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  1. Abdullah, N.S., Radzali, N.F.M., Saub, R., R.D. Vaithilingam,
    Ann Dent, 2013;20(2):16-23.
    MyJurnal
    To assess the oral health related quality of life
    (OHQoL) of a selected population of Malaysian adults and to compare the OHQoL by periodontal status. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study comprises a convenient sampling of fifty subjects from the Primary Care Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. OHQoL was assessed using the Malaysian version of Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Basic periodontal examination (BPE) was performed on all subjects to determine their periodontal status. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed.
    Results: Psychological discomfort, physical pain and psychological disability domains were the most affected dimensions in this population. Subjects with income levels >RM2,500 had higher impacts on their OHQoL as compared to those from other income levels (p0.05).
    Conclusion: Subjects with high income levels had high impacts on their OHQoL. Those with periodontitis experienced higher impacts on their OHQoL as compared to those who had a healthy periodontium or gingivitis and affected a wide range of domains of quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  2. Norhayati MN, Masseni AA, Azlina I
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e2983.
    PMID: 28243527 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2983
    BACKGROUND: The outcomes of the physician-patient discussion intervene in the satisfaction of cardiovascular disease risk patients. Adherence to treatment, provision of continuous care, clinical management of the illness and patients' adjustment are influenced by satisfaction with physician-patient interaction. This study aims to determine the patient satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and over six months after following prevention counselling, its associations with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors amongst moderately-high risk patients in a primary healthcare clinic in Kelantan, Malaysia.
    METHODS: A prospective survey was conducted amongst patients with moderately-high cardiovascular risk. A total of 104 moderately-high risk patients were recruited and underwent structured prevention counselling based on the World Health Organization guideline, and their satisfaction with the doctor-patient interaction was assessed using 'Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11,' the Malay version of the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale-21. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at a follow-up visit at six months. Descriptive analysis, paired t test and linear regression analyses were performed.
    RESULTS: A total of 102 patients responded, giving a response rate of 98.1%. At baseline, 76.5% of the respondents were satisfied with the relation with their doctor, with the favourable domain of distress relief (85.3%) and rapport/confidence (91.2%). The unfavourable domain was interaction outcome, with satisfaction in only 67.6% of the respondents. Between the two visits, changes had occurred in total cholesterol (P = 0.022) and in systolic blood pressure (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  3. Teoh SH, Razlina AR, Norwati D, Siti Suhaila MY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 Feb;72(1):18-25.
    PMID: 28255135
    BACKGROUND: blood pressure (bP) control among Malaysian is poor and doctor's adherence to clinical practice guideline (cPG) has been a well-known factor that may improve it. this study was designed to evaluate patients' bP control, doctors' adherence to the latest hypertension cPG and their association. Factors associated with bP control and cPG adherence was also examined.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kuala Muda district's health clinics. 331 medical records were selected using stratified random sampling and standard proforma was used for data collection. the latest edition of the Malaysian cPG on hypertension was employed to define related variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 160 patients (48.3%) had controlled bP and it was significantly associated with patients' age (adjusted Odds ratio, aOr= 1.03, 95% cI: 1.004, 1.05, p= 0.016) and systolic bP at presentation (aOr= 0.95, 95% cI: 0.93, 0.96, p< 0.001). About 60.7% of the medical records showed doctor's good level of cPG adherence. this adherence has significant association with presence of chronic kidney disease (aOr= 0.51, 95% cI: 0.31, 0.85, p= 0.007) and cardiovascular disease (aOr= 2.68, 95% cI: 1.04, 6.95, p= 0.030) in the patients and physicians' treatment intensification (aOr= 2.00, 95% cI: 1.26, 3.19, p= 0.009). However, no association was found between bP control and cPG adherence.

    CONCLUSION: Hypertension control in this study was poor and the prevalence of physicians with good level of cPG adherence was slightly above average. these findings are important for relevant stakeholders to strategise an action plan to improve hypertension management outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  4. Michal, C.S., Nadirah, S., Juhanah, G., Praneetha, P., Mohan, G.
    MyJurnal
    The Emergency Department (ED) provides treatment for acutely ill patients in need of urgent medical attention. Despite the availability of the primary care unit ‘Klinik Kesihatan’, where non urgent patients should be treated, Malaysia’s public hospitals still need to deal with overcrowding of non-urgent patients in ED. The main aim of the study was to assess the willingness of non-urgent patients to be redirected to Klinik Kesihatan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Hospital Tuaran Emergency Department, Sabah. Non-urgent patients were interviewed using a questionnaire, to find out the purpose of their visit to Emergency Department. A total of 318 non-urgent patients out of 457 patients were interviewed during the study duration. 41 respondents (12.9%) were willing to be redirected towards a Klinik Kesihatan. No associated factors were found when compared with the unwilling to be redirected group. Among 277 respondents who rejected redirection to Klinik Kesihatan, 70.4% agreed to pay a surcharge to be treated in the Emergency Department and there was no association found with the employment status (p= 0.391).
    Most patients were not willing to accept redirection to a Klinik Kesihatan and would prefer to visit the Emergency Department despite knowing that their condition or illness is one that does not require emergency treatment. Social media, advertisements and pamphlets must be made available to educate patients on the proper use of the Emergency Department.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  5. Hasimah Ismail, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Lim, Kuang Kuay
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):465-471.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Healthy dietary practice is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing the rate of diabetes complication development. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the association of dietary practice with glycaemic control among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, who received treatment from an urban Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur.
    Methods A total of 307 patients with T2DM aged 18 years and above participated in this study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire with guided interview was used to collect information on socio-demographic, clinical and dietary practice. Anthropometric and biological measurements were also taken. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used in the data analysis. Good glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c level less than 6.5%.
    Results The prevalence of good glycaemic control was only 27% (n=83). The highest percentage of good glycaemic control were among male patients (29.1%), aged 60 and above (33.3%), educational level of primary school (35.4%) and those with monthly income group between RM1001 to RM1500 (32.0%). About three quarter of T2DM patient (n=224) had poor control of HbA1c (≥6.5%). Age (p=0.045) and working status (p=0.039) had significant relationship with the level of HbA1c. Dietary practice showed no significant relationship with the HbA1c level.
    Conclusions Effective interventional health education strategies are needed, focussing on modification of dietary behaviour in order to achieve glycaemic control among diabetic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  6. Ling J, Tong SF
    Malays Fam Physician, 2017;12(1):2-13.
    PMID: 28503268
    INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, family planning initiatives were concentrated on women despite it being a family matter. As family dynamics evolved over the years, fathers' involvement in family planning has become crucial in enhancing the family well-being.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the role played by men in family planning activities and the association of socio-economic characteristics with these roles.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a university primary care clinic. All married male attendees to the clinic, aged 50 years and below, were approached to answer a set of self-administered questionnaires, asking for their involvement in family planning practices. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

    RESULTS: There were 167 participants in the study. A high proportion of men participated in the discussions regarding previous pregnancies (60.42%), future child planning (89.76%) and desired family size (89.76%). However, the discussions on the usage of family planning methods (FPMs; 39.16%) were significantly low. Socio-economic factors associated with higher likelihood of men discussing family planning activities were older age (p < 0.0), higher education level (p = 0.010), higher monthly income (p < 0.001) and longer duration of marriage (p = 0.0049).

    CONCLUSIONS: The level of participation of men varied in the discussions of four family planning activities. The roles taken by men in family planning were associated with older age and higher socio-economic class. The majority of men needs to be encouraged to play a more active role in the discussion of FPMs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  7. Kelak J, Cheah WL, Razitasham S
    PMID: 28529529 DOI: 10.1155/2017/5146478
    The decision by the patients to disclose traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) use to their doctor is an important area to be explored. This study aimed to determine the disclosure of TCM use and its associated factors to medical doctor among primary care clinic attendees in Kuching Division, Sarawak. It was a cross-sectional study using questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 1130 patients were screened with 80.2% reporting using TCM. Logistic regression analysis revealed that being female (AOR = 3.219, 95% CI: 1.385, 7.481), perceived benefits that TCM can prevent complication of illness (AOR = 3.999, 95% CI: 1.850, 8.644) and that TCM is more gentle and safer (AOR = 4.537, 95% CI: 2.332, 8.828), perceived barriers of not having enough knowledge about TCM (AOR = 0.530, 95% CI: 0.309, 0.910), patient dissatisfaction towards healthcare providers being too business-like and impersonal (AOR = 0.365, 95% CI: 0.199, 0.669) and paying more for healthcare than one can afford (AOR = 0.413, 95% CI: 0.250, 0.680), and accessibility of doctors (AOR = 3.971, 95% CI: 2.245, 7.023) are the predictors of disclosure of TCM use. An open communication between patients and doctor is important to ensure safe implementation and integration of both TCM and medical treatment.
    Study site: Klinik kesihatan, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  8. Emeka PM, Mukalaf AA, Helal HA, Khan TM, Almukalf MA
    Int J Health Sci (Qassim), 2017 Jul-Sep;11(3):38-44.
    PMID: 28936150
    OBJECTIVES: To assess drug use pattern and the effect on glycemic and blood pressure (BP) control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertensive patients. Furthermore, to evaluate the duration of drug use and antecedence in diagnosis.
    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study design, comprising interview/questionnaire targeting outpatients attending primary health centers in Al Ahsa was adopted. During the interview, their fasting blood glucose, weight, and height were measured, along with their BP. Time and duration of drug use were recorded. The history, sociodemographic data and the presence of any other disease conditions were also documented.
    RESULTS: The highest number of uncontrolled BP and poor glycemic control was among the age group of 45 and 49 years. Significant number of the patients (92.9%) had body mass index >30 kg/m(2). The prevalence of developing hypertension before T2DM among participants was 59.9%. A significant number (84%) had uncontrolled hypertension, and 67.3% had uncontrolled T2DM. Drug use pattern revealed single or combinations according to clinical guidelines initially but did not follow through in meeting targets. Majority received angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, amlodipine or atenolol for BP control and metformin for T2DM. Patients diagnosed between 1 and 5 years displayed significant poor glycemic and BP control. Significantly, most patients appeared to have been on same prescriptions for a longer time without review.
    CONCLUSION: Poor glycemic and BP controls observed in this study could be due to deficient treatment strategy among others. Patients were, however, not adequately managed in line with prescribed clinical guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  9. Nur Eliana Ahmad Tarmizi, Periasamy, Chenthilnathan, Singh, Avatar Singh Mohan, Irfan Mohamad
    Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 2017;12(2):114-117.
    MyJurnal
    (DENTAL)

    Foreign bodies (FB) are most often lodged in the upper digestive tract and amongst the common encounter in outpatient clinic. In most instances, the ingested FB passes uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract without any harm but in certain cases, it can migrate extraluminally and lead to serious complication. Long standing migrated FB can cause devastating complications like neck abscess and injuries to the major blood vessels. In the present case, a wooden toothpick had migrated to the soft tissue of the neck. A careful and detailed history with clinical-radiographic investigation helped to locate the ingested FB and aided in its successful removal.

    Study site: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital Taiping, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  10. Tohid, H., Saharuddin, A., Teh, R.J., Noor Azimah, M., Wan Farzihan, W.A., Mohd Radzniwan, A.R.
    MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Diabetic patients generally have a good idea about healthy diet however their awareness regarding specific dietary recommendations is questionable. Thus, this paper aims to examine the awareness regarding specific dietary components among diabetic patients at a primary care clinic and its influence on self-reported dietary practice.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) questionnaire (English-Malay version) was used. It was adapted with additional questions to assess respondents’ awareness on: (1) healthful eating plan, (2) the quantity of one serving of fruits and vegetables, (3) choices and the allowed quantity of high fat food intake, (4) meaning of carbohydrate, and (5) carbohydrate spacing per day.
    RESULTS: From the 360 respondents, 85.0% knew about healthful eating plan. However, those who were unaware of the meaning of carbohydrate, carbohydrate spacing, the allowed high fat food intake, and the quantity of one serving of fruits and vegetables were 34.1%, 47.5%, 40.0%, and 30.8% respectively. Generally, the dietary practice reported by those who knew ‘one serving of fruits and vegetables’ (p<0.001), ‘allowed quantity of high fat food intake’ (p=0.001), ‘meaning of carbohydrate’ (p<0.001), or ‘carbohydrate spacing’ (p<0.001) was significantly different than those who were unaware of these terms.
    CONCLUSION: Although most respondents knew about healthful eating plan, majority of them were unaware of the specific dietary components, suggesting superficial dietary knowledge. Unfortunately, poor dietary awareness significantly influenced their self-reported dietary practice which could be considered as inaccurate. Thus, strategies to improve their dietary knowledge is necessary at the primary care setting.
    Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, diet, awareness, self-care, primary care
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  11. Ahmad Faizal, S., Hatta Sidi, Suzaily Wahab, M.D., Leny Ss Drph, Nora Mat Zin, Najwa Baharuddin
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Marital satisfaction is vital to the wellbeing and functioning of the individual and family.
    Marital dissatisfaction can lead to detrimental effects on mental, physical and family health. The study
    aimed to determine the proportion of marital dissatisfaction in outpatient setting and its association with
    sexual functioning and psychiatric morbidity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Materials & Methods: A crosssectional
    study was conducted in selected primary care using purposive sampling. Data collection was
    done using socio-demographic questionnaire and several validated Malay version of self-administered
    questionnaires. Marital satisfaction was measured by the Malay version of Golombok–Rust Inventory of
    Marital State (Mal-GRIMS).

    Results: The prevalence of marriage dissatisfaction in sample population was
    about 37.3% with almost equal prevalence in both, 36.5% (male) and 37.8% (female). Using a regression
    analysis, the significant factors that affect marital dissatisfaction were respondent’s age group between 31-
    40 years old (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR. =11.4, 95% Confidence Interval, CI. =1.2-110.9), spouse’s salary of
    RM1000-RM2000 (lower income category) (AOR=7.3, 95% CI= 1.9-28.1), anxiety case (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI=1.1-
    21.5), depression case (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI=1.0-22.8), female sexual dysfunction in term of arousal function
    (AOR= 0.01, 95% CI=0.0-0.7), satisfaction dysfunction (AOR= 9.4, 95% CI= 1.5-58) and pain function
    (AOR=43.7, 95% CI=1.28 - 1489.2).

    Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction can be influenced by financial factor,
    sexual dysfunction and presence of psychiatric morbidity. Hence, in management of marital discord,
    thorough screening of these factors should be prioritized in clinical setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  12. Suhaiza Samsudin, Syahnaz Mohd Hashim, Azmawati Nawi
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Osteoporosis has frequently been regards as a disease of women only. However, men are also at risk of developing osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge of osteoporosis among men and its associated factors.
    Materials and method: A cross-sectional study of 245 male patients aged 50 and above was conducted in the primary care clinic, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. The research instrument used in this study was a validated self-administered questionnaire which consists of socio-demographic data and 16 items of knowledge of osteoporosis among men.
    Results: The mean score for knowledge was 7.78± 3.32 out of 16 points. Most of the subjects (83 percent) knew the definition of osteoporosis but were not aware that osteoporosis was a silent disease. Only a quarter of subjects (38 percent) recognized family history as a risk factors for osteoporosis. Despite 78 percent of subjects answer correctly regarding importance of calcium intake in their diet however only 7 percent
    of them knew the recommended dosage of daily calcium intake. Knowledge of osteoporosis was found to be significantly associated with education and total monthly household income.
    Conclusion: Findings indicate limited knowledge of osteoporosis among the subjects. Public education of osteoporosis among men is important to increase their knowledge. Meanwhile, primary care doctors should also emphasize and educate men regarding osteoporosis to enhance their knowledge of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  13. Mahdy, Z.A., Rahana, A.R., Zaleha, M.I., Muhammad Za’im, S.H., Mukudan, K., Jumaida, A.B.
    Medicine & Health, 2017;12(1):27-33.
    MyJurnal
    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia in pregnancy. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of antenatal anemia and iron deficiency in the Malaysian population and its correlation with sociodemographic and obstetric profile. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban health clinic over a period of six months. A single blood sample was drawn from apparently healthy pregnant mothers at antenatal booking and sent for laboratory assessment of full blood count and serum ferritin as screening tools for anemia and iron status. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. The results showed that out of 250 subjects, 43.6% had anemia and 31.6% had iron deficiency. Whilst 47.7% of subjects with anemia were iron deficient, 19.1% of subjects without anemia were also iron deficient. Serum ferritin correlated negatively with period of gestation at booking (p<0.001), with 77.6% of these women not having prior iron supplements. Serum ferritin was also significantly lower among grandmultiparae (p=0.01). Iron deficiency was significantly (p=0.024) more common among Indians (42.5%) compared to Malays (33.5%) and Chinese (13.0%). In conclusion, continuation of the current practice of routine antenatal iron supplementation is still warranted and justifiable in Malaysia as there is high prevalence of iron deficiency in pregnancy not only in the presence of anemia but also in the presence of normal hemoglobin values. Keywords: anaemia, ferritn, pregnancy
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  14. Wong, L. K. S., Muthupalaniappen, L., Tie, S. T.
    Medicine & Health, 2017;12(2):275-285.
    MyJurnal
    Adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are grossly underutilized although there is clear benefit in reducing mortality and morbidity among those at risk. The aim of the study was to assess primary care physician’s knowledge on adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, their beliefs and barriers to vaccination. A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted at eight primary care centres in Kuching, Sarawak. A total of 108 primary care physicians participated in this study. Median age of participants was 29 years (IQR 4.0). The median knowledge score for influenza vaccine was 9 (IQR 3) and for pneumococcal vaccine was 8 (IQR 4). Female participants scored higher compared to their male counterparts for influenza and pneumococcal vaccines (P = 0.005 & 0.007). The highest percentage of correct responses for influenza vaccination was for side effects (75.3%) while the lowest was for contraindications (9.3%). The highest percentage of correct responses for pneumococcal vaccination was for side effects (69.1%) while the lowest was for advocated target groups (6.2%). Most participants believed that pneumococcal and influenza vaccines were safe (92.8 & 99%) and beneficial for patients (89.7 & 93.8%). Cost of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines (94.8% & 96.9%) and their availability (86.6% & 89.7%) were the main barriers to prescribing them. Primary care physicians in the public sector have moderate knowledge of both adult vaccinations. Areas of knowledge paucity and barriers need to be addressed to ensure a more comprehensive health care delivery to the aging Malaysian population.
    Keywords: adult, belief, influenza vaccines, knowledge, pneumococcal vaccines
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  15. Ab-Rahman S, Sulaiman AR, Muzaffar T
    Trauma Case Rep, 2016 Apr;3:32-35.
    PMID: 29942842 DOI: 10.1016/j.tcr.2016.05.004
    Irreducible dislocation of the interphalangeal joint (IPJ) big toe is a rare injury Hitori et al. (2006) . We report a case of the right big toe IPJ dislocation following a trauma. The problem was diagnosed and managed at other medical centers with standard treatment of closed manual reduction and splint. The right big toe was splinted accordingly and the patient was referred to our orthopedic outpatient clinic. At the clinic, a repeat plain radiograph was ordered due to high suspicion of the irreducible IPJ.
    Study site: orthopedic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  16. Chew BH, Vos RC, Stellato RK, Rutten GEHM
    Front Psychol, 2017;8:1834.
    PMID: 29089913 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01834
    For people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) the daily maintenance of physical and psychological health is challenging. However, the interrelatedness of these two health domains, and of diabetes-related distress (DRD) and depressive symptoms, in the Asian population is still poorly understood. DRD and depressive symptoms have important but distinct influences on diabetes self-care and disease control. Furthermore, the question of whether changes in DRD or depressive symptoms follow a more or less natural course or depend on disease and therapy-related factors is yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing changes in DRD or depressive symptoms, at a 3-year follow-up point, in Malaysian adults with T2DM who received regular primary diabetes care. Baseline data included age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, employment status, health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), insulin use, diabetes-related complications and HbA1c. DRD was assessed both at baseline and after 3 years using a 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS-17), while depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Linear mixed models were used to examine the relationship between baseline variables and change scores in DDS-17 and PHQ-9. Almost half (336) of 700 participants completed both measurements. At follow-up, their mean (SD) age and diabetes duration were 60.6 (10.1) years and 9.8 (5.9) years, respectively, and 54.8% were women. More symptoms of depression at baseline was the only significant and independent predictor of improved DRD at 3 years (adjusted β = -0.06, p = 0.002). Similarly, worse DRD at baseline was the only significant and independent predictor of fewer depressive symptoms 3 years later (adjusted β = -0.98, p = 0.005). Thus, more "negative feelings" at baseline could be a manifestation of initial coping behaviors or a facilitator of a better psychological coaching by physicians or nurses that might be beneficial in the long term. We therefore conclude that initial negative feelings should not be seen as a necessarily adverse factor in diabetes care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  17. Ali, N., Abdul Mutalip, M.H., Kamaruddin, R., Manickam, M.A., Ahmad, N.A.
    MyJurnal
    Background: Early detection of alcohol abuse and associated risk(s) is necessary. It requires easy and reliable screening tools that are culturally
    adapted to the local context.
    Objectives: The aims of this study were to cross culturally adapt, test for its reliability and validity of the Malay version of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Testing (AUDIT-M).
    Methods: The cross-cultural adaptation process involved four stages: translation, synthesis, back translation and field pre-testing. The final version of AUDIT-M was pre-tested and post-tested within a 10-day interval among 37 respondents at the Tampin Health Clinic. Analysis of reliability and validity testing were done using SPSS version 21.
    Results: There were 37 participants in this study. The Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) with single measures of the test-retest scores was 0.93 (Cronbach alpha = 0.97), while the internal consistency reliability yielded (Cronbach alpha=0.92). Validity testing for the Pre-test and Post-test analysis with the Pearson correlation analysis was r=0.938.
    Conclusion: The translated Malay version of the AUDIT-M was found to be easy to understand and adaptable in the Malaysian context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  18. Rahman, Md. Shamsur, Matanjun, David, Parash, M. Tanveer Hossain, Shimmi, Sadia Choudhury, Tan, Tek Song, D’Souza, Urban John Arnold, et al.
    MyJurnal
    The main objective of this study was to obtain information regarding the effects of educational and socio-economic status of the patients on the prescribing pattern of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by the qualified medical personnel in the outpatient departments (OPDs) of two selected polyclinics in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 200 selected patients (100 from each polyclinic) attending the OPDs were interviewed using a questionnaire. Again data were collected, photocopied and later analyzed. Educated and higher income group of patients mostly attended in a Private Polyclinic (PPC) whereas less educated and lower income group of patients generally attended UMS Polyclinic (UPC). This was reported as a probable reason for the wide variations in the prescribing pattern with respect to pharmacological subclasses of NSAIDs in the OPDs of two polyclinics. The present results strongly support that probable reason. The number of patients taking NSAIDs before coming to hospital was more in PPC compared to UPC. They were influenced by pharmacists, friends and doctor’s advice given previously. In conclusion, it may be mentioned that overall prescribing pattern of NSAIDs among two polyclinics is rational.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  19. Meor Fairuz Rizal Meor Anuar Shuhaili, Intan Nureslyna Samsudin, Chew Boon How, Hejar Abdul Rahman, Johnson Stanslas, Shariful Hasan, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Statins have several pleiotropic effects including its primary effect of lipid lowering that is important to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Subjects often have heterogeneous responses to statin. This study aims to determine the biochemical effects of statins on lipid parameters among newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia subjects.
    Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving 118 newly diagnosed adults with dyslipidaemia from three government health clinics in Selangor, Malaysia. Biochemical analyses including fasting lipid profile [triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] and apolipoproteins (apoA1, apoB) were taken at baseline and follow-up after a month on statin.
    Results: Majority of subjects (61.9%) were prescribed with lovastatin, with the rest on simvastatin. At baseline, the median values for all lipid profile parameters (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C) and non-conventional lipid parameters (LDL-C:HDL-C ratio, non-HDL-C, TC:HDL-C ratio, apoB:apoA1 ratio) were deranged except for TG and apoA1. On follow up, all parameters showed median values within the reference range except for HDL-C, non-HDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio. There was significant difference in the effect of statins on lipid parameters including predictors of cardiovascular risk, simvastatin having better effects.
    Conclusions: Different statins have varying effects on lipid parameters. Simvastatin showed significantly better effects compared to lovastatin. Non-HDL value should be included in the standard lipid profile report given its ease of use and implementation as it’s both a marker of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk stratification as well as an established determinant of goal attainment during therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  20. Aneesa Abdul Rashid, Nurainul Hana Shamsuddin, Raja Dalila Athirah Raja Malek Ridhuan, Nurin Amalina Sallahuddin, Devaraj, Navin Kumar
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: In first six months of life, breastfeeding is the recommended form of feeding by the World Health Organisation for the growing child. To enable the working mother to continue this noble practice, adequate workplace breastfeeding support and self- efficacy is needed. This study aims to determine the prevalence of breastfeeding among working mothers of children aged three months to two years and factors associated with breastfeeding practice including workplace support and mother’s self-efficacy. Method: This is a cross sectional questionnaire study carried out in a rural Health Clinic in Selangor using socio-demographic data, Workplace Breastfeeding Support Scale (WBSS), and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF). This study was conducted for a period of three months from April to June 2015. The respondents were employed Malaysian mothers of healthy infants aged three months to two years. A total of 84 participants were involved in the study. Data analysis was done with SPSS 22.Results: The prevalence of breastfeeding among working mothers were high at 97.6%. We found significant association of breastfeeding practice with workplace breastfeeding support (p=0.005) and self-efficacy (p= 0.017). We also noted a significant correlation between breastfeeding workplace support and breast feeding self-efficacy (r= 0.40, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
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