METHODS: Using open data repository with daily infected, recovered and death cases in the period between March 2020 and April 2021, a descriptive analysis was performed. The susceptible-exposed-infected-recovery model was used to estimate the effective productive number (Rt). The duration taken from Rt > 1 to Rt
METHODS: This study used data from the Global COVID-19 Index provided by PEMANDU Associates. The sample, representing 161 countries, comprised the number of confirmed cases, deaths, stringency indices, population density and GNI per capita (USD). Correlation matrices were computed to reveal the association between the variables at three time points: day-30, day-60 and day-90. Three separate principal component analyses were computed for similar time points, and several standardized plots were produced.
RESULTS: Confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 showed positive but weak correlation with stringency and GNI per capita. Through principal component analysis, the first two principal components captured close to 70% of the variance of the data. The first component can be viewed as the severity of the COVID-19 surge in countries, whereas the second component largely corresponded to population density, followed by GNI per capita of countries. Multivariate visualization of the two dominating principal components provided a standardized comparison of the situation in the161 countries, performed on day-30, day-60 and day-90 since the first confirmed cases in countries worldwide.
CONCLUSION: Visualization of the global spread of COVID-19 showed the unequal severity of the pandemic across continents and over time. Distinct patterns in clusters of countries, which separated many European countries from those in Africa, suggested a contrast in terms of stringency measures and wealth of a country. The African continent appeared to fare better in terms of the COVID-19 pandemic and the burden of mortality in the first 90 days. A noticeable worsening trend was observed in several countries in the same relative time frame of the disease's first 90 days, especially in the United States of America.
AIM: To equip faculty with tools to conduct TBL session online, synchronously, effectively and efficiently.
METHODS: We examined the published literature in the area of online teaching and combined it with our own experience of conducting TBL sessions online.
RESULTS: We created 12 tips to assist faculty to facilitate an effective and engaging TBL session online.
CONCLUSIONS: Applying these 12 tips while facilitating a TBL-online session will ensure the full engagement of students in the process of active learning.
CONCLUSIONS: PFA may be useful in helping frontline staff manage stress associated with the increased workload and general anxiety relating to the pandemic.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: It is recommended all staff members, especially those involved in frontline duty, to be provided PFA.