pneumococci to brain endothelial cells, which might lead to brain invasion. Additionally, the major adhesin of the pneumococcal pilus-1, RrgA is able to bind the BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), thus leading to invasion of the brain. Moreover, Streptococcus pneumoniae choline binding protein A (CbpA) targets the common carboxy-terminal domain of the laminin receptor (LR) establishing initial contact with brain endothelium that might result in BBB invasion. Furthermore, BBB disruption may occur by S. pneumoniae penetration through increasing in pro-inflammatory markers and endothelial permeability. In contrast, adhesion, invasion, and translocation through or between endothelial cells can be done by S. pneumoniae without any disruption to the vascular endothelium, upon BBB penetration. Internalins (InlA and InlB) of Listeria monocytogenes interact with its cellular receptors E-cadherin and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) to facilitate invading the brain. L. monocytogenes species activate NF-κB in endothelial cells, encouraging the expression of P- and E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1), as well as IL-6 and IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), all these markers assist in BBB disruption. Bacillus anthracis species interrupt both adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs), leading to BBB disruption. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) permeability and BBB disruption are induced via interendothelial junction proteins reduction as well as up-regulation of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha (MIP1α) markers in Staphylococcus aureus species. Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus toxins (GBS) enhance IL-8 and ICAM-1 as well as nitric oxide (NO) production from endothelial cells via the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enhancement, resulting in BBB disruption. While Gram-negative bacteria, Haemophilus influenza OmpP2 is able to target the common carboxy-terminal domain of LR to start initial interaction with brain endothelium, then invade the brain. H. influenza type b (HiB), can induce BBB permeability through TJ disruption. LR and PAFR binding sites have been recognized as common routes of CNS entrance by Neisseria meningitidis. N. meningitidis species also initiate binding to BMECs and induces AJs deformation, as well as inducing specific cleavage of the TJ component occludin through the release of host MMP-8. Escherichia coli bind to BMECs through LR, resulting in IL-6 and IL-8 release and iNOS production, as well as resulting in disassembly of TJs between endothelial cells, facilitating BBB disruption. Therefore, obtaining knowledge of BBB disruption by different types of bacterial species will provide a picture of how the bacteria enter the central nervous system (CNS) which might support the discovery of therapeutic strategies for each bacteria to control and manage infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development
  20. Al-Shami SA, Md Rawi CS, Ahmad AH, Abdul Hamid S, Mohd Nor SA
    Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2011 Jul;74(5):1195-202.
    PMID: 21419486 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.02.022
    Abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as well as physico-chemical parameters were investigated in five rivers of the Juru River Basin in northern Peninsula Malaysia: Ceruk Tok Kun River (CTKR), Pasir River (PR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR), Kilang Ubi River (KUR), and Juru River (JR). The physico-chemical parameters and calculated water quality index (WQI) were significantly different among the investigated rivers (ANOVA, P<0.05). The WQI classified CTKR, PR, and JR into class III (slightly polluted). However, PRR and KUR fell into class IV (polluted). High diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates, especially the intolerant taxa, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were observed in the least polluted river, CTKR. Decreasing abundance of macroinvertebrates followed the deterioration of river water quality with the least number of the most tolerant taxa collected from PR. On the basis of composition and sensitivity of macroinvertebrates to pollutants in each river, the highest Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index score of 93 was reported in CTKR (good water quality). BMWP scores in PRR and JR were 38.7 and 20.1, respectively, classifying both of them into "moderate water quality" category. Poor water quality was reported in PR and KUR. The outcome of the multivariate analysis (CCA) was highly satisfactory, explaining 43.32% of the variance for the assemblages of macroinvertebrates as influenced by 19 physical and chemical variables. According to the CCA model, we assert that there were three levels of stresses on macroinvertebrate communities in the investigated rivers: Level 1, characterized of undisturbed or slightly polluted as in the case of CTKR; Level 2, characterized by a lower habitat quality (the JR) compared to the CTKR; and Level 3 showed severe environmental stresses (PRR, PR, and KUR) primarily contributed by agricultural, industrial, and municipal discharges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Invertebrates/growth & development
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