Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 605 in total

  1. Shimada T, Matsui M, Nishikawa K, Eto K
    Zoolog Sci, 2015 Oct;32(5):474-84.
    PMID: 26428726 DOI: 10.2108/zs140289
    A cryptic Bornean torrent frog of the genus Meristogenys, which is divergent genetically and morphologically from all known congeners, is described from mountain streams of western Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). The species occurs sympatrically with the type species of the genus, M. jerboa, but apparently differs from it in adult coloration and larval morphology, such as keratodont formulae and glands in tail fins. Females of the new species possess much larger and fewer eggs than in sympatric M. jerboa, suggesting significantly different reproductive traits between these species. A key to larvae of known species of the genus is provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/genetics
  2. Takaoka H, Ya'cob Z, Sofian-Azirun M
    J Med Entomol, 2015 Jan;52(1):38-49.
    PMID: 26336278 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tju009
    Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Simulium) murudense and Simulium (Simulium) cheedhangi, are described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. Both species belong to the Simulium melanopus Edwards species group. S. (S.) murudense sp. nov. is distinguished from most known species by a combination of the haired basal portion of the radial vein and the darkened fore coxae, and S. (S.) cheedhangi sp. nov. is characterized in the female by having a medium-sized claw tooth and in the pupa by six somewhat inflated gill filaments. Notes are given on the S. melanopus species-group in Sarawak and Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
  3. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, Low VL, Harmonis
    J Med Entomol, 2016 07;53(4):798-806.
    PMID: 27099400
    A new simuliid species, Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov., is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and is assigned to the Simulium banauense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). This new species has close similarities to S alienigenum Takaoka from the Philippines, in many characters including the adult antennal color pattern and pupal gill with four long filaments arranged in two pairs each bearing a long stalk, but is distinguished from the latter in the female by the longer sensory vesicle and in the pupa by the gill with an elongate common basal stalk. Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov. is the first member of the S. banauense group in Borneo, and marks the most southerly distribution of the group. Keys to identify 19 Bornean species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia are provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
  4. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Pramual P, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Apr 19;9:219.
    PMID: 27094088 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1492-7
    BACKGROUND: Preimaginal black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important components of the stream ecosystem. However, there has been limited research undertaken on the vertical distribution of preimaginal black flies and their associated ecological factors. Stream conditions are generally variable along the altitudinal gradient. Therefore, we conducted an in-depth entomological survey to investigate the simuliid distribution pattern along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 432 collections were performed in this study (24 samplings at each of 18 fixed-streams at monthly intervals) from February 2012 to January 2014. Larvae and pupae attached on aquatic substrates such as grasses, leaves and stems, twigs, plant roots and rocks were collected by hand using fine forceps. Stream depth (m), width (m), velocity (m/s), water temperature (°C), acidity (pH), conductivity (mS/cm) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) were measured at the time of each collection.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 black fly species were recorded in the present study. The most frequently collected species were Simulium tani (31.7%) and S. whartoni (21.5%), while the relatively common species were Simulium sp. (nr. feuerborni) (16.2%), S. decuplum (15.5%), S. angulistylum (14.8%), S. bishopi (13.2%) and S. izuae (11.8%). Total estimated species richness ranged between 39.8 and 41.3, which yielded more than 80% of sampling efficiency. Six simuliid species were distributed below 500 m, whereas eight species were distributed above 1400 m. Simulium sp. (nr. feuerborni) and S. asakoae were found from middle to high altitudes (711-1813 m). Simulium whartoni, S. brevipar and S. bishopi were distributed widely from low to high altitudes (159-1813 m). Regression analysis between species richness and PCs revealed that the species richness was significantly associated with wider, deeper and faster streams at low altitude, normal water temperature (23-25 °C), low conductivity, higher discharge, more canopy cover and riparian vegetation and with larger streambed particles (F = 20.8, df = 1, 422, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development; Larva/physiology
  5. Takaoka H, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M, Otsuka Y, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9:136.
    PMID: 26961508 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1393-9
    A species of Simulium in the Simulium melanopus species-group of the subgenus Simulium (formerly misidentified as S. laterale Edwards from Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia) is suspected to have dimorphic male scutal color patterns linked with different numbers of upper-eye facets. This study aimed to confirm whether or not these two forms of adult males represent a single species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  6. Afizah AN, Mahirah MN, Azahari AH, Asuad MK, Nazni WA, Lee HL
    PMID: 26863856
    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in 2012 and 2006 in Malay and Aboriginal Villages on Carey Island. In each village, standard ovitraps were placed indoors and outdoors at randomly selected houses/locations. All L3 larvae recovered were identified up to species level. Results demonstrated that only larvae of Aedes albopictus were found in all the positive ovitraps placed indoors and outdoors. In 2012, a high ovitrap index (OI) of 66.7% indoor and 84.0% outdoor in the Malay Village; and 62.5% indoor and 88.0% outdoor in Aboriginal Village with an apparent absence of Aedes aegypti. In 2006, a 100% OI was recorded in all ovitraps set indoors and outdoors in both villages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development; Larva/physiology
  7. Nur AM, Nur AA, Lau WH
    Zootaxa, 2015;3986(2):243-8.
    PMID: 26250185 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3986.2.8
    Here we provide an illustrated key to lepidopteran larvae that occur as pests on rice (Oryza) in Malaysia. We are unaware of a published key for this region for this vital commercial crop, and hence provide one based on easily observable features that could be useful for identification, early detection, and pest management by specialists and non-specialists alike (see discussion in Mukerji & Singh 1951, Sri et al. 2010, Timm et al. 2007, Tillmon et al. 2000, Wagener et al. 2004).
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  8. Hanjeet K, Ow Yang CK, Mak JW
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):263-6.
    PMID: 3241589
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva Migrans/diagnosis*; Larva Migrans/drug therapy; Larva Migrans/pathology
  9. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Chen CD, Lau KW, Halim MR, Low VL, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2017 Feb 21;4236(1):zootaxa.4236.1.8.
    PMID: 28264343 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4236.1.8
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lemborense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein, representing the most eastern distribution record for the group. This new species is characterized by a narrow female frons and pupal gill with eight filaments, of which two filaments of the ventral pair are three to four times as long as the six other filaments. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from related species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  10. Dieng H, Ellias SB, Satho T, Ahmad AH, Abang F, Ghani IA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jun;24(17):14782-14794.
    PMID: 28470499 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8711-4
    In dengue mosquitoes, successful embryonic development and long lifespan are key determinants for the persistence of both virus and vector. Therefore, targeting the egg stage and vector lifespan would be expected to have greater impacts than larvicides or adulticides, both strategies that have lost effectiveness due to the development of resistance. Therefore, there is now a pressing need to find novel chemical means of vector control. Coffee contains many chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing environmental concern, is as rich in toxicants as the green coffee beans; these chemicals do not have a history of resistance in insects, but some are lost in the roasting process. We examined whether exposure to coffee during embryonic development could alter larval eclosion and lifespan of dengue vectors. A series of bioassays with different coffee forms and their residues indicated that larval eclosion responses of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti were appreciably lower when embryonic maturation occurred in environments containing coffee, especially roasted coffee crude extract (RCC). In addition, the lifespan of adults derived from eggs that hatched successfully in a coffee milieu was reduced, but this effect was less pronounced with roasted and green coffee extracts (RCU and GCU, respectively). Taken together, these findings suggested that coffee and its residues have embryocidal activities with impacts that are carried over onto the adult lifespan of dengue vectors. These effects may significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of these insects. Reutilizing coffee waste in vector control may also represent a realistic solution to the issues associated with its pollution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  11. Raja M. Zuha Raja Kamal, Mohamed Abdullah Marwi, Jeffery, John, Ahmad Firdaus Mohd. Salleh, Wan Omar Abdullah, Baharudin Omar
    The anatomical structures of the first, second and third instars of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were examined by light microscopy. Observations were documented on the three main characteristics; the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle. The first instar larva bore cornuae of fairly pigmented delineation with slim hypostomal sclerite and distinct dental sclerite. First instar did not have obscured anterior spiracle but posterior spiracles were obscured with thin lining of opened peritreme. Intersegmental spines were evident. The second instar larva displayed a prominent anterodorsal process approaching closer to hypostomal sclerite while upper margin of the dorsal cornua was slightly pigmented. Each anterior spiracle consisted of nine to ten papillae, arranged in a single row. Peritreme of the posterior spiracle thick, opening at the end of peritreme was not wide and confined to two spiracular slits. The third instar larva showed a prominent arch of the ventral cornua with broad and bold appearance. It approached the dorsal cornua and became narrow at the incision median. The anterior spiracle consisted of a single row of nine to ten papillae while intersegmental spine could be identified with one to three dark pigmented tips. A dark pigmented and wide periterime was observed confining three short and thick spiracular slits while button was poorly pigmented. The most distinctive feature of this second and third instar larva was the slender, thorn-like tubercle with numerous spined tips on the middle line segment of the body. These findings provide identification features of C. rufifacies larvae instars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  12. Chen, Chee Dhang, Teoh Pei Sze, Wan-Norafikah Othman, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Lee Han Lim
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a floor gully come with grating to prevent the oviposition of Aedes aegypti in the floor trap. In order to conduct the test, two containers were placed into a mosquito cage (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm). Both containers were filled with declorinated seasoned tap water and covered with floor gully c/w grating and normal floor gully, respectively. A total of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti females were then released into the cage and left for a week. All the eggs obtained from the test were allowed to remain inside the containers for the eggs to hatch. The number of hatched larvae was counted and recorded. Five replicates were conducted concurrently. There was a significant difference of Ae. aegypti larvae obtained between container with floor gully c/w grating and normal floor gully (p < 0.05). A total of 96.41% reduction of Ae. aegypti larvae was obtained in the container with floor gully c/w grating compared with the normal floor gully, indicating that the floor gully c/w grating used in this study was able to prevent oviposition of Ae. aegypti in holding water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  13. Ahmad Firdaus Mohd Salleh, Anita Talib, Mohamed Abdullah Marwi, Noor Hayati Mohd Isa, Syamsa Rizal Abdullah, Raja Muhammad Zuha Raja Kamal Bashah, et al.
    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) dan Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) adalah merupakan dua spesies lalat penting yang boleh dijadikan sebagai penunjuk terbaik untuk menganggarkan selang masa kematian atau Post Mortem Interval (PMI) untuk kegunaan dalam sains forensik. Penentuan PMI adalah berdasarkan kepada saiz dan peringkat perkembangan larva. Kajian perkembangan telur, larva dan pupa lalat Ch. megacepahala dan Ch. rufifacies dijalankan di bawah suhu 27ºC, 30ºC dan 33ºC di makmal dengan menggunakan kebuk pertumbuhann serangga. Data daripada kajian digunakan untuk menghasilkan satu graf pertumbuhan dan Jam Darjah Terkumpul (ADH) bagi kedua-dua spesies. Ch. megacephala mengambil masa selama 9.15 hari pada suhu 27ºC, 8.54 hari (30ºC) dan 6.76 hari (33ºC) untuk melengkapkan satu kitar hidup. Pada C. rufifacies pula, kitar hidupnya lebih lama berbanding Ch. megacephala iaitu 9.92 hari pada suhu 27ºC, 9.13 hari (30ºC) dan 7.44 hari (33ºC). Telur bagi kedua-dua spesies menetas lebih cepat pada suhu 33ºC berbanding dua suhu yang lainnya. Nilai ADH yang rendah pada sesuatu suhu, menunjukkan sesuatu spesies lebih cepat melengkapkan suatu kitar hidup. Penemuan ini berguna dalam menganggarkan selang masa kematian bagi mayat yang dijumpai pada suhu persekitaran yang berlainan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  14. Macdonald WW, Rajapaksa N
    Bull World Health Organ, 1972;46(2):203-9.
    PMID: 4537482
    Although dengue haemorrhagic fever is widely established in South-East Asia, no cases have been reported from Borneo. In order to help to assess whether the infection could become established in Borneo, a survey was made, using the single-larva collection method, of the distribution and prevalence of the principal vector, Aedes aegypti, in Sabah and in a few towns and villages of Brunei and Sarawak. In addition, the prevalence of Ae. aegypti was compared with that of certain other species of Aedes.Ae. aegypti was found to be well established in the north, east, and south-west of Sabah but to be absent from almost all of the west coast. It was either uncommon in, or absent from, several small coastal villages; in others, very high Breteau indices were recorded. No reasonable explanation for this discontinuous distribution can be suggested. Large numbers of potential larval habitats were found, giving reason to believe that Ae. aegypti will spread further within these territories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  15. Lim JW, Mohd-Noor SN, Wong CY, Lam MK, Goh PS, Beniers JJA, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Feb 01;231:129-136.
    PMID: 30340132 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.10.022
    The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have been widely extolled for the application in managing various solid organic wastes. Owing to the saprophagous nature of BSFL, a rapid valorization of solid organic wastes can be accomplished with the simultaneous production of valuable biochemical compounds derived from larval biomass. In the present works, the mixed waste coconut endosperm (w-CE) and soybean curd residue (SC-r) substrates with increasing protein nutritional constituent were administered to BSFL. The correlations between protein from larval feed substrates and nutritional profiles of BSFL biomasses were ultimately unveiled. The protein from larval feed substrates could be increased by increasing of SC-r portion against w-CE. At the w-CE:SC-r ratio of 3:2, the highest larval total weight gained and growth rate were attained; indicating an optimum protein nutritional constituent in mixed organics (12.4%) that could enhance the BSFL palatability. Further increment of protein nutritional constituent in mixed organics was found acidifying the residual larval feed substrate progressively, undermining the growth of BSFL. By feeding the BSFL with optimum mixed organics, the maximum accumulations of larval lipid and protein could be achieved. Transesterification of extracted lipid had demonstrated high in monounsaturated fatty acids (73%) which was suitable for biodiesel. The BSFL palatability was finally confirmed from the bioconversion viewpoint of mixed organic wastes. Again, achieving the highest bioconversion efficiency of 14% into larval biomass after accounting the metabolic loss of 54%. Therefore, a total of 68% of mixed w-CE and SC-r could be successfully bioconverted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  16. Elsayed AK, Shimizu-Kaya U, Itioka T, Meleng P, Yukawa J, Tokuda M
    Zootaxa, 2018 Sep 17;4482(1):188-196.
    PMID: 30313329 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4482.1.10
    We describe a gall midge Macarangamyia itiokai Elsayed Tokuda gen. n., sp. n. belonging to the subtribe Schizomyiina (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Asphondyliini) inducing petiole galls on Macaranga bancana (Miq.) in Lambir Hills National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. The new genus is distinguishable from all known genera of Schizomyiina by the unique dorsally-placed aedeagus slit, the short, membranous, protrusible ovipositor, with scattered strong setae ventrally and dorsally, and the presence of spiracles on all larval thoracic segments. It is compared and separated from its closely related Oriental genera of Schizomyiina.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  17. Haziqah-Rashid A, Chen CD, Lau KW, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M, Suana IW, et al.
    J Med Entomol, 2019 02 25;56(2):514-518.
    PMID: 30462258 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjy208
    This study was conducted to monitor the susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae in the Sunda Islands of Indonesia against various organophosphates and organochlorines. Larval bioassay was performed in accordance with the World Health Organization standard protocol. Field-collected and reference strains of Ae. aegypti larvae were tested against diagnostic doses of eight larvicides belonging to organophosphates and organochlorines, namely bromophos (0.050 mg/liter), chlopyrifos (0.002 mg/liter), fenitrothion (0.020 mg/liter), fenthion (0.025 mg/liter), malathion (0.125 mg/liter), temephos (0.012 mg/liter), DDT (0.012 mg/liter), and dieldrin (0.025 mg/liter). Mortality rates of larvae were recorded at 24-h posttreatment. This study showed that Ae. aegypti larvae from Padang, Samarinda, Manggarai Barat, and South Central Timor were susceptible to both fenitrothion and dieldrin (mortality rates ≥ 98%). About 6 out of 10 field strains of Ae. aegypti larvae were resistant (<80% mortality rates) against fenthion, whereas Ae. aegypti larvae from Kuningan, Samarinda, Sumba, and South Central Timor exhibited some degrees of resistance (mortality rates 80-98%). All field-collected Ae. aegypti larvae were resistant against diagnostic doses of chlorpyrifos, malathion, temephos, and DDT with mortality rates ranging from 0 to 74.67%. Continued insecticide susceptibility studies are essential to identify the efficacy of insecticides for an improved dengue vector control and to delay the development of insecticide resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  18. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Saeung A
    J Med Entomol, 2017 Jan;54(1):91-99.
    PMID: 28082635 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjw153
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) maleewongae sp. nov. is described based on the adult males and females, their pupal exuviae, and larvae from Thailand. This new species is placed in the Simulium gombakense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). It is characterized by the female cibarium with a cup-like appendage, male ventral plate deeply depressed ventromedially, pupal gill composed of an inflated structure and eight slender filaments, cone-shaped pupal terminal hooks, and cocoon with an anterodorsal projection. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from 10 other species of the same species-group known from China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Nepal, and Vietnam. Keys to identify all 11 species of the S. gombakense species-group are provided for females, males, pupae, and larvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
  19. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Chen CD, Lau KW, Halim MRA, Low VL, et al.
    J Med Entomol, 2017 May 01;54(3):576-586.
    PMID: 27974360 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjw208
    Two new species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) sunapii and S. (G.) rangatense, are described based on adults, pupae, and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. Simulium (G.) sunapii sp. nov. is placed in the S. asakoae species-group, representing the easternmost geographical record for the group in this archipelago. It is characterized by a small number of male upper-eye large facets in eight or nine vertical columns and 12 horizontal rows. Simulium (G.) rangatense sp. nov. is placed in the S. ceylonicum species-group and is characterized by the pupal gill with six filaments. This new species, together with two related species of the S. ceylonicum species-group in Flores, suggests the species radiation of this species-group might have been accompanied by a reduction of the number of pupal gill filaments from eight to four through six. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish these two new species from related species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
  20. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Saeung A
    J Med Entomol, 2018 05 04;55(3):569-574.
    PMID: 29361148 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjx242
    Simulium (Asiosimulium) saeungae sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae collected from Nan Province, Northern Thailand. It is characterized by the medium-long cerci in the female, enlarged hind basitarsus, and broad ventral plate with its posterior margin not deeply concave in the male, arborescent pupal gill with 42-56 filaments in the pupa and smaller number of primary rays of the labral fan (30-33) in the larva. This is the fifth species of the subgenus Asiosimulium, the second smallest among 10 subgenera in the Oriental Region. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish this new species from the three known species from Thailand and one from Nepal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
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