The present study aimed to examine whether physical and environment elements of PETTLEP imagery relate to the ability to image five types of sport imagery (i.e. skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery). Two hundred and ninety participants (152 males, 148 females; Mage = 20.24 years, SD = 4.36) from various sports completed the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ), and a set of items designed specifically for the study to assess how frequently participants incorporate physical (e.g. 'I make small movements or gestures during the imagery') and environment (e.g. 'I image in the real training/competition environment') elements of PETTLEP imagery. Structural equation modelling tested a hypothesised model in which imagery priming (i.e. the best fitting physical and environment elements) significantly and positively predicted imagery ability of the different imagery types (skill, β = 0.38; strategy, β = 0.23; goal, β = 0.21; affect, β = 0.25; mastery, β = 0.22). The model was a good fit to the data: χ2(174) = 263.87, p
A number of environmental factors have been associated with the development of IBD. Alteration of the gut microbiota, or dysbiosis, is closely linked to initiation or progression of IBD, but whether dysbiosis is a primary or secondary event is unclear. Nevertheless, early-life events such as birth, breastfeeding and exposure to antibiotics, as well as later childhood events, are considered potential risk factors for IBD. Air pollution, a consequence of the progressive contamination of the environment by countless compounds, is another factor associated with IBD, as particulate matter or other components can alter the host's mucosal defences and trigger immune responses. Hypoxia associated with high altitude is also a factor under investigation as a potential new trigger of IBD flares. A key issue is how to translate environmental factors into mechanisms of IBD, and systems biology is increasingly recognized as a strategic tool to unravel the molecular alterations leading to IBD. Environmental factors add a substantial level of complexity to the understanding of IBD pathogenesis but also promote the fundamental notion that complex diseases such as IBD require complex therapies that go well beyond the current single-agent treatment approach. This Review describes the current conceptualization, evidence, progress and direction surrounding the association of environmental factors with IBD.
Robustness has become a highly desirable breeding goal in the globalized agricultural market. Both genotype-by-environment interaction (G × E) and micro-environmental sensitivity are important robustness components of aquaculture production, in which breeding stock is often disseminated to different environments. The objectives of this study were (i) to quantify the degree of G × E by assessing the growth performance of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) across three countries (Malaysia, India and China) and (ii) to quantify the genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance for body weight at harvest (BW) in GIFT as a measure of micro-environmental sensitivity. Selection for BW was carried out for 13 generations in Malaysia. Subsets of 60 full-sib families from Malaysia were sent to China and India after five and nine generations respectively. First, a multi-trait animal model was used to analyse the BW in different countries as different traits. The results indicate a strong G × E. Second, a genetically structured environmental variance model, implemented using Bayesian inference, was used to analyse micro-environmental sensitivity of BW in each country. The analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity of both BW and its environmental variance in all environments. The presence of genetic variation in residual variance of BW implies that the residual variance can be modified by selection. Incorporating both G × E and micro-environmental sensitivity information may help in selecting robust genotypes with high performance across environments and resilience to environmental fluctuations.
A cross sectional study was conducted among 1007 children aged 1-2 years, from padi farming area. The percentage of male children was 51.4%. The prevalence of at least one of the chronic respiratory symptoms was 12.81%, and the prevalence of chronic cough, chronic sputum, wheezing and bronchial asthma as diagnosed by doctors were 9.33%, 3.87% 5.36% and 3.38% respectively. The overall prevalence of bronchial asthma was 6.26%. The prevalence of asthma was highest among children aged 11-12 years (8.9%) and higher among males (6.95%). No significant relationship was found between the prevalence of either chronic respiratory disease symptoms of bronchial asthma, and selected environmental factors, namely exposure to cigarette smoke, use of mosquito coil and wood stove. However there was a significant relationship between prevalence of asthma in children and history of asthma among parents and grandparents.
A child's growth achievement depends on his genetic endowment and the environment in which he lives; Comparative studies of children of similar racial origin but growing under different environmental conditions have shown differences in their body size and shape. In general higher income families produce offspring with higher mean birth weight. This is largely due to better nutrition and care of mothers during pregnancy and childhood. Children from higher socioeconomic groups are on an average larger in size in terms of weight, height, head circumference, midarm circumference, crown-rump length and leg length. This is largely due to a better home environment including sanitation, nutrition, health and care enjoyed by the better-off children. .Generally urban children are larger than rural children mainly due to economic differences between the two areas. In most countries the secular trend to children getting larger still continues reflecting an improvement of living conditions with time. Unlike body size, body shape is less influenced by the environment and the change in body proportion brought about by environment is not permanent. In developing countries, children from higher socioeconomic families have generally thicker skinfolds. On the average, infants and preschool children of European ancestry have thicker triceps skinfolds compared with Negroes and Asians living in comparable environments. It is possible that this is due to long term adaptation to different climatic conditions.
Five studies were conducted to understand the impact of nature exposure on body image. In three studies using different designs and outcome measures, British university students were exposed to photographs of natural or built environments. Results indicated that exposure to images of natural, but not built, environments resulted in improved state body image. In Study 4, British community participants went on a walk in a natural or built environment, with results indicating that the walk in a natural environment resulted in significantly higher state body appreciation, whereas the walk in a built environment resulted in significantly lower scores. In Study 5, British participants were recruited as they were entering a designed green space on their own volition. Results indicated that spending time in the green space led to improved state body appreciation. These results indicate that exposure to isomorphic or in-situ natural environments has positive effects on state body image.
Marine organisms comprised about 70% of the total impinged materials by weight at water intake screens in the Kapar Power Station (KPS), Malaysia. The general groupings of 'fish', 'shrimp', 'crab', 'cephalopod' and 'others' contributed 26% (87 species), 65% (29), 2% (17), 2% (3) and 5% (42) of the total number of impinged organisms, respectively. In general, higher impingement occurred during spring tide, at nighttime and in shallow water. The glass perchlet, anchovies, ponyfishes, mojarra, catfishes, hairtail, scat and young croakers were the most vulnerable fishes. Vulnerable invertebrates included cephalopods, sea urchin, rockshells and jellyfishes, but penaeid shrimps were the most susceptible in terms of both mortality and body injury. Annually, KPS is estimated to kill 8.5 x 10(6) marine organisms (42 tons) by impingement. This amount, however, is minimal compared to commercial fishery harvests. Multispecies impingement at Malaysian power plants poses the problem of finding the best mitigation options for tropical situations.
Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey.
The global environment is in a dynamic flux due to rapid development. As a result of this, new
diseases are emerging and old diseases are re-emerging in many parts of the world. Therefore there is a constant need for appropriate data for formulation of effective policies to mitigate the adverse effects of environmental degradation on human health. The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 is a milestone that sets the direction for good environmental management initiatives and the success
of this depends on good data. Malaysia currently has the Environmental Quality Act 1974 in place to
control environment related problems. However good guidelines must be developed to keep the initiatives for good environmental management on course, for this we need good data. The Centre for Environmental and Population Health at IMU, coordinates research activities in specific thrust areas in an endeavour to produce important data that is required for developing appropriate guidelines for environmental health.
Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Health
Maritime transportation is very important for coastal state country like Malaysia. However, as having the busiest straits in the world, Malaysia is continuously exposed to the risk of marine spill. The nation had experienced around 30 marine spill incidents since 1976 to the present. The main contributor of marine spill is ship’s accident and in term of category of accident, collision had contributed the most. In term of type of substance that mostly spilled by ships is highly persistence crude oil. The management of marine spill response of Malaysia is applying the three tiers system which is base on the area and scale of the spill. The basis of establishing the marine response service is in accordance with OPRC, which incorporated into the national environmental law. With the three tiers of response system, Malaysia is equipped with arsenal of marine spill response and control equipments. However, with the present magnitude of threat, the current capacities of equipments are insufficient. Nevertheless, the possibility of full magnitude of marine spill is unlikely due to the safety features incorporated into the design of the ships and FSO/FPSO. In term of claim and compensation for marine spill incident, Malaysia is applying the two layers of compensation under the CLC 1992 Protocol and FUND 1992 Protocol. Therefore, Malaysia is ready in various aspects of marine spill response and control.
Oil pollution remains a serious concern especially in Malaysia. Many strategies have been employed to overcome oil pollution. In this research, sago waste material abundantly found in Sarawak was used and chemically modified into an oil adsorbent . Sago waste cellulosic residues were modified using fatty acid derivatives. The capability of the chemically modified sago waste to absorb oil from aqueous solution was studied and compared with the untreated sago waste. The modified sago waste showed higher hydrophobicity than the untreated sago waste, implying that it is less affinity for water and also an excellent affinity for oil. This chemically modified sago waste would be the most suitable for applications where engine oil (i.e., Shell Helix HX5) is to be removed from an aqueous environment. The modified sago waste selectively absorbs the oil and remains on the surface and is to be removed when the application is complete.
In this study a GIS model was developed and spatial analytical techniques performed to identify and select a suitable location for a waste transfer station in the sprawling suburban town of Petaling Jaya. The lack of a transfer station in urban centres of Malaysia has caused many problems and affects the efficiency of waste collection and disposal. With diminishing space for landfills and the increasing cost of solid waste management, the need for urban solid-waste recycling has become very important. However, finding a place for waste to be efficiently sorted before unwanted waste can be carried to disposal landfills has social and physical constraints. This study applies GIS techniques and analysis for site selection and identifies an acceptable area. In the model, environmental, physical and social constraints were taken into account, resulting in the selection of a potential area that is acceptable to the residents of the area because it is out of range of causing public nuisance and within minimum travelling distance for collection vehicles. The results show that the potential location for the transfer station should be in proximity of the industrial area of Petaling Jaya, allowing for the possible sale of recyclable materials to local industries. The location is also sited near a major highway to allow quick transportation of the rest of the unwanted waste to the landfill.
Stack ventilation in the hot and humid climate is inherently inefficient due to minimal air temperature differences between indoor and outdoor environment of a naturally ventilated building. Solar induced ventilation is a viable alternative in enhancing this stack ventilation. This paper aims to demonstrate investigations on the effective solar collector orientation and stack height for a solar induced ventilation prototype that utilizes roof solar collector and vertical stack. The orientation of the solar collector is significant as it determines the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the solar collector. Meanwhile, the height of the vertical stack influences the creation of the stack pressure in inducing air movement. Investigations were executed using a simulation modelling software called FloVENT. The validation of the simulation modelling against physical experiment indicated a good agreement between these two results. Analyses were executed on the air temperature increments inside the solar collector. A high increment of the air temperature resulted in the effective orientation. Meanwhile, the air temperature and mass flow rate of the various heights of the vertical stack were also analyzed. The findings concluded that the recommended orientation for the prototype’s solar collector is the west-facing orientation. It was also found that the higher the vertical stack, the lower the air temperature inside the stack would be, but with greater induced mass flow rate.
Shotcrete is a process where concrete is projected or “shot” under pressure, using a feeder or a
“gun” onto a surface to form structural shapes including walls, floors, and roofs. The surface can
be wood, steel, polystyrene, or any other surfaces that concrete can be projected onto. The surface
can be trowel led smooth while the concrete is still wet. Shotcrete has high strength, durability, low
permeability, excellent bond, and limitless shape possibilities. These properties allow shotcrete
to be used as a structural material in most cases. Although the hardened properties of shotcrete
are similar to conventional cast-in-place concrete, the nature of the placement process provides
additional benefits, such as excellent bond with most substrates and instant or rapid capabilities,
particularly on complex forms or shapes. In addition to building homes, shotcrete can also be used
to build pools. The practice of underground tunneling shows that the degree of stability of tunnels
is dependent on the state of the soil, rock mass, and shotcrete around the tunnel contour. The
development in the urban or suburban areas leads to the construction of tunnels in all kinds of soil
and rock. Meanwhile, the construction of tunnels in shallow depth or soft soils causes the ground
to displace. The determination of soil and rock mechanical properties to assess the stability of New
Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) tunnels and design the support system is one of the most
important steps in tunnelling. This paper provides information pertaining to the safety and increase
the stability of NATM tunnel before, during and after the operation of the tunnel. Therefore, the
shotcrete process is a recognized method for cemented sandy silt stabilization, with the aid of high
pressure shot concrete to increase the stability of tunnels.
Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.
Presently, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used in a wide variety of commercial applications, resulting in an uncontrolled introduction into the aquatic environment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the pathways and factors that controlling the transport and toxicity of five extensively used ENMs. These toxicological pathways are of great importance and need to be addressed for sustainable implications of ENMs without environmental liabilities. Here we discuss five potentially utilized ENMs with their possible toxicological risk factors to aquatic plants, vertebrates model and microbes. Moreover, the key effect of ENMs surface transformations by significant reaction with environmental objects such as dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) and the effect of ENMs surface coating and surface charge will also be debated. The transformations of ENMs are subsequently facing a major ecological transition that is expected to create a substantial toxicological effect towards the ecosystem. These transformations largely involve chemical and physical processes, which depend on the properties of both ENMs and the receiving medium. In this review article, the critical issues that controlling the transport and toxicity of ENMs are reviewed by exploiting the latest reports and future directions and targets are keenly discussed to minimize the pessimistic effects of ENMs.
An accurate forecasting of tropospheric ozone (O3) concentration is benefi-
cial for strategic planning of air quality. In this study, various forecasting techniques are
used to forecast the daily maximum O3 concentration levels at a monitoring station
in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated movingaverage
(ARIMA) approach and three types of neural network models, namely, backpropagation
neural network, Elman recurrent neural network and radial basis function
neural network are considered. The daily maximum data, spanning from 1 January
2011 to 7 August 2011, was obtained from the Department of Environment, Malaysia.
The performance of the four methods in forecasting future values of ozone concentrations
is evaluated based on three criteria, which are root mean square error (RMSE),
mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The findings
show that the Box-Jenkins approach outperformed the artificial neural network