AIMS: Studies have examined mental health literacy of maternal postnatal depression, but there are no similar studies of paternal postnatal depression, which we sought to rectify.
METHODS: A sample of 406 British adults was presented with vignettes describing cases of either maternal or paternal postnatal depression. Based on the vignettes, participants were asked to report if they thought anything was wrong with the targets and, if so, to describe what they thought was wrong. Participants also rated the targets on a range of attitudinal dimensions.
RESULTS: Participants were more likely to indicate that something was wrong when the target was female (97.0%) compared to male (75.9%). Of those who believed something was wrong, 90.1% of participants correctly described the female target as experiencing postnatal depression, but only 46.3% did so for the male target. Participants also held more positive attitudes toward the female target than the male target.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a gender binary in symptom recognition of postnatal depression, which highlights the need for greater awareness of paternal postnatal depression.
Aim: This paper seeks to explore doctors' treatment decisions made without parental consent when managing adolescents presenting with sexual and reproductive health issues.
Methods: Based on a qualitative approach, in-depth interviews with 25 doctors throughout Malaysia were conducted. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a thematic approach.
Results: Generally, doctors weigh any decision by examining the health risks and benefits involved. While fear of litigation influences treatment decisions, a strong adherence to the ethical duty of 'do no harm' outweighs other considerations. When all options are risky, choosing what is considered 'the lesser of two evils,' i.e., what is perceived to be in the best interest of the adolescent, is adopted.
Conclusions: The complexity of a medical decision related to adolescent SRH issues is increased further when legal requirements are not in synch with the ethical and personal values of doctors. The laws relating to parental consent should be promulgated with a provision allowing doctors to exercise discretion in terms of treating specific SRH issues without parental consent.
METHODS: The principles of focused ethnography underpinned the study design. Fieldwork took place over six months in one 32-bedded paediatric oncology ward. Twenty-one children, ranging in ages from 7 to 12 years diagnosed with leukaemia, their parents and 19 nurses participated. Data collection consisted of participant observation and semi-structured interview.
RESULTS: Hospitalized children employed different roles of passive or active participants during the communication and decisions about their nursing care. Importantly, children are more likely to become active participants in the communication process when nurses interact directly with them, listening to them and giving them opportunities to ask questions in either the presence or absence of their parents. Equally, children are likely to be more passive participants when nurses do not communicate directly with them, choosing instead to directly interact with the child's parents. This study highlighted that the role of children as active and passive participants is not permanently engaged by individual children, rather their role fluctuates throughout the hospitalization journey. The fluctuations of a child's role are highly dependent on their preferences: how and when they want to be included in the communication and decisions process. Children's roles in communication and decisions are also varied and dependent on their particular contexts. A child's participation in one situation does not consistently reflect their participation with their role in other situations. The ways in which the children participate were oscillated throughout their hospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical insight into children's experiences of triadic (child-nurse-parent) interaction during the decisions about their nursing care in paediatric oncological setting. A key recommendation calls for the development of assessment strategies to determine the 'ideal' position children would like to occupy, at any given point in time, throughout their hospitalization.
METHODS: A total of 416 parents with children aged between two months old and 17 years old were participated in this cross-sectional survey. The responses of parents' observation on signs and symptoms of eye problems were compared between one open-ended question and ten close-ended questions. We also examined the demographic contributing factors that could influence parental responses.
RESULTS: The total count of reported signs and symptoms through open-ended and close-ended question was 164 and 529 reports, respectively. Parents reported more diverse (70% higher) categories of signs and symptoms in open-ended compared to close-ended questions. Parent's ability to report eye problems using open-ended question was associated with their gender (p<0.05), but no similar significant association was found in close-ended questions.
CONCLUSION: Parents reported more signs and symptoms of eye problems among their children through close-ended questions (regardless of gender) and more diversified categories through open-ended question in this study suggested that different communication approaches might be needed in clinical practice between those who requested specific appointment and those attending screening or routine assessment. The discrepancy might imply the importance to enhance the parent's role in preventive eye care. Effective communication between eyecare providers and parents has the potential to improve paediatric eyecare delivery.
METHODS: With institutional approval, we prospectively surveyed parents of children admitted to our institution for major elective operations between November 2017 and November 2018, using convenience sampling. Patients aged 12 years and above were also invited. Each respondent completed an anonymized modification of a previously published survey on Internet usage. Chi squared tests were used for categorical data, with significance at P value
METHODS: A general population sample of children and parents was recruited. Dimensionality of the PedsPCF was assessed using confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory bifactor analyses. Item response theory (IRT) modeling was used to evaluate model fit of the PedsPCF, to identify differential item functioning (DIF), and to select items for the short form. To select short-form items, we also considered the neuropsychological content of items.
RESULTS: In 1441 families, a parent and/or child participated (response rate 66% at family level). Assessed psychometric properties were satisfactory and the predominantly unidimensional factor structure of the PedsPCF allowed for IRT modeling using the graded response model. One item showed meaningful DIF. For the short form, 10 items were selected.
CONCLUSIONS: In this first study of the PedsPCF outside the United States, studied psychometric properties of the translated PedsPCF were satisfactory, and allowed for IRT modeling. Based on the IRT analyses and the content of items, we proposed a new 10-item short form. Further research should determine the relation of PedsPCF outcomes with neurocognitive measures and its ability to facilitate neuropsychological screening in clinical practice.
METHODS: A qualitative study design involving individual both face-to-face and online in-depth interview was used. The topic guide was developed from the Health Belief Model theoretical framework. Seven face-to-face and seven online interviews were conducted with parents in the Klang Valley (an urban area) who had refused childhood vaccination. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. Thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Data was collected until data saturation was reached.
RESULTS: Findings were summarized into two main categories: Personal Health Beliefs and Vaccine Related Concerns. Six personal health beliefs were identified: lack of confidence in modern medicine and health care personnel, pharmaceutical conspiracy to sell medicines, preference to a natural approach to health, personal instincts, religious beliefs and having a partner with similar beliefs. Four main vaccine-related concerns were identified: negative effects and content concerns, doubts of necessity and lack of information and knowledge regarding vaccines. Parents recommended that more empathy from healthcare professionals and evidence on safety and content purity would help them reconsider vaccination.
CONCLUSION: Parents had multiple reasons for refusing childhood vaccinations but felt that communication and empathy from healthcare professionals was lacking. Besides individual consultations with parents, addressing these concerns at multiple levels in the health care system and society may help to increase the uptake of childhood vaccinations in the future.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia involved parents of children with asthma. Parents of children without asthma were the control group. Eleven validated video clips showing wheeze, stridor, transmitted noises, snoring or normal breathing were shown to the parents. Parents were asked, in English or Malay, "What do you call the sound this child is making?" and "Where do you think the sound is coming from?"
RESULTS: Two hundred parents participated in this study: 100 had children with asthma while 100 did not. Most (71.5 %) answered in Malay. Only 38.5 % of parents correctly labelled wheeze. Parents were significantly better at locating than labelling wheeze (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.64-3.73). Parents with asthmatic children were not better at labelling wheeze than those without asthma (OR1.04, 95 % CI 0.59-1.84). Answering in English (OR 3.4, 95 % CI 1.69-7.14) and having older children with asthma (OR 9.09, 95 % CI 3.13-26.32) were associated with correct labelling of wheeze. Other sounds were mislabelled as wheeze by 16.5 % of respondents.
CONCLUSION: Parental labelling of wheeze was inaccurate especially in the Malay language. Parents were better at identifying the origin of wheeze rather than labelling it. Physicians should be wary about parental reporting of wheeze as it may be inaccurate.