Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 532 in total

  1. Chong VH, Telisinghe PU, Lim E, Tan J, Chong CF
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(2):845-9.
    PMID: 26925690
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the incidence of cancers is increasing and is becoming a major public health issue, including those in the Asia Pacific region. South-East Asia is a region with diverse populations with different disease spectra. This study looked at the spectrum of cancers among South-East Asians working in Brunei Darussalam.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cancer registry from 1994 to 2012 maintained by the State Laboratory was retrospectively reviewed. Crude incidence rates were calculated based on the population census of 2010.

    RESULTS: Altogether, there was a total of 418 cancer cases diagnosed among South-East Asians, giving an incidence of 5.1% (n=418/8,253). The affected nationals in decreasing frequency were Malaysians (53.1%), followed by Filipinos (25.8%), Indonesians (15.3%), Thais (3.8%), Myanmese (1.7%) and Vietnamese (0.2%) with no recorded cases for Singapore and the People's Republic of Laos. The overall mean age of diagnosis was 46.1±4.2 years old, with an increasing trend over the years (p<0.05 ANOVA). The overall gender ratio was 42.3:57.7 (male:female), more females among the Filipinos and Indonesians, more males among the Thais, and equal representation among the Malaysians and the Myanmese. The most common were cancers of the digestive system (19.9%), followed by female reproductive/gynecologic system (16.0%), breast (15.6%), hematological/lymphatic (12.0%) and head/neck (8.1%). There were differences in the prevalence of cancers among the various nationalities with highest crude incidence rate among the Myanmese (141.2/100,000), followed by the Malaysian (88.5/100,000), and the Filipinos (40.6/100,000) and the lowest among the Thais (18.4/100,000), Indonesians (10.5/100,000) and the Vietnamese (6.3/100,000).

    CONCLUSIONS: Cancers among South-East Asian residing in Brunei Darussalam accounted for 5.1% of all cancers. The most common cancers were cancers of the digestive, gynecologic/female reproductive system and breast with certain types slowly increasing in proportions. There mean age of diagnoses was increasing.

  2. Phua VC, Wong WQ, Tan PL, Bustam AZ, Saad M, Alip A, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(4):1449-53.
    PMID: 25743814
    BACKGROUND: Oral capecitabine is increasingly replacing intravenous 5-fluorouracil in many chemotherapy regimens. However, data on the risk of febrile neutropaenia (FN) and treatment related death (TRD) with the drug remain sparse outside of clinical trial settings despite its widespread usage. This study aimed to determine these rates in a large cohort of patients treated in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the clinical notes of all patients prescribed with oral capecitabine chemotherapy for any tumour sites in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) from 1st January 2009 till 31st June 2010. Information collected included patient demographics, histopathological features, treatment received including the different chemotherapy regimens and intent of treatment whether the chemotherapy was given for neoadjuvant, concurrent with radiation, adjuvant or palliative intent. The aim of this study is to establish the pattern of usage, FN and TRD rates with capecitabine in clinical practice outside of clinical trial setting. FN is defined as an oral temperature >38.5°or two consecutive readings of >38.0° for 2 hours and an absolute neutrophil count <0.5 x 109/L, or expected to fall below 0.5 x 109/L (de Naurois et al., 2010). Treatment related death was defined as death occurring during or within 30 days of last chemotherapy treatment.

    RESULTS: Between 1st January 2009 and 30th June 2010, 274 patients were treated with capecitabine chemotherapy in UMMC. The mean age was 58 years (range 22 to 82 years). Capecitabine was used in 14 different tumour sites with the colorectal site predominating with a total of 128 cases (46.7%), followed by breast cancer (35.8%). Capecitabine was most commonly used in the palliative setting accounting for 63.9% of the cases, followed by the adjuvant setting (19.7%). The most common regimen was single agent capecitabine with 129 cases (47.1%). The other common regimens were XELOX (21.5%) and ECX (10.2%). The main result of this study showed an overall FN rate of 2.2% (6/274). The overall TRD rate was 5.1% (14/274). The FN rate for the single agent capecitabine regimen was 1.6% (2/129) and the TRD rate was 5.4% (7/129). All the TRDs were with single agent capecitabine regimen were used for palliative intent.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral capecitabine is used widely in clinical practice in a myriad of tumour sites and bears a low risk of febrile neutropaenia. However, capecitabine like any other intravenous chemotherapeutic agent carries a significant risk of treatment related death.

  3. Kua VF, Ismail F, Chee Ee Phua V, Aslan NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):1121-6.
    PMID: 23621198
    BACKGROUND: Palliative chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (5FU) is the commonest regimen employed for metastatic and recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCHN) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, this regimen is cumbersome requiring 5 days of admission to hospital. Carboplatin/5FU may be an alternative regimen without compromising survival and response rates. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and toxicity of carboplatin/5FU regimen with the cisplatin/5FU regimen.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study looked at patients who had palliative chemotherapy with either cisplatin/5FU or carboplatin/5FU for metastatic and recurrent SCCHN and NPC. It included patients who were treated at UKMMC from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2009 with either palliative IV cispaltin 75 mg/m2 D1 only plus IV 5FU 750 mg/m2 D1-5 infusion or IV Carboplatin AUC 5 D1 only plus IV 5FU 500 mg/m2 D1-2 infusion plus IV 5FU 500 mg/m2 D1-2 bolus. The specific objectives were to determine the efficacy of palliative chemotherapy in terms of overall response rate (ORR), median progression free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) and to evaluate the toxicities of both regimens.

    RESULTS: A total of 41 patients were eligible for this study. There were 17 in the cisplatin/5FU arm and 24 in the carboplatin/5FU arm. The ORR was 17.7 % for cisplatin/5FU arm and 37.5 % for carboplatin/5FU arm (p-value=0.304). The median PFS was 7 months for cisplatin/5FU and 9 months for carboplatin/5FU (p-value=1.015). The median OS was 10 months for cisplatin/5FU arm and 12 months for carboplatin/5FU arm (p-value=0.110). There were 6 treatment-related deaths (6/41=14.6%), four in the carboplatin/5FU arm (4/24=16.7%) and 2 in the cisplatin/5FU arm (2/17=11.8%). Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicity was also more common with carboplatin/5FU group, this difference being predominantly due to grade 3-4 granulocytopenia (41.6% vs. 0), grade 3-4 anemia (37.5% vs. 0) and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (16.6% vs. 0).

    CONCLUSIONS: Carboplatin/5FU is not inferior to cisplatin/5FU with regard to its efficacy. However, there was a high rate of treatment-related deaths with both regimens. A better alternative needs to be considered.

  4. Yaacob NS, Nik Mohamed Kamal NN, Wong KK, Norazmi MN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(18):8135-40.
    PMID: 26745050
    BACKGROUND: Cell cycle regulatory proteins are suitable targets for cancer therapeutic development since genetic alterations in many cancers also affect the functions of these molecules. Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) is traditionally known for its potential benefits in treating various ailments. We recently reported that an active sub-fraction of S. crispus leaves (SCS) caused caspase-dependent apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Considering the ability of SCS to also promote the activity of the antiestrogen, tamoxifen, we further examined the effect of SCS in modulating cell cycle progression and related proteins in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression of cell cycle- related transcripts was analysed based on a previous microarray dataset.

    RESULTS: SCS significantly caused G1 arrest of both types of cells, similar to tamoxifen and this was associated with modulation of cyclin D1, p21 and p53. In combination with tamoxifen, the anticancer effects involved downregulation of ERα protein in MCF-7 cells but appeared independent of an ER-mediated mechanism in MDA-MB-231 cells. Microarray data analysis confirmed the clinical relevance of the proteins studied.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current data suggest that SCS growth inhibitory effects are similar to that of the antiestrogen, tamoxifen, further supporting the previously demonstrated cytotoxic and apoptotic actions of both agents.

  5. Mohd Nafi SN, Idris F, Jaafar H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2017 Dec 28;18(12):3231-3238.
    PMID: 29281877
    Background: Angiogenic activity has been considered to reflect important molecular events during breast tumour
    development. The present study concerned cellular and molecular changes of MNU-induced breast tumours subjected
    to promotion and suppression of angiogenesis. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats at the age of 21 days received
    MNU at the dose 70 mg/kg of body weight by intraperitoneal injection. Three months post-carcinogen initiation,
    mammary tumours were palpated and their growth was monitored. When the tumour diameter reached 1.0 ± 0.05 cm,
    rats were given bFGF or PF4 intratumourally at a dose of 10 μg/tumour. Entire palpable tumour were subsequently
    excised and subjected to histology examination, IHC staining, and RT-PCR. Results: No critical morphological changes
    were observed between pro-angiogenic factor, bFGF, and control groups. However, increase of tumour size with more
    necrotic and diffuse areas was notable in tumours after anti-angiogenic PF4 intervention. ER and PR mRNA expression
    was significantly up- and down-regulated in bFGF and PF4 groups, respectively. The trends were significantly associated
    with peri- and intratumoural MVD counts. However, irrespective of whether we promoted or inhibited angiogenesis,
    the expression of EGFR and ERBB2 continued to be significantly increased but this was not significantly associated
    with the MVD score. No significant differences in E-cadherin and LR gene expression were noted between intervention
    and control groups. Conclusion: ER and PR receptor expression shows consistent responses when tumour angiogenesis
    is manipulated either positively or negatively. Our study adds to current understanding that not only do we need to
    target hormonal receptors, as presently practiced, but we also need to target endothelial receptors to successfully treat
    breast cancer.
  6. Alblazi KM, Siar CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(6):2187-91.
    PMID: 25824735
    BACKGROUND: Protrusive structures formed by migrating and invading cells are termed lamellipodia, filopodia, invadopodia and podosomes. Lamellipodia and filopodia appear on the leading edges of migrating cells and function to command the direction of the migrating cells. Invadopodia and podosomes are special F-actin-rich matrix-degrading structures that arise on the ventral surface of the cell membrane. Invadopodia are found in a variety of carcinomatous cells including squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck region whereas podosomes are found in normal highly motile cells of mesenchymal and myelomonocytic lineage. Invadopodia-associated protein markers consisted of 129 proteins belonging to different functional classes including WASP, NWASP, cortactin, Src kinase, Arp 2/3 complex, MT1-MMP and F-actin. To date, our current understanding on the role(s) of these regulators of actin dynamics in tumors of the orofacial region indicates that upregulation of these proteins promotes invasion and metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, is associated with poor/worst prognostic outcome in laryngeal cancers, contributes to the persistent growth and metastasis characteristics of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, is a significant predictor of increased cancer risk in oral mucosal premalignant lesions and enhances local invasiveness in jawbone ameloblastomas.
  7. Othman NH, Devi BC, Halimah Y
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009 Oct-Dec;10(4):569-74.
    PMID: 19827871
    We studied women with cervical cancer to determine whether they had had a Pap smear within the 3 years preceding cancer development and their understanding of screening for this cancer. The study had 2 parts; Pathology Data and Survey Data. For pathology data, all cases of cervical cancer diagnosed in 2000-2006 were retrieved from eight hospitals and Pap smear history was obtained from clinical records. For the Survey data; patients who were still undergoing treatment in some of these hospitals and three others were administered structured questionnaires to determine their awareness about screening. The results showed 1431 cases of cervical cancer in women aged 25-85 were diagnosed in these hospitals. Most had not had a Pap smear within 3 years before cancer development. The percentages of patients who had had Pap smear ranged from 0-12%. Questionnaires were returned by 221 patients; 56.3% had none or only primary education and 61.1% had a household income of RM 1,000 or less. Level of education and the household income were strongly associated (p<0.05) with knowledge and having had a Pap test. The main reasons cited for not having had a Pap smear were "Never heard about it" (36.2%), "Shy" (10.4%), "Afraid to do it" (13.1%), "Think the test is not important" (8.1%) and "No encouragement from family" (4.5%). A large majority (95.9%) of the patients did not know the optimal interval. In conclusion, a large number of cervical cancer patients had not had a Pap smear within 3 years preceding cancer development and most had inadequate knowledge about this screening test.
  8. Kamaludin KM, Muhammad M, Wahat NW, Ibrahim R
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(8):4795-800.
    PMID: 24083746
    The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.
  9. Othman NH, Rebolj M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009;10(5):747-52.
    PMID: 20104963
    OBJECTIVES: Many developing countries, including Malaysia, will need to continue relying on cervical screening because they will not be able to cover their entire female adolescent populations with HPV vaccination. The aim of this paper was to establish the extent of the health care, informational, financial and psychosocial barriers to cervical screening in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A literature search was made for reports on implementation, perceptions and reception of cervical screening in Malaysia published between January 2000 and September 2008.

    RESULTS: Despite offering Pap smears for free since 1995, only 47.3% of Malaysian women have been screened. Several factors may have contributed to this. No national call-recall system has been established. Women are informed about cervical screening primarily through mass media rather than being individually invited. Smears are free of charge if taken in public hospitals and clinics, but the waiting times are often long. The health care system is unequally dense, with rural states being underserved compared to their urban counterparts. If the screening coverage was to increase, a shortage of smear-readers would become increasingly apparent.

    CONCLUSIONS: Improving screening coverage will remain an important strategy for combating cervical cancer in Malaysia. The focus should be on the policy-making context, improving awareness and the screening infrastructure, and making the service better accessible to women.

  10. Chan SW, Kallarakkal TG, Abraham MT
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(5):2145-52.
    PMID: 24716948
    BACKGROUND: The survival rate for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has remained generally unchanged in the past three decades, underlining the need for more biomarkers to be developed to aid prognostication and effective management. The prognostic potential of E-cadherin expression in OSCCs has been variable in previous studies while galectin-9 expression has been correlated with improved prognosis in other cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of galectin-9 and E-cadherin in OSCC and their potential as prognostic biomarkers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: E-cadherin and Galectin-9 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 32 cases of OSCC of the buccal mucosa (13 with and 19 without lymph node metastasis), as well as 6 samples of reactive lesions and 5 of normal buccal mucosa.

    RESULTS: The expression of E-cadherin in OSCC was significantly lower than the control tissues but galectin-9 expression was conversely higher. Median E-cadherin HSCOREs between OSCCs positive and negative for nodal metastasis were not significantly different. Mean HSCOREs for galectin-9 in OSCC without lymph node metastasis (127.7 ± 81.8) was higher than OSCC with lymph node metastasis (97.9 ± 62.9) but this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: E-cadherin expression is reduced whilst galectin-9 expression is increased in OSCC. However, the present results suggest that E-cadherin and galectin-9 expression may not be useful as prognostic markers for OSCC.

  11. Dominic NA, Thirunavuk Arasoo VJ, Botross NP, Riad A, Biding C, Ramadas A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2018 Jul 27;19(7):1809-1815.
    PMID: 30049192
    Background: There is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of multifaceted group-based interventions to
    improve psychological well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of breast cancer (BCa) survivors in
    Malaysia. This study is aimed at assessing the effectiveness of such intervention program among the BCa survivors.
    Materials and Methods: This was a group-based intervention program with pre- and post-test design, carried out
    among BCa survivors (n=37) who were members of Breast Cancer Support Group Centre, Johor Bahru. A validated
    self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the impact of the program on psychosocial well-being and HRQOL of
    the participants. Results: The mean age of BCa survivors was 58.1 years (SD=9.7), with mean age at diagnosis of
    49.9 years (SD=9.6). Majority of them were of Chinese ethnicity, married and had secondary level education, but
    were unemployed. More than 86% of them were diagnosed to have early BCa diagnosis and have since completed
    the treatment. There were significant decreases in median depression (p=0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and stress (p<0.001)
    scores at post-intervention. More than 85% of the participants rated themselves to have a good or very good QOL
    at post-intervention, as opposed to 75.9% at pre-intervention. Significant improvements in several HR-QOL domain
    scores were seen, with psychological score improving the most (p<0.001), followed by social relationship (p=0.002)
    and physical health (p=0.004). Conclusions: Group-based multifaceted intervention can be a viable solution to improve
    psychosocial well-being of BCa survivors.
  12. Yunus NM, Johan MF, Ali Nagi Al-Jamal H, Husin A, Hussein AR, Hassan R
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(12):4869-72.
    PMID: 26163606
    BACKGROUND: Mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) receptor gene may promote proliferation via activation of multiple signaling pathways. FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is the most common gene alteration found in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and has been associated with poor prognosis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed mutational analysis of exons 14-15 and 20 of the FLT3 gene in 54 AML patients using PCR-CSGE (conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis) followed by sequencing analysis to characterise FLT3 mutations in adult patients diagnosed with AML at Hospital USM, Kelantan, Northeast Peninsular Malaysia.

    RESULTS: FLT3 exon 14-15 mutations were identified in 7 of 54 patients (13%) whereas no mutation was found in FLT3 exon 20. Six ITDs and one non-ITD mutation were found in exon 14 of the juxtamembrane (JM) domain of FLT3. FLT3-ITD mutations were associated with a significantly higher blast percentage (p-value=0.008) and white blood cell count (p-value=0.023) but there was no significant difference in median overall survival time for FLT3-ITD+/FLT3-ITD- within 2 years (p-value=0.374).

    CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of FLT3-ITD in AML patients in this particular region of Malaysia is low compared to the Western world and has a significant association with WBC and blast percentage.

  13. Ch'ng ES, Tuan Sharif SE, Jaafar H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(9):4445-52.
    PMID: 23167359
    BACKGROUND: Prognosis of breast cancer depends on classic pathological factors and also tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological factors of breast cancer in a tertiary centre with a focus on the relationship between tumor angiogenesis and clinicopathological factors.

    METHODS: Clinicopathological data were retrieved from the archived formal pathology reports for surgical specimens diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained with anti-CD34 antibody and quantified as microvessel density.

    RESULTS: At least 50% of 94 cases of invasive breast ductal carcinoma in the study were advanced stage. The majority had poor prognosis factors such as tumor size larger than 50mm (48.9%), positive lymph node metastasis (60.6%), and tumor grade III (52.1%). Higher percentages of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cases were recorded (46.8% and 46.8% respectively). Her-2 overexpression cases and triple negative breast cancers constituted 24.5% and 22.3% respectively. Significantly higher microvessel density was observed in the younger patient age group (p=0.012). There were no significant associations between microvessel density and other clinicopathological factors (p>0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the breast cancer patients of this institution had advanced stage disease with poorer prognostic factors as compared to other local and western studies. Breast cancer in younger patients might be more proangiogenic.

  14. Koh KS, Telisinghe PU, Bickle I, Abdullah MS, Chong CF, Chong VH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(8):3279-83.
    PMID: 25921132
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common gastrointestinal cancer and the incidence is increasing. CRC is more common with increasing age, but a proportion occurs in young adults, termed young CRC. This study assessed the incidence and the demographic of young CRC in Brunei Darussalam.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: All histologically proven CRC between 1986 and 2014 registered with the Department of Pathology cancer registry were reviewed and data extracted for analyses. Young CRC was defined as cancer in patients aged less than 45 years. The various population groups were categorized into locals (Malays, Chinese and Indigenous) and expatriates.

    RESULTS: Over the study period, there were 1,126 histologically proven CRC (mean age 59.1 ± 14.7 years, Male 58.0%, Locals 91.8% and 8.2% expatriates). Young CRC accounted for 15.1% with the proportion declining over the years, from 29% (1986-1990) to 13.2% (2011-2014). The proportion of young CRC was highest among the indigenous (30.8%), followed by the expatriates (29.3%), Malays (14.3%) and lowest among the Chinese (10.8%). The mean age of young CRC was 35.9 ± 6.2; lowest among the indigenous (33.5 ± 6.7), expatriate (34.9 ± 6.0) groupd and the Malays (35.6 ± 6.5) compared to the Chinese (38.6 ± 4.6), a similar trend being observed in the non-young CRC groups. There were no difference between the genders and tumor locations (rectum or colon) between the young and the non-young CRC cases. Female young CRC was significantly younger than male (p<0.05) without any significant variation between the various population groups (p>0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the young CRC accounted for 15.1% of all CRC with declining trend observed over recent years. Young CRC was more common among indigenous, expatriates and Malays and least common among the Chinese. There were no differences in the gender and tumor locations.
  15. Hamizah S, Roslida AH, Fezah O, Tan KL, Tor YS, Tan CI
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2533-9.
    PMID: 22938417
    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05) as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the AMLE-treated group. Interestingly, At 100 and 300 mg/ kg, AMLE completely inhibited the tumor development in all stages. Histopathological study revealed that tumor growth from the AMLE-treated groups showed only slight hyperplasia and absence of keratin pearls and rete ridges. The results, thus suggest that the A.muricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.
  16. Waziri PM, Abdullah R, Rosli R, Omar AR, Abdul AB, Kassim NK, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2018 Apr 25;19(4):917-922.
    PMID: 29693341
    Clausena excavata Burm f. is used by traditional healers to treat cancer patients in South East Asia. The use of the
    plant and its compounds is based on Asian folklore with little or no scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy
    The current study aimed to determine the effect of pure clausenidin isolated from C. excavata on caspase-8-induced cell
    death as well as angiogenesis in the HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Caspase-8 and extrinsic death receptor
    protein expression was determined using spectrophotometry and protein profile arrays, respectively. Ultrastructural
    analysis of clausenidin-treated cells was conducted using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, anti-angiogenic
    effects of clausenidin were investigated by Western blot analysis. Clausenidin significantly (p<0.05) increased the
    activity of caspase-8 and expression of protein components of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) in HepG2
    cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the clausenidin-treated HepG2 cells revealed morphological abnormalities typical of
    apoptosis. Furthermore, clausenidin significantly (p<0.05) decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth
    factor (VEGF). Therefore, clausenidin is a potential anti-angiogenic agent which may induce apoptosis of hepatocellular
    carcinoma cells.
  17. Ng PY, Chye SM, Ng ChH, Koh RY, Tiong YL, Pui LP, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2017 04 01;18(4):917-926.
    PMID: 28545188
    Background: Clinacanthus nutans (C.nutans) is a plant consumed as a cancer treatment in tropical Asia. Despite
    the availability of numerous anecdotal reports, evaluation of active anticancer effects has remained elusive. Therefore
    we here examined antiproliferative, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing and apoptosis mechanisms of whole plant
    extracts in different cancer cell lines. Methods: Antiproliferative actions of five solvent extracts (hexane, chloroform,
    ethyl acetate, methanol and water) of C.nutans were tested on non-small cell lung cancer (A549), nasopharygeal cancer
    (CNE1) and liver cancer (HepG2) cells using MTT assay. The most potent anticancer extract was then assessed by flow
    cytometry to study cell cycle changes . Intracellular levels of ROS were quantified by DCFH-DA assay. Involvement of
    the caspase pathway in induction of apoptosis was assessed using caspase assay kits. GC-MS analysis was performed
    to identify phytoconstituents in the extracts. Results: Hexane and chloroform extracts were antiproliferative against
    all three cell lines, while the ethyl acetate extract, at 300 μg/mL, was antiproliferative in the CNE1 but not A549 and
    HepG2 cases. Methanol and water extracts did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation. The most potent anticancer hexane
    extract was selected for further testing. It induced apoptosis in all three cell lines as shown by an increase in the
    percentage of cell in sub-G1 phase. Dose-dependent increase in ROS levels in all three cell lines indicated apoptosis to
    be possibly modulated by oxidative stress. At high concentrations (>100 μg/mL), hexane extracts upregulated caspases
    8, 9 and 3/7 across all three cell lines. GC-MS analysis of the hexane extract revealed abundance of 31 compounds.
    Conclusion : Among the five extracts of C.nutans, that with hexane extract demonstrated the highest antiproliferative
    activity against all three cancer cell lines tested. Action appeared to be via ion of intracellular ROS, and induction of
    apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways.
  18. Patil P, Hazarey V, Chaudhari R, Nimbalkar-Patil S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(3):1255-9.
    PMID: 27039756
    BACKGROUND: Oral physiotherapy or mouth exercise is considered to be an adjunct but mandatory treatment modality for oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). This study planned to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a newly designed mouth exercising device (MED) in OSMF patients receiving local ointment, intra-lesional drugs and surgical treatment.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 231 OSMF patients were selected and treated with basic regime including topical corticosteroids, oral antioxidants and the icecream-stick exercise regime and allotted randomly to two equal groups A and B. Group-A patients were additionally given MED. Subgroups A1 and B1 patients with an inter-incisal distance (IID) 20-35mm were not given any additional therapy; subgroup A2 and B2 patients (IID 20-35mm) were treated additionally with intra-lesional injections. Subgroups A3 and B3 with IID<20mm were managed surgically. IID was measured at baseline and at 6 months recall. The change in IID measurements was calculated and statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Tukeys multiple post hoc analysis.

    RESULTS: Average improvement in IID after six months of recall visits was observed to be 8.4 mm in subgroup-A1 (n-53) compared to 5.5 mm in B1(n-50) (p<0.01). The IID improvement in subgroup-A2 was found to be 9.3mm (n-46) compared to 5.1 mm in B2 (n-48) (p<0.01). In the surgery group, mouth opening improvement was observed to be 9.6 mm in subgroup A3 (n-18) compared to 4.8 mm for B3 (n-16) (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Use of the MED appears to be effective for increasing oral opening in OMSF patients in conjunction with local, injection and/or surgical treatment.

  19. Singam P, Ho C, Hong GE, Mohd A, Tamil AM, Cheok LB, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):503-6.
    PMID: 20843141
    Renal cancer is rare and its incidence is 1.9 per 100,000 in the Malaysian population, which consists of three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians). A retrospective study was her conducted to identify clinical characteristics and ethnic background influences on presentation. The study included all renal cancer patients from a single medical institution over ten years, with a total of 75 cases. Seventy-three patients underwent surgery while 2 received only radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 2.75:1. Incidence was equal among the Malay (49.3%) and Chinese ethnic groups (45.3%). Mean age of patients were 57.1 (18-93) years old. There were 26 (37.4%) patients with Stage I disease, 14 (18.7%) at Stage II, 23 (30.7%) at Stage III and 12 (16%) at Stage IV. The Chinese race presented at mean older age (p= 0.02) and later stage of disease (p= 0.046). Patients above 40 years old had more advanced stage disease (p= 0.023). Tumour histology were clear cell (72%), urothelial cell (13.3%), sarcomatoid cell and nephroblastoma each contributed 2.7%. The mean tumour size was 8.1 (2-20) cm. There was substantial agreement between the pre and post operative staging (kappa 0.691). In conclusion we observed significant influences of age and race in the clinical presentation of renal cancer in our institution based population. There was larger male to female ratio and mean tumour size as compared to previous epidemiology studies.
  20. Tan GH, Taib NA, Choo WY, Teo SH, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009 Jul-Sep;10(3):395-8.
    PMID: 19640180
    INTRODUCTION: Triple negative (TN) breast cancers are defined by a lack of expression of oestrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. They tend to have a higher grade, with a poorer outcome compared to non-TN breast cancers.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of TN breast cancer in an Asian country consisting of Malays, Chinese and Indians, and to determine the factors associated with this type of breast cancer.
    RESULTS: The incidence of TN breast cancer in the University Malaya Medical Center is 17.6%. There is no significant difference amongst the Malays, Chinese and Indians. In bivariate analysis, TN breast cancer was significantly associated with younger age and Grade 3. However, in multivariate analysis using logistic regression, TN breast cancer was only associated with Grade 3.
    CONCLUSION: The incidence of TN breast cancer in our study is similar to other studies, and associated with a higher grade.
    Study site: University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
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