RESULTS: This study was done to assess the hereditary assorted variety of selected genotypes of Capsicum annuum based on their morphophysiological and yield traits in two planting seasons. The biochemical properties, capsaicinoid content (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), total phenolics content and antioxidant action determination of unripe and ripe chili pepper fruits were carried out in dry fruits. AVPP9813 and Kulai 907 were observed to have high fruit yields, with 541.39 and 502.64 g per plant, respectively. The most increased genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were shown by the fruit number per plant (49.71% and 66.04%, respectively). High heritability was observed in yield characters viz-à-viz fruit weight, length and girth and indicated high genetic advance. Eight groups were obtained from the cluster analysis. For the biochemical analysis, the capsaicinoid content and total phenolic content were high in Chili Bangi 3 at unripe and ripe fruit stages, while for antioxidant activity SDP203 was the highest in ripe dry fruit.
CONCLUSION: Higher GCV and PCV, combined with moderate to high heritability and high hereditary progress, were seen in number of fruit per plant, fruit yield per plant and fruit weight per fruit. These findings are beneficial for chili pepper breeders to select desirable quantitative characters in C. annuum in their breeding program. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.
CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index < 0.2 and the majority of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains.
CONCLUSION: The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Cluster analysis of the ERIC-PCR profiles based on band sizes revealed six main clusters from the sixteen isolates analysed. The largest cluster (cluster 3) grouped isolates from vegetables and manure at a similarity coefficient of 0.72.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides data that support the potential transmission of resistant strains of E. coli O157:H7 from vegetables and environmental sources to humans with potential public health implications, especially in developing countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95.
CONCLUSION: Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Pineapple juice vinegar, which had the highest total phenolic acid content, also exhibited the greatest in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. Following acute and sub-chronic in vivo toxicity evaluation, no toxicity and mortality were evident and there were no significant differences in the serum biochemical profiles between mice administered the vinegars versus the control group. In the sub-chronic toxicity evaluation, the highest liver antioxidant levels were found in mice fed with pineapple juice vinegar, followed by coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. However, compared to the pineapple juice and nipah juice vinegars, the mice fed with coconut juice vinegar, exhibited a higher population of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the spleen, which was associated with greater levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ cytokines.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data suggested that not all vinegar samples cause acute and sub-chronic toxicity in vivo. Moreover, the in vivo immunity and organ antioxidant levels were enhanced, to varying extents, by the phenolic acids present in the vinegars. The results obtained in this study provide appropriate guidelines for further in vivo bioactivity studies and pre-clinical assessments of vinegar consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: PSC-AgNPs with an average particle size of 11.68 nm inhibited the growth of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. Values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were 250 and 500 mg L-1 , respectively. TEM images revealed that the average particle size of PSC-AgNPs was 16.8 nm, with the values for zeta potential and the polydispersity index being -8.54 mV and 0.137, respectively. XRD and FTIR spectra showed PSC-AgNPs to have a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. The polysaccharides and amino acid residues present in P. sajor-caju extract were found to be involved in reducing Ag+ to AgNP. Both CaICL1 transcription and ICL protein expression were found to be suppressed in the cells treated with PSC-AgNPs as compared with the control.
CONCLUSION: Our PSC-AgNP preparation makes for a promising antifungal agent that can downregulate isocitrate lyase. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: The total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging (IC50 ) and metal reducing properties were 67.0 ± 2.5 mg GAE g-1 sample 32.0 ± 0.5 mg QE g-1 extract, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg mL-1 and 510 ± 10 µmol eq Fe(II) g-1 extract, respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the fibre mats confirmed successful nanoencapsulation of MO extract within defect free nanofibres via electrospinning process. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) was between 80% and 85%. Furthermore, thermal stability of encapsulated fibres, especially at 3% and 5% of core loading content, was significantly improved. Toxicological analysis revealed that the extract in its original and encapsulated form was safe for oral consumption.
CONCLUSION: Overall, the present study showed the potential of ambient temperature electrospinning process as a safe nanoencapsulation method, where MO extract retained its antioxidative capacities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Biochar+compost application resulted in 37% and 300% higher soil total organic carbon and available phosphorus content, respectively, during the first 3 years of experimentation compared to control. Similarly, trunk diameter and shoot number of apple trees increased 23-26% by the end of the first year. Nevertheless, there were no significant changes in fruitfulness, fruit weight or starch pattern index as productivity indices.
CONCLUSION: Biochar and compost were beneficial in improving soil quality, mainly by increasing soil nutrient content and decreasing soil bulk density, and in increasing plant growth at early growth stages of apple orchards. However, they failed to enhance overall yield and fruit quality, most likely due to their limited ability to suppress apple replant disease. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Compared with the neat semolina film, mechanical strength (TS) of the nanocomposite films increased significantly (increase in 21-65%) and water vapor barrier (WVP) and O2 gas barrier (OP) properties decreased significantly (decrease in 43-50% and 60-65%, respectively) depending on the blending ratio of ZnO and kaolin nanoclay. The nanocomposite films also exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria (E. coli and S. aureus), yeast (C. albicans), and mold (A. niger). The nanocomposite packaging films were effectively prevented the growth of microorganisms (coliforms, total microbial, and fungi) of the cheese during storage at low-temperature and showed microbial growth of less than 2.5 log CFU/g after 72 days of storage compared to the control group, and the quality of the packaged cheese was still acceptable.
CONCLUSION: The semolina-based nanocomposite films, especially Sem/Z3 K2 film, were effective for packaging of low moisture mozzarella cheese to maintain the physicochemical properties (pH, moisture, and fat content) and quality (color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability) of the cheese as well as preventing microbial growth (coliforms, total microbial, and fungi). © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: As pod developed, cacao exhibited a rise with the peak of flavonol occurring at months 4 and 5 after pod maturity was initiated while nitrogen balance showed a decreasing trend during maturity. Cacao pods contained high chlorophyll as they developed but chlorophyll content declined significantly on pods that ripened at month 5.
CONCLUSION: Cacao pods harvested at months 4 and 5 can be considered as commercially-ready as the beans have developed good quality and comply with the Malaysian standard on cacao bean specification. Thus, cacao pods can be harvested earlier when they reach maturity at month 4 after pod emergence to avoid germinated beans and over fermentation in ripe pods harvested at month 5. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: The optimised values for alcoholic fermentation were pH 4.99, 28.29 °C, 131 h and a 0.42 culture ratio (42:58, P. pulmonarius mycelia:S. cerevisiae) with a predicted ethanol concentration of 22.25%. Through a verification test, soursop wine with 22.29 ± 0.52% ethanol was produced. The antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power) showed a significant (P
RESULTS: We carried out a survey of 11 FCT/FCDB and 177 peer-reviewed papers describing variation in nutritional composition and dietary function for food crops to identify a comprehensive set of terms to construct a controlled vocabulary. We used this information to generate a Crop Dietary Nutrition Data Framework (CDN-DF), which incorporates controlled vocabularies systematically organized into major classes representing nutritional components and dietary functions. We demonstrate the value of the CDN-DF for comparison of equivalent components between crop species or cultivars, for identifying data gaps and potential for formal meta-analysis. The CDN-DF also enabled us to explore relationships between nutritional components and the functional attributes of food.
CONCLUSION: We have generated a structured crop dietary nutrition data framework, which is generally applicable to the collation and comparison of data relevant to crop researchers, breeders, and other stakeholders, and will facilitate dialogue with nutritionists. It is currently guiding the establishment of a more robust formal ontology. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: The lysis buffer 2 (LB2) has been shown to be the best lysis buffer for DNA extraction from both raw and processed meat samples comparing to other lysis buffers tested. Hence, the LB2 has been found to be ideal to detect meat and porcine DNAs by real-time PCR using pairs of porcine specific primers and universal primers which amplified at 119 bp fragment and 93 bp fragment, respectively. This assay allows detection as low as 0.0001 ng of DNA. Higher efficiency and sensitivity of real-time PCR via a simplified DNA extraction method using LB2 have been observed, as well as a reproducible and high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9979) based on the regression analysis of the standard curve have been obtained.
CONCLUSION: This study has established a fast, simple, inexpensive and efficient DNA extraction method that is feasible for raw and processed meat products. This extraction technique allows an accurate DNA detection by real-time PCR and can also be implemented to assist the halal authentication of various meat-based products available in the market. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: All aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE)-based methods generally resulted in oil with better oxidative properties and higher tocopherol retention than the use of solvent. Prior to AEE, boiling pre-treatment deactivated the hydrolytic enzymes and preserved the oil's quality. In contrast, high-pressure processing (HPP) pre-treatment accelerated hydrolytic reaction and resulted in an increase in free fatty acids after 140 days at all temperatures. No significant changes were detected in the oils' iodine values and fatty acid composition. The tocopherol content decreased significantly at both 13 and 25 °C after 60 days in the oil from SE method, and after 120 days in oils from AEE-based methods.
CONCLUSION: These findings are significant in highlighting the extraction methods resulting in crude MO kernel oil with greatest oxidative stability in the storage conditions tested. Subsequently, the suitable storage condition of the oil prior to refining can be determined. Further studies are recommended in determining the suitable refining processes and parameters for the MO kernel oil prior to application in variety food products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Studies were carried out on drying of papaya leaves using hot air (60, 70 and 80 °C), shade and freeze drying. Effective diffusivities were estimated ranging from 2.09 × 10-12 to 2.18 × 10-12 m2 s-1 from hot air drying, which are within the order of magnitudes reported for most agricultural and food products. The activation energy to initiate drying showed a relatively low value (2.11 kJ mol-1 ) as a result of the thin leave layer that eased moisture diffusion. In terms of total polyphenols content and antioxidant activities, freeze-dried sample showed a significantly higher (P
RESULTS: The FI in China increased rapidly from about 5 kg ha-1 in 1961 to the highest value of 282 kg ha-1 in 2014, then decreased to about 231 kg ha-1 in 2018. Although the fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) showed a slight downward trend, slight upward trend was observed for the fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE). FIs in India, Iran and Turkey continuously rose from5 kg ha-1 in 1961to 116, 49(148 in 2006),120kg ha-1 in 2018, respectively, while FAEs showed a significant fluctuation around horizontal direction or downward trends and their FIEs showed a slight fluctuation downward. FIs of Britain, Germany and France except USA, increased rapidly from about 200-400 kg ha-1 in 1960s to peaks of 430-530 kg ha-1 in 1980s, then dropped to 150-340 kg ha-1 around 2010, and then up to current level of 200-350 kg ha-1 , while FAEs and FIEs increased rapidly.
CONCLUSION: France and Germany were found to have moderate chemical fertilizer input and the highest FIE. Thus, their experiences of ecological agricultures in both countries could provide good examples for the developing countries to follow. In short, models of FAE and FIE were easier way to reflect the fertilizer efficiencies in developed and developing countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.