This manuscript describes the first detailed chemical investigation of endemic species Iris adriatica, including isolation and structure elucidation. Chemical analyses of the rhizome CH2Cl2/MeOH (2:1) extract revealed fourteen secondary metabolites, mainly isoflavonoids. Among isoflavonoids, two groups have been found: nigricin-type and tectorigenin-type. Dominant group of the isolated compounds has been nigricin-type isoflavones: nigricin, nigricin-4'-(1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and nigricin-4'-(1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-β-D-glucopyranoside) with 2.5, 10 and 1% of the total extract, respectively. Irisxanthone - xanthone C-glucoside, β-sitosterol, benzophenone and one of its derivatives have also been found. Nigricin-type isoflavonoids and irisxanthone can be considered as possible chemotaxonomic markers for I. adriatica. 5,3',5'-Trimethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyisoflavone-4'-(1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and benzophenone have been isolated from Iris species for the first time.
The key purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the thrombolytic, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial potentials of crude ethanol extracts (CEE) of whole plant, organic and aqueous soluble fractions (OF & AQSF). CEE showed the highest (44.63%) clot lysis activity compared to streptokinase (64.35%). In DPPH study, petroleum ether soluble fraction (PSF) has exhibited IC50 of 18.83 μg/mL while the standard ascorbic acid was 2.48 µg/mL. AQSF profoundly inhibited the lysis of erythrocytes (66.20%) which was insignificantly different (p > 0.05) to acetylsalicylic acid (71.98%), the reference. However, AQSF showed a significantly stronger level of protection against heat-induced hemolysis (64.80%) as compared with the acetylsalicylic acid (78.90%). CEE, OF and AQSF have displayed reasonable growth of inhibition of tested bacteria compared to negative control and standard drug (77.50 mg of GAE/g).
This study sets out to probe into total bioactive contents, UHPLC-MS secondary metabolites profiling, antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory (acetylcholinesterase- AChE, butyrylcholinesterase- BChE, α-amylase, α glucosidase, and tyrosinase) activities of methanol extract of Aerva javanica, also known as desert cotton or Kapok bush. Aerva javanica contains considerable phenolic (44.79 ± 3.12 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (28.86 ± 0.12 mg QE/g) contents which tends to correlate with its significant antioxidant potential for ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC assays with values of 101.41 ± 1.18, 124.10 ± 1.71 and 190.22 ± 5.70 mg TE/g, respectively. The UHPLC-MS analysis identified the presence of 45 phytochemicals belonging to six major groups: phenolic, flavonoids, lignin, terpenes, glycoside and alkaloid. Moreover, the plant extract also showed potent inhibitory action against AChE (3.73 ± 0.22 mg GALAE/g), BChE (3.31 ± 0.19 mg GALAE/g) and tyrosinase (126.05 ± 1.77 mg KAE/g). The observed results suggest A. javanica could be further explored as a natural source of bioactive compounds.
Mangrove plants are endowed with various biologically active compounds which have potent antibacterial and antioxidant properties. In present study, a bioactivity-guided fractionation for antibacterial and antioxidant active metabolites from the twigs of Avicennia officinalis collected from Kuala Selangor Nature Park, Selangor, Malaysia gave 13 major fractions. The antibacterial activity of A. officinalis fractions using well-diffusion showed strong selectivity on the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 0.156-5.00 mg/mL. However, no antibacterial activities were observed on the Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli). The active antibacterial fractions were further isolated using several chromatographic techniques to give two naphthofuranquinones, namely, avicenol C (1) and stenocarpoquinone B (2). Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of A. officinalis fractions were evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging assay exhibited low antioxidant activities. Molecular structure of the naphthofuranquinones was elucidated using 1 D and 2 D NMR spectroscopy.
Soft coral, Sinularia sp. had been proven to inherit promising anti-cancer properties against variety of cancer. Current study, Sinularia sp. extract was introduced to Hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep 3B). Cell viability assay indicated the extract exhibit a dose and time dependent cytotoxicity. LC50 exhibited the lowest at 72 h post treatment estimated as 45.3 µg/mL. Morphological alterations including nuclear condensation, cytoplasm shrinkage and deformed cellular shape in treated Hep 3B were observable. Chemometric analysis revealed hydrophobic metabolites were significantly altered. Elevated vitamin D and derivatives tend to up-regulation Ca2+ and ROS subsequently triggering apoptosis. Dysregulated glycerolipids may suggest that they were biotransformed to compensate the needs of phospholipids during cell damage. Perturbation of sphingolipids, ceramide and carbohydrate-conjugated ceramides species increased the release of pro-apoptotic components reside within mitochondria and promote programmed cell death in treated Hep 3B. To conclude, MS-based metabolomics enabled the characterization of Sinularia sp. extract-induced cell death.
In this study, different parts (aerial, stem and root) of Salvadora oleoides Decne were investigated in order to explore their phytochemical composition and biological potential. The bioactive contents were evaluated by conventional spectrophotometric methods. Additionally, the secondary metabolite compounds were identified by UHPLC-MS analysis. Biological potential was evaluated by determining antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and Phosphomolybdenum) and enzyme inhibitory (butrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase) effects. Higher total bioactive contents were found in methanolic extracts which tend to correlate with higher radical scavenging and reducing potential of these extracts. LC/MS spectrum revealed the presence of 16 different secondary metabolites belonging to terpene, glucoside and sesquiterpenoid dervivatives. Glucocleomin and emotin A were the main compounds present in all three parts. The strongest butrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was observed for root and stem DCM extracts. Demonstrated biological potential of S. oleoides plant can trace a new road map for developing newly designed bioactive pharmaceuticals.
Different extraction processes were employed to extract bioactive metabolites from Salacca zalacca flesh by a range of aqueous and organic solvents. The highest extraction yield was obtained by 50% ethanol extract of SE (73.18 ± 4.35%), whereas SFE_1 showed the lowest yield (0.42 ± 0.08%). All extracts were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, measured by their IC50 values in comparison to that of quercetin, the positive control (IC50 = 2.7 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The lowest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was indicated by water extract of SE (IC50 = 724.3 ± 42.9 μg/mL) and the highest activity was demonstrated by 60% ethanol extract by UAE (IC50 = 16.2 ± 2.4 μg/mL). All extracts were analysed by GC-MS and identified metabolites like carbohydrates, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, sterols and alkane-based compounds etcetera that may possess the potential as α-glucosidase inhibitor and may attribute to the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
In this study, phytochemical composition, antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and cytotoxic activities of methanol and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of Bougainvillea glabra (B. glabra) flowers were investigated. Methanol extract was found to have higher total bioactive contents and UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract revealed the presence of well-known phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Antioxidant activities were performed by radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS), reducing power (FRAP and CUPRAC), phosphomolybdenum (TAC) and metal chelating assays. From our result, we observed that methanol extract had many antioxidant compounds. The DCM extract exhibited higher cholinesterases and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, while methanol extract showed significant urease inhibition. Both extracts exhibited strong to moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, CaSki, DU-145 and SW-480 cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 88.49 to 304.7 µg/mL. The findings showed the B. glabra to possess considerable antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and cytotoxic potentials and therefore has potential to discover novel bioactive molecules.
Two new C15-acetogenins, 4-epi-isolaurallene (1) and 4-epi-itomanallene A (2) were isolated from a population of marine red alga Laurencia nangii Masuda from Carrington Reef. The structures of these compounds were determined intensively by NMR and HRESIMS data. Their configurations were elucidated by detailed comparison of chemical shifts, germinal protons splitting and NOE correlations with known and synthesized analogues. In addition, antibacterial activities of these compounds were evaluated. These compounds would serve as diastereomeric models for future reference. Since the isolaurallene, neolaurallene, 9-acetoxy-1,10,12-tribromo-4,7:6,13-bisepoxypentadeca-1,2-diene, itomanallene A and laurendecumallene A were isolated, compounds 1 and 2 were the sixth example of C15-acetogenin with dioxabicyclo[7.3.0]dodecene skeleton.
Garcinia celebica L., locally known as "manggis hutan" in Malaysia is widely used in folkloric medicine to treat various diseases. The present study was aimed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of G. celebica L. (EO-GC) and its cytotoxic and antimicrobial potential. EO-GC obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed using capillary GC and GC-MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified, dominated by α-copaene (61.25%), germacrene D (6.72%) and β-caryophyllene (5.85%). In the in vitro MTT assay, EO-GC exhibited significant anti-proliferative effects towards MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with IC50 value of 45.2 μg/mL. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, it showed better inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria and none on the fungi and yeasts tested.
The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Durio zibethinus M. (Durian) leaf extract from two extraction methods. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and Accelerated-solvent extraction were used to produce crude extract. The results revealed that UAE achieved 3× higher in total phenolic content in the leaf extract compared to ASE. DPPH radical scavenging activity was 4.6× higher in leaf extract from ASE. No significant differences reported in ferric reducing power, and total flavonoid content of the leaf extract between the two methods. Cytotoxicity via MTT assay demonstrated no significant differences in cell viability upon exposure to the leaf extract from both methods. This suggested that they were appropriate in producing Durio zibethinus M. leaf extract for end use application in food related product. Both ensured similar level of safety in Durio zibethinus M. leaf extract as a new potential ingredient for the food industry.
Phytochemical study was conducted on the leaves of Globimetula braunii which is a hemi parasitic plant belonging to the family Loranthaceae. Extraction was carried out using cold extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents i.e n-hexane, CH2Cl2 and MeOH. The components were separated by chromatographic technique and the structures of the compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including MS, FTIR, 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and chemical methods. Six new pentacyclic triterpenoid esters named as globrauneine A (1), globrauneine B (2), globrauneine C (3), globrauneine D (4), globrauneine E (5), and globrauneine F (6), together with six known compounds (7 - 12) were successfully isolated from the leaves of G. braunii growing on Piliostigma thonningii. These results depict a substantial support to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Globimetula.
The aim of this study was designed to analyse the effect of Savoury essential oil (Satureja hortensis) on growth performance, biochemical parameters and immunity of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). The angelfishes (average body weight of 5.12 ± 0.01 g) were treated with three effective dosage of Savoury essential oil 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in three separated aquaria water with one control group for 60 days. At the end of experiment, the angelfishes treated with 400 mg/kg Satureja showed minimum Feed Conversion Ratio, maximum Specific Growth Rate and Survival Rate. There was significant difference (p
Three new cembrane diterpenes, nephthecrassocolides A-B (1-2) and 6-acetoxy nephthenol acetate (3) along with three known compounds, 6-acetoxy-7,8-epoxy nephthenol acetate (4), epoxy nephthenol acetate (5) and nephthenol (6) were isolated from one population of Nephthea sp. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data analysis and the antifungal activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated.
Dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is known in many pathological conditions with which most of the conditions are related to elevate MMPs activities. Ficus deltoidea (FD) is a plant known for its therapeutic properties. In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of FD leaf extract, we study the enzymatic inhibition properties of FD leaf extract and its major bioactive compounds (vitexin and isovitexin) on a panel of MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9) using experimental and computational approaches. FD leaf extract and its major bioactive compounds showed pronounced inhibition activity towards the MMPs tested. Computational docking analysis revealed that vitexin and isovitexin bind to the active site of the three tested MMPs. We also evaluated the cytotoxicity and cell migration inhibition activity of FD leaf extract in the endothelial EA.hy 926 cell line. Conclusively, this study provided additional information on the potential of FD leaf extract for therapeutical application.
In this study the antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity of the Adonidia merrillii fruits were investigated using different solvent polarities (methanol, ethyl acetate and water). The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extract was higher compare with other extract with respective values of 17.80 ± 0.45 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 5.43 ± 0.33 mg rutin equivalents/g DW. Beside that The RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, naringin and rutin. In the DPPH, NO2 and ABTS scavenging assays, the methanolic extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity as compared to the ethyl acetate and water extracts. The extracts exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxic activity in the assays using human hepatocytes (Chang liver cells) and NIH/3T3 (fibroblasts cell) cell lines. The findings showed the Adonidia merrillii fruit extracts to possess considerable antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. The fruit, therefore, is a potential candidate for further work to discover antioxidant and cytotoxic drugs from natural sources.
The bioactivity guided fractionation of Tetracera indica leaves crude ethanolic extract has afforded the isolation and characterization of six compounds including a new natural product viz., 5,7-dihydroxyflavone-O-8-sulphate (1) and five known flavonoids (2-6). The structures of the compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase. Compound 1, 5 and 6 showed strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 3 and 4 displayed weak activity while compound 2 was inactive. The interactions of the active compounds with alpha-glucosidase were further investigated using molecular docking to confirm their antidiabetic potential.
The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide, reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and total antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions of the seed of Telfairia occidentalis were evaluated. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant activities. Two pure compounds which were identified by FTIR, H-and 2D NMR and Mass spectroscopy as 9-octadecenoic acid (TOS B) and 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (TOS C) and four oily isolates, TOS A, TOS D, TOS E and TOS F were obtained from the dichloromethane fraction. TOS E had the highest DPPH radical scavening activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. GC-MS analysis revealed the major compounds in TOS E as 4-(2,2-Dimethyl-6-methylene cyclohexylidene)-2-butanol; 3-(3-hydroxybutyl)-2,4,4-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid disooctyl ester. Thus, the seed of T. occidentalis can be consumed for its antioxidant property.
Phytochemical studies on the stem bark of Garcinia nervosa has resulted in the discovery of one new pyranoxanthone derivative, garner xanthone (1) and five other compounds, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 6-deoxyisojacareubin (3), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (4) stigmasterol (5), and β-sitosterol (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques, such as NMR and MS. The crude extracts of the plant were assessed for their antimicrobial activity.
Hydrodistillation of the fresh stem and leaf of Neolitsea kedahense Gamble, collected from Gunung Jerai, Malaysia followed by the GC-FID and GC-MS analysis revealed the detection of a total of 47 constituents of which 28 (86.4%) from the stem and 31 (96.4%) constituents from the leaf. δ-Cadinene (17.4%), 1-epi-cubenol (11.8%), cyperotundone (9.0%), cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol (7.7%), τ-cadinol (7.1%) and α-cadinol (7.1%) were the principle constituents in the stem oil, whereas β-caryophyllene (18.9%), bicyclogermacrene (18.6%) and trans-muurola-4(14),5-diene (9.8%) were the major constituents in the leaf oil. Among the identified constituents, three constituents namely 7-epi-α-selinene, junenol and cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol have not been found previously from Neolitsea oils. The stem and leaf oils were screened for their α-glucosidase inhibitory and antibacterial activities. Both oils displayed potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while the stem oil possessed weak antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis.