Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 126 in total

  1. Ridzuan R, Rafii MY, Mohammad Yusoff M, Ismail SI, Miah G, Usman M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Jan 15;99(1):269-280.
    PMID: 29851100 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9169
    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the different desirable characters among chili genotypes has expanded the effective selection for crop improvement. Identification of genetically superior parents is important in assortment of the best parents to develop new chili hybrids.

    RESULTS: This study was done to assess the hereditary assorted variety of selected genotypes of Capsicum annuum based on their morphophysiological and yield traits in two planting seasons. The biochemical properties, capsaicinoid content (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), total phenolics content and antioxidant action determination of unripe and ripe chili pepper fruits were carried out in dry fruits. AVPP9813 and Kulai 907 were observed to have high fruit yields, with 541.39 and 502.64 g per plant, respectively. The most increased genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were shown by the fruit number per plant (49.71% and 66.04%, respectively). High heritability was observed in yield characters viz-à-viz fruit weight, length and girth and indicated high genetic advance. Eight groups were obtained from the cluster analysis. For the biochemical analysis, the capsaicinoid content and total phenolic content were high in Chili Bangi 3 at unripe and ripe fruit stages, while for antioxidant activity SDP203 was the highest in ripe dry fruit.

    CONCLUSION: Higher GCV and PCV, combined with moderate to high heritability and high hereditary progress, were seen in number of fruit per plant, fruit yield per plant and fruit weight per fruit. These findings are beneficial for chili pepper breeders to select desirable quantitative characters in C. annuum in their breeding program. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Lee SY, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Ismail IS, Zawawi N, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):240-252.
    PMID: 28580581 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.

    RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Thong KL, Tan LK, Ooi PT
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):87-95.
    PMID: 28542807 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8442
    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index < 0.2 and the majority of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains.

    CONCLUSION: The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Abakpa GO, Umoh VJ, Kamaruzaman S, Ibekwe M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):80-86.
    PMID: 28543177 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8441
    BACKGROUND: Some routes of transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to fresh produce include contaminated irrigation water and manure polluted soils. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from some produce growing region in Nigeria using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) DNA fingerprinting analysis. A total of 440 samples comprising leafy greens, irrigation water, manure and soil were obtained from vegetable producing regions in Kano and Plateau States, Nigeria. Genes coding for the quinolone resistance-determinant (gyrA) and plasmid (pCT) coding for multidrug resistance (MDR) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 16 isolates that showed MDR.

    RESULTS: Cluster analysis of the ERIC-PCR profiles based on band sizes revealed six main clusters from the sixteen isolates analysed. The largest cluster (cluster 3) grouped isolates from vegetables and manure at a similarity coefficient of 0.72.

    CONCLUSION: The present study provides data that support the potential transmission of resistant strains of E. coli O157:H7 from vegetables and environmental sources to humans with potential public health implications, especially in developing countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Onwude DI, Hashim N, Abdan K, Janius R, Chen G
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Mar;98(4):1310-1324.
    PMID: 28758207 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8595
    BACKGROUND: Drying is a method used to preserve agricultural crops. During the drying of products with high moisture content, structural changes in shape, volume, area, density and porosity occur. These changes could affect the final quality of dried product and also the effective design of drying equipment. Therefore, this study investigated a novel approach in monitoring and predicting the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. Drying experiments were conducted at temperatures of 50-70 °C and samples thicknesses of 2-6 mm. The volume and surface area obtained from camera vision, and the perimeter and illuminated area from backscattered optical images were analysed and used to evaluate the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying.

    RESULTS: The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95.

    CONCLUSION: Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Mohamad NE, Keong Yeap S, Beh BK, Romli MF, Yusof HM, Kristeen-Teo YW, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(2):534-540.
    PMID: 28631270 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8491
    BACKGROUND: Vinegar is widely used as a food additive, in food preparation and as a food supplement. This study compared the phenolic acid profiles and in vivo toxicities, and antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars, which were respectively prepared via a two-step fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7013 INRA and Acetobacter aceti vat Europeans.

    RESULTS: Pineapple juice vinegar, which had the highest total phenolic acid content, also exhibited the greatest in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. Following acute and sub-chronic in vivo toxicity evaluation, no toxicity and mortality were evident and there were no significant differences in the serum biochemical profiles between mice administered the vinegars versus the control group. In the sub-chronic toxicity evaluation, the highest liver antioxidant levels were found in mice fed with pineapple juice vinegar, followed by coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. However, compared to the pineapple juice and nipah juice vinegars, the mice fed with coconut juice vinegar, exhibited a higher population of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the spleen, which was associated with greater levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ cytokines.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data suggested that not all vinegar samples cause acute and sub-chronic toxicity in vivo. Moreover, the in vivo immunity and organ antioxidant levels were enhanced, to varying extents, by the phenolic acids present in the vinegars. The results obtained in this study provide appropriate guidelines for further in vivo bioactivity studies and pre-clinical assessments of vinegar consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Musa SF, Yeat TS, Kamal LZM, Tabana YM, Ahmed MA, El Ouweini A, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Feb;98(3):1197-1207.
    PMID: 28746729 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8573
    BACKGROUND: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become widely practiced worldwide. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized using a hot-water extract of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. The product, PSC-AgNPs, was characterized by using UV-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. To assess its antifungal activity against Candida albicans, gene transcription and protein expression analyses were conducted for CaICL1 and its product, ICL, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively.

    RESULTS: PSC-AgNPs with an average particle size of 11.68 nm inhibited the growth of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. Values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were 250 and 500 mg L-1 , respectively. TEM images revealed that the average particle size of PSC-AgNPs was 16.8 nm, with the values for zeta potential and the polydispersity index being -8.54 mV and 0.137, respectively. XRD and FTIR spectra showed PSC-AgNPs to have a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. The polysaccharides and amino acid residues present in P. sajor-caju extract were found to be involved in reducing Ag+ to AgNP. Both CaICL1 transcription and ICL protein expression were found to be suppressed in the cells treated with PSC-AgNPs as compared with the control.

    CONCLUSION: Our PSC-AgNP preparation makes for a promising antifungal agent that can downregulate isocitrate lyase. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Ramli AN, Aznan TN, Illias RM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(5):1386-1395.
    PMID: 27790704 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8122
    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) plants. It can be found in several parts of the pineapple plant, including the stem, fruit, leaves and peel. High demand for bromelain has resulted in gradual increases in bromelain production. These increases have led to the need for a bromelain production strategy that yields more purified bromelain at a lower cost and with fewer production steps. Previously, bromelain was purified by conventional centrifugation, ultrafiltration and lyophilisation. Recently, the development of more modern purification techniques such as gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, aqueous two-phase extraction and reverse micelle chromatography has resulted in increased industrial bromelain production worldwide. In addition, recombinant DNA technology has emerged as an alternative strategy for producing large amounts of ultrapure bromelain. An up-to-date compilation of data regarding the commercialisation of bromelain in the clinical, pharmaceutical and industrial fields is provided in this review. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
  9. Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Alitheen NB, Tan CP, Lai OM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(5):1379-1385.
    PMID: 27801514 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8124
    Non-enzymatic browning has been a wide and interesting research area in the food industry, ranging from the complexity of the reaction to its applications in the food industry as well as its ever-debatable health effects. This review provides a new perspective to the Maillard reaction apart from its ubiquitous function in enhancing food flavour, taste and appearance. It focuses on the recent application of Maillard reaction products as an inexpensive and excellent source of emulsifiers as well as superior encapsulating matrices for the entrapment of bioactive compounds. Additionally, it will also discuss the latest approaches employed to perform the Maillard reaction as well as several important reaction parameters that need to be taken into consideration when conducting the Maillard reaction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
  10. Hani NM, Torkamani AE, Azarian MH, Mahmood KW, Ngalim SH
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Aug;97(10):3348-3358.
    PMID: 27981649 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8185
    BACKGROUND: Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves have been used as a folk herbal medicine across many cultures since ancient times. This is most probably due to presence of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant properties, which could retard oxidative stress, and their degenerative effect. The current study deals with nanoencapsulation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethanolic extract within fish sourced gelatine matrix using electrospinning technique.

    RESULTS: The total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging (IC50 ) and metal reducing properties were 67.0 ± 2.5 mg GAE g-1 sample 32.0 ± 0.5 mg QE g-1 extract, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg mL-1 and 510 ± 10 µmol eq Fe(II) g-1 extract, respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the fibre mats confirmed successful nanoencapsulation of MO extract within defect free nanofibres via electrospinning process. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) was between 80% and 85%. Furthermore, thermal stability of encapsulated fibres, especially at 3% and 5% of core loading content, was significantly improved. Toxicological analysis revealed that the extract in its original and encapsulated form was safe for oral consumption.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the present study showed the potential of ambient temperature electrospinning process as a safe nanoencapsulation method, where MO extract retained its antioxidative capacities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Safaei Khorram M, Zhang G, Fatemi A, Kiefer R, Maddah K, Baqar M, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Mar 15;99(4):1862-1869.
    PMID: 30264414 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9380
    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have addressed the positive effects of organic amendments on soil and plant productivity under short-term field studies. However, to date, few studies have been conducted on the effects of organic amendment on the orchards where high nutrient bioavailability is required. This study deals with the effects of biochar and compost on soil quality, growth and yield of a replanted apple orchard in the northeast of Iran.

    RESULTS: Biochar+compost application resulted in 37% and 300% higher soil total organic carbon and available phosphorus content, respectively, during the first 3 years of experimentation compared to control. Similarly, trunk diameter and shoot number of apple trees increased 23-26% by the end of the first year. Nevertheless, there were no significant changes in fruitfulness, fruit weight or starch pattern index as productivity indices.

    CONCLUSION: Biochar and compost were beneficial in improving soil quality, mainly by increasing soil nutrient content and decreasing soil bulk density, and in increasing plant growth at early growth stages of apple orchards. However, they failed to enhance overall yield and fruit quality, most likely due to their limited ability to suppress apple replant disease. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Jafarzadeh S, Rhim JW, Alias AK, Ariffin F, Mahmud S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Apr;99(6):2716-2725.
    PMID: 30350410 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9439
    BACKGROUND: Active food packaging films with improved properties and strong antimicrobial activity were prepared by blending mixed nanomaterials with different ratio [1:4 (40 mg:160 mg), 3:2 (120 mg: 80 mg), 0:5 (0 mg: 200 mg) and 5:0 (200 mg:0 mg)] of ZnO and kaolin with semolina using a solvent casting method and used for the packaging of low moisture mozzarella cheese to test the effect of packaging on the quality change of the cheese for long-term (up to 72 days) refrigerated storage.

    RESULTS: Compared with the neat semolina film, mechanical strength (TS) of the nanocomposite films increased significantly (increase in 21-65%) and water vapor barrier (WVP) and O2 gas barrier (OP) properties decreased significantly (decrease in 43-50% and 60-65%, respectively) depending on the blending ratio of ZnO and kaolin nanoclay. The nanocomposite films also exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria (E. coli and S. aureus), yeast (C. albicans), and mold (A. niger). The nanocomposite packaging films were effectively prevented the growth of microorganisms (coliforms, total microbial, and fungi) of the cheese during storage at low-temperature and showed microbial growth of less than 2.5 log CFU/g after 72 days of storage compared to the control group, and the quality of the packaged cheese was still acceptable.

    CONCLUSION: The semolina-based nanocomposite films, especially Sem/Z3 K2 film, were effective for packaging of low moisture mozzarella cheese to maintain the physicochemical properties (pH, moisture, and fat content) and quality (color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability) of the cheese as well as preventing microbial growth (coliforms, total microbial, and fungi). © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Tee YK, Balasundram SK, Ding P, M Hanif AH, Bariah K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Mar 15;99(4):1700-1708.
    PMID: 30206959 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9359
    BACKGROUND: A series of fluorescence indices (anthocyanin, flavonol, chlorophyll and nitrogen balance) were deployed to detect the pigments and colourless flavonoids in cacao pods of three commercial cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) genotypes (QH1003, KKM22 and MCBC1) using a fast and non-destructive multiparametric fluorescence sensor. The aim was to determine optimum harvest periods (either 4 or 5 months after pod emergence) of commercial cacao based on fluorescence indices of cacao development and bean quality.

    RESULTS: As pod developed, cacao exhibited a rise with the peak of flavonol occurring at months 4 and 5 after pod maturity was initiated while nitrogen balance showed a decreasing trend during maturity. Cacao pods contained high chlorophyll as they developed but chlorophyll content declined significantly on pods that ripened at month 5.

    CONCLUSION: Cacao pods harvested at months 4 and 5 can be considered as commercially-ready as the beans have developed good quality and comply with the Malaysian standard on cacao bean specification. Thus, cacao pods can be harvested earlier when they reach maturity at month 4 after pod emergence to avoid germinated beans and over fermentation in ripe pods harvested at month 5. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Aziz NS, Sofian-Seng NS, Mohd Razali NS, Lim SJ, Mustapha WA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Apr;99(6):2665-2676.
    PMID: 30426501 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9481
    White pepper is the dried seeds obtained from pepper berries (Piper nigrum L.) after the removal of the pericarp. It has been widely used as seasoning and condiments in food preparation. Globally, white pepper fetches a higher price compared to black pepper due to its lighter colour, preferable milder flavour and pungency. Increasing global demand of the spice outpaced the supply as the conventional production method used is laborious, lengthy and also not very hygienic. The most common conventional method is water retting but can also include pit soil, chemical, boiling, steaming and mechanical methods. The introduction of a biotechnological approach has gained a lot of interest, as it is a more rapid, convenient and hygienic method of producing white pepper. This technique involves the application of microorganisms and/or enzymes. This review highlights both conventional and latest biotechnological processes of white pepper production. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
  15. Ho CW, Lazim A, Fazry S, Hussain Zaki UKH, Massa S, Lim SJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Feb;100(3):1012-1021.
    PMID: 31646636 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10103
    BACKGROUND: Wines are produced via the alcoholic fermentation of suitable substrates, usually sugar (sugar cane, grapes) and carbohydrates (wheat, grain). However, conventional alcoholic fermentation is limited by the inhibition of yeast by ethanol produced, usually at approximately 13-14%. Aside from that, soursop fruit is a very nutritious fruit, although it is highly perishable, and thus produces a lot of wastage. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce fermented soursop juice (soursop wine), using combination of two starter cultures, namely mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as well as to determine the effects of fermentation on the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of fermented soursop juice. Optimisation of four factors (pH, temperature, time and culture ratio) using response surface methodology were performed to maximise ethanol production.

    RESULTS: The optimised values for alcoholic fermentation were pH 4.99, 28.29 °C, 131 h and a 0.42 culture ratio (42:58, P. pulmonarius mycelia:S. cerevisiae) with a predicted ethanol concentration of 22.25%. Through a verification test, soursop wine with 22.29 ± 0.52% ethanol was produced. The antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power) showed a significant (P 

  16. Azman Halimi R, Barkla BJ, Andrés-Hernandéz L, Mayes S, King GJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Mar 15;100(4):1495-1504.
    PMID: 31756768 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10157
    BACKGROUND: Food security is recognized as a major global challenge, yet human food-chain systems are inherently not geared towards nutrition, with decisions on crop and cultivar choice not informed by dietary composition. Currently, food compositional tables and databases (FCT/FCDB) are the primary information sources for decisions relating to dietary intake. However, these only present single mean values representing major components. Establishment of a systematic controlled vocabulary to fill this gap requires representation of a more complex set of semantic relationships between terms used to describe nutritional composition and dietary function.

    RESULTS: We carried out a survey of 11 FCT/FCDB and 177 peer-reviewed papers describing variation in nutritional composition and dietary function for food crops to identify a comprehensive set of terms to construct a controlled vocabulary. We used this information to generate a Crop Dietary Nutrition Data Framework (CDN-DF), which incorporates controlled vocabularies systematically organized into major classes representing nutritional components and dietary functions. We demonstrate the value of the CDN-DF for comparison of equivalent components between crop species or cultivars, for identifying data gaps and potential for formal meta-analysis. The CDN-DF also enabled us to explore relationships between nutritional components and the functional attributes of food.

    CONCLUSION: We have generated a structured crop dietary nutrition data framework, which is generally applicable to the collation and comparison of data relevant to crop researchers, breeders, and other stakeholders, and will facilitate dialogue with nutritionists. It is currently guiding the establishment of a more robust formal ontology. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Khairil Mokhtar NF, El Sheikha AF, Azmi NI, Mustafa S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Mar 15;100(4):1687-1693.
    PMID: 31803942 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10183
    BACKGROUND: The growth of halal food consumption worldwide has resulted in an increase in the request for halal authentication. DNA-based detection using powerful real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been shown to be highly specific and sensitive authentication tool. The efficient DNA extraction method in terms of quality and quantity is a backbone step to obtain successful real-time PCR assays. In this study, different DNA extraction methods using three lysis buffers were evaluated and developed to recommend a much more efficient method as well as achieve a successful detection using real-time PCR.

    RESULTS: The lysis buffer 2 (LB2) has been shown to be the best lysis buffer for DNA extraction from both raw and processed meat samples comparing to other lysis buffers tested. Hence, the LB2 has been found to be ideal to detect meat and porcine DNAs by real-time PCR using pairs of porcine specific primers and universal primers which amplified at 119 bp fragment and 93 bp fragment, respectively. This assay allows detection as low as 0.0001 ng of DNA. Higher efficiency and sensitivity of real-time PCR via a simplified DNA extraction method using LB2 have been observed, as well as a reproducible and high correlation coefficient (R2  = 0.9979) based on the regression analysis of the standard curve have been obtained.

    CONCLUSION: This study has established a fast, simple, inexpensive and efficient DNA extraction method that is feasible for raw and processed meat products. This extraction technique allows an accurate DNA detection by real-time PCR and can also be implemented to assist the halal authentication of various meat-based products available in the market. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Mat Yusoff M, Niranjan K, Mason OA, Gordon MH
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Mar 15;100(4):1588-1597.
    PMID: 31773733 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10167
    BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera (MO) kernel oil is categorized as a high-oleic oil that resembles olive oil. However, unlike olive trees, MO trees are largely present in most subtropical and tropical countries. In these countries, therefore, the benefits of oleic acid can be obtained at a cheaper price through the consumption of MO kernel oil. This study reports on the effect of different extraction methods on oxidative properties of MO kernel oil during storage for 140 days at 13, 25, and 37 °C.

    RESULTS: All aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE)-based methods generally resulted in oil with better oxidative properties and higher tocopherol retention than the use of solvent. Prior to AEE, boiling pre-treatment deactivated the hydrolytic enzymes and preserved the oil's quality. In contrast, high-pressure processing (HPP) pre-treatment accelerated hydrolytic reaction and resulted in an increase in free fatty acids after 140 days at all temperatures. No significant changes were detected in the oils' iodine values and fatty acid composition. The tocopherol content decreased significantly at both 13 and 25 °C after 60 days in the oil from SE method, and after 120 days in oils from AEE-based methods.

    CONCLUSION: These findings are significant in highlighting the extraction methods resulting in crude MO kernel oil with greatest oxidative stability in the storage conditions tested. Subsequently, the suitable storage condition of the oil prior to refining can be determined. Further studies are recommended in determining the suitable refining processes and parameters for the MO kernel oil prior to application in variety food products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Yap JY, Hii CL, Ong SP, Lim KH, Abas F, Pin KY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 May;100(7):2932-2937.
    PMID: 32031257 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10320
    BACKGROUND: Papaya is widely grown in Malaysia and normally only the fruits are consumed. Other parts of the plant such as leaves, roots, bark, peel, seeds and pulp are also known to have medicinal properties and have been used to treat various diseases. Papaya leaves also contain flavonoids, alkaloids phenolic compounds and cynogenetic compounds, and are also reported to be able to treat dengue fever.

    RESULTS: Studies were carried out on drying of papaya leaves using hot air (60, 70 and 80 °C), shade and freeze drying. Effective diffusivities were estimated ranging from 2.09 × 10-12 to 2.18 × 10-12 m2 s-1 from hot air drying, which are within the order of magnitudes reported for most agricultural and food products. The activation energy to initiate drying showed a relatively low value (2.11 kJ mol-1 ) as a result of the thin leave layer that eased moisture diffusion. In terms of total polyphenols content and antioxidant activities, freeze-dried sample showed a significantly higher (P 

  20. Liu Q, Wu TY, Pu L, Sun J
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Oct 09.
    PMID: 34626124 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11579
    BACKGROUND: Study of chemical fertilization intensity (FI) and efficiency can provide basal data for the decision-making of food production and environmental impact assessment of fertilization. This research aimed to compare trends of the FI and efficiency during 1961-2018 in developed and developing countries with a simple method.

    RESULTS: The FI in China increased rapidly from about 5 kg ha-1 in 1961 to the highest value of 282 kg ha-1 in 2014, then decreased to about 231 kg ha-1 in 2018. Although the fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) showed a slight downward trend, slight upward trend was observed for the fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE). FIs in India, Iran and Turkey continuously rose from5 kg ha-1 in 1961to 116, 49(148 in 2006),120kg ha-1 in 2018, respectively, while FAEs showed a significant fluctuation around horizontal direction or downward trends and their FIEs showed a slight fluctuation downward. FIs of Britain, Germany and France except USA, increased rapidly from about 200-400 kg ha-1 in 1960s to peaks of 430-530 kg ha-1 in 1980s, then dropped to 150-340 kg ha-1 around 2010, and then up to current level of 200-350 kg ha-1 , while FAEs and FIEs increased rapidly.

    CONCLUSION: France and Germany were found to have moderate chemical fertilizer input and the highest FIE. Thus, their experiences of ecological agricultures in both countries could provide good examples for the developing countries to follow. In short, models of FAE and FIE were easier way to reflect the fertilizer efficiencies in developed and developing countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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