This manuscript describes the first detailed chemical investigation of endemic species Iris adriatica, including isolation and structure elucidation. Chemical analyses of the rhizome CH2Cl2/MeOH (2:1) extract revealed fourteen secondary metabolites, mainly isoflavonoids. Among isoflavonoids, two groups have been found: nigricin-type and tectorigenin-type. Dominant group of the isolated compounds has been nigricin-type isoflavones: nigricin, nigricin-4'-(1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and nigricin-4'-(1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-β-D-glucopyranoside) with 2.5, 10 and 1% of the total extract, respectively. Irisxanthone - xanthone C-glucoside, β-sitosterol, benzophenone and one of its derivatives have also been found. Nigricin-type isoflavonoids and irisxanthone can be considered as possible chemotaxonomic markers for I. adriatica. 5,3',5'-Trimethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyisoflavone-4'-(1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and benzophenone have been isolated from Iris species for the first time.
The Bornean liverwort Gottschelia schizopleura was investigated phytochemically for the first time. Two new and four previously known clerodane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the MeOH extract of G. schizopleura through a series of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the new metabolites were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data (1D NMR, 2D NMR, HRESIMS and IR). All the isolated compounds 1-6 were tested against human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Mus musculus skin melanoma (B16-F10). Compound 1 and 2 showed active inhibition against HL-60 and B16-F10 cells.
Three new halogenated tricyclic sesquiterpenes, omphalaurediol (1), rhodolaurenones B (2) and C (3) were isolated together with nine known haloganated sesquiterpenes such as rhodolaurenone A (4), rhodolaureol (5), isorhodolaureol (6), (-)-laurencenone D (7), elatol (8), (+)-deschloroelatol (9), cartilagineol (10), (+)-laurencenone B (11) and 2-chloro-3-hydroxy-α-chamigren-9-one (12) from a population of Bornean red algae Laurencia majuscula. The structures of three new metabolites were determined based on their spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and MS). These compounds showed antibacterial activity against three human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholera).
The key purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the thrombolytic, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial potentials of crude ethanol extracts (CEE) of whole plant, organic and aqueous soluble fractions (OF & AQSF). CEE showed the highest (44.63%) clot lysis activity compared to streptokinase (64.35%). In DPPH study, petroleum ether soluble fraction (PSF) has exhibited IC50 of 18.83 μg/mL while the standard ascorbic acid was 2.48 µg/mL. AQSF profoundly inhibited the lysis of erythrocytes (66.20%) which was insignificantly different (p > 0.05) to acetylsalicylic acid (71.98%), the reference. However, AQSF showed a significantly stronger level of protection against heat-induced hemolysis (64.80%) as compared with the acetylsalicylic acid (78.90%). CEE, OF and AQSF have displayed reasonable growth of inhibition of tested bacteria compared to negative control and standard drug (77.50 mg of GAE/g).
In searching for drugs from natural product scaffolds has gained interest among researchers. In this study, a series of twelve halogenated thiourea (ATX 1-12) via chemical modification of aspirin (a natural product derivative) and evaluated for cytotoxic activity against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines, HK-1 via MTS-based colorimetric assay. The cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that halogens at meta position of ATX showed promising activity against HK-1 cells (IC50 value ≤15 µM) in comparison to cisplatin, a positive cytotoxic drug (IC50 value =8.9 ± 1.9 µM). ATX 11, bearing iodine at meta position, showed robust cytotoxicity against HK-1 cells with an IC50 value of 4.7 ± 0.7 µM. Molecular docking interactions between ATX 11 and cyclooxygenase-2 demonstrated a robust binding affinity value of -8.1 kcal/mol as compared to aspirin's binding affinity value of -6.4 kcal/mol. The findings represent a promising lead molecule from natural product with excellent cytotoxic activity against NPC cell lines.
The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Durio zibethinus M. (Durian) leaf extract from two extraction methods. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and Accelerated-solvent extraction were used to produce crude extract. The results revealed that UAE achieved 3× higher in total phenolic content in the leaf extract compared to ASE. DPPH radical scavenging activity was 4.6× higher in leaf extract from ASE. No significant differences reported in ferric reducing power, and total flavonoid content of the leaf extract between the two methods. Cytotoxicity via MTT assay demonstrated no significant differences in cell viability upon exposure to the leaf extract from both methods. This suggested that they were appropriate in producing Durio zibethinus M. leaf extract for end use application in food related product. Both ensured similar level of safety in Durio zibethinus M. leaf extract as a new potential ingredient for the food industry.
Garcinia celebica L., locally known as "manggis hutan" in Malaysia is widely used in folkloric medicine to treat various diseases. The present study was aimed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of G. celebica L. (EO-GC) and its cytotoxic and antimicrobial potential. EO-GC obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed using capillary GC and GC-MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified, dominated by α-copaene (61.25%), germacrene D (6.72%) and β-caryophyllene (5.85%). In the in vitro MTT assay, EO-GC exhibited significant anti-proliferative effects towards MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with IC50 value of 45.2 μg/mL. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, it showed better inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria and none on the fungi and yeasts tested.
In this study, different parts (aerial, stem and root) of Salvadora oleoides Decne were investigated in order to explore their phytochemical composition and biological potential. The bioactive contents were evaluated by conventional spectrophotometric methods. Additionally, the secondary metabolite compounds were identified by UHPLC-MS analysis. Biological potential was evaluated by determining antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and Phosphomolybdenum) and enzyme inhibitory (butrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase) effects. Higher total bioactive contents were found in methanolic extracts which tend to correlate with higher radical scavenging and reducing potential of these extracts. LC/MS spectrum revealed the presence of 16 different secondary metabolites belonging to terpene, glucoside and sesquiterpenoid dervivatives. Glucocleomin and emotin A were the main compounds present in all three parts. The strongest butrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was observed for root and stem DCM extracts. Demonstrated biological potential of S. oleoides plant can trace a new road map for developing newly designed bioactive pharmaceuticals.
Different extraction processes were employed to extract bioactive metabolites from Salacca zalacca flesh by a range of aqueous and organic solvents. The highest extraction yield was obtained by 50% ethanol extract of SE (73.18 ± 4.35%), whereas SFE_1 showed the lowest yield (0.42 ± 0.08%). All extracts were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, measured by their IC50 values in comparison to that of quercetin, the positive control (IC50 = 2.7 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The lowest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was indicated by water extract of SE (IC50 = 724.3 ± 42.9 μg/mL) and the highest activity was demonstrated by 60% ethanol extract by UAE (IC50 = 16.2 ± 2.4 μg/mL). All extracts were analysed by GC-MS and identified metabolites like carbohydrates, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, sterols and alkane-based compounds etcetera that may possess the potential as α-glucosidase inhibitor and may attribute to the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
This study sets out to probe into total bioactive contents, UHPLC-MS secondary metabolites profiling, antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory (acetylcholinesterase- AChE, butyrylcholinesterase- BChE, α-amylase, α glucosidase, and tyrosinase) activities of methanol extract of Aerva javanica, also known as desert cotton or Kapok bush. Aerva javanica contains considerable phenolic (44.79 ± 3.12 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (28.86 ± 0.12 mg QE/g) contents which tends to correlate with its significant antioxidant potential for ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC assays with values of 101.41 ± 1.18, 124.10 ± 1.71 and 190.22 ± 5.70 mg TE/g, respectively. The UHPLC-MS analysis identified the presence of 45 phytochemicals belonging to six major groups: phenolic, flavonoids, lignin, terpenes, glycoside and alkaloid. Moreover, the plant extract also showed potent inhibitory action against AChE (3.73 ± 0.22 mg GALAE/g), BChE (3.31 ± 0.19 mg GALAE/g) and tyrosinase (126.05 ± 1.77 mg KAE/g). The observed results suggest A. javanica could be further explored as a natural source of bioactive compounds.
The aim of this study was designed to analyse the effect of Savoury essential oil (Satureja hortensis) on growth performance, biochemical parameters and immunity of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). The angelfishes (average body weight of 5.12 ± 0.01 g) were treated with three effective dosage of Savoury essential oil 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in three separated aquaria water with one control group for 60 days. At the end of experiment, the angelfishes treated with 400 mg/kg Satureja showed minimum Feed Conversion Ratio, maximum Specific Growth Rate and Survival Rate. There was significant difference (p
Dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is known in many pathological conditions with which most of the conditions are related to elevate MMPs activities. Ficus deltoidea (FD) is a plant known for its therapeutic properties. In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of FD leaf extract, we study the enzymatic inhibition properties of FD leaf extract and its major bioactive compounds (vitexin and isovitexin) on a panel of MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9) using experimental and computational approaches. FD leaf extract and its major bioactive compounds showed pronounced inhibition activity towards the MMPs tested. Computational docking analysis revealed that vitexin and isovitexin bind to the active site of the three tested MMPs. We also evaluated the cytotoxicity and cell migration inhibition activity of FD leaf extract in the endothelial EA.hy 926 cell line. Conclusively, this study provided additional information on the potential of FD leaf extract for therapeutical application.
A phytochemical study carried out on the plant, Calophyllum wallichianum has led to the isolation of a new coumarin, wallimarin T (1) and a known coumarin, calanolide E (2) along with two common triterpenes, friedelin (3) and stigmasterol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, and NMR. MIC assay against the Bacillus bacteria were conducted on the extracts and this gave MIC values ranging from 0.313 to 1.25 mg/mL. Compound 2 was weakly inhibitory towards the Bacilli strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25-0.50 mg/mL. Wallimarin T (1) was not active towards all four bacteria. Overall, the extracts exhibited weak bactericidal properties whereas compound 2 was not bactericidal on the tested bacteria. The hexane and chloroform extracts of the plant were found to be inhibitors to the growth of Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis.
A new limonoid, pentandricine (1), along with three known limonoids, ceramicine B (2), 6-de(acetyloxy)-23-oxochisocheton (3), 6-de(acetyloxy)-23-oxo-7-O-deacetylchisocheton (4), have been isolated from the stembark of Chisocheton pentandrus. The chemical structures of the new compound were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. All of the compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compounds 1-4 showed weak and no cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 369.84, 150.86, 208.93 and 120.09 μM, respectively.
The bioactivity guided fractionation of Tetracera indica leaves crude ethanolic extract has afforded the isolation and characterization of six compounds including a new natural product viz., 5,7-dihydroxyflavone-O-8-sulphate (1) and five known flavonoids (2-6). The structures of the compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase. Compound 1, 5 and 6 showed strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 3 and 4 displayed weak activity while compound 2 was inactive. The interactions of the active compounds with alpha-glucosidase were further investigated using molecular docking to confirm their antidiabetic potential.
In this study the antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity of the Adonidia merrillii fruits were investigated using different solvent polarities (methanol, ethyl acetate and water). The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extract was higher compare with other extract with respective values of 17.80 ± 0.45 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 5.43 ± 0.33 mg rutin equivalents/g DW. Beside that The RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, naringin and rutin. In the DPPH, NO2 and ABTS scavenging assays, the methanolic extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity as compared to the ethyl acetate and water extracts. The extracts exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxic activity in the assays using human hepatocytes (Chang liver cells) and NIH/3T3 (fibroblasts cell) cell lines. The findings showed the Adonidia merrillii fruit extracts to possess considerable antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. The fruit, therefore, is a potential candidate for further work to discover antioxidant and cytotoxic drugs from natural sources.
Phytochemical study was conducted on the leaves of Globimetula braunii which is a hemi parasitic plant belonging to the family Loranthaceae. Extraction was carried out using cold extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents i.e n-hexane, CH2Cl2 and MeOH. The components were separated by chromatographic technique and the structures of the compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including MS, FTIR, 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and chemical methods. Six new pentacyclic triterpenoid esters named as globrauneine A (1), globrauneine B (2), globrauneine C (3), globrauneine D (4), globrauneine E (5), and globrauneine F (6), together with six known compounds (7 - 12) were successfully isolated from the leaves of G. braunii growing on Piliostigma thonningii. These results depict a substantial support to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Globimetula.
Three new cembrane diterpenes, nephthecrassocolides A-B (1-2) and 6-acetoxy nephthenol acetate (3) along with three known compounds, 6-acetoxy-7,8-epoxy nephthenol acetate (4), epoxy nephthenol acetate (5) and nephthenol (6) were isolated from one population of Nephthea sp. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data analysis and the antifungal activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated.
Ipomoea carnea Jacq. is an important folklore medicinal plant, assessed for its underexplored biological potential. Antioxidant, cytotoxic, antiproliferative and polyphenolic profile of whole plant was evaluated using various techniques. Maximum extract recovery (29% w/w), phenolic [13.54 ± 0.27 μg GAE/mg dry weight (DW)] and flavonoid (2.11 ± 0.10 μg QE /mg DW) content were recorded in methanol-distilled water (1:1) flower extract. HPLC-DAD analysis quantified substantial amount of six different polyphenols ranging from 0.081 to 37.95 μg/mg extract. Maximum total antioxidant and reducing potential were documented in methanol-distilled water and acetone-distilled water flower extracts (42.62 ± 0.47 and 24.38 ± 0.39 μg AAE/mg DW) respectively. Ethanol-chloroform root extract manifested highest free radical scavenging (IC50 of 61.22 μg/mL) while 94.64% of the extracts showed cytotoxicity against brine shrimps. Ethanol leaf extract exhibited remarkable activity against THP-1 cell line (IC50 = 8 ± 0.05 μg/mL) and protein kinases (31 mm phenotype bald zone).
Chemical modification of medicines from natural product-based molecules has become of interest in recent years. In this study, a series of halogenated azo derivatives 1a-d were synthesised via coupling reaction, followed by Steglich esterification with aspirin (a natural product derivative) to form azo derivatives 2a-d. While, halogenated azo-aspirin 3a-d were synthesised via direct coupling reaction of aspirin and diazonium salt. Bacteriostatic activity was demonstrated against E. coli and S. aureus via turbidimetric kinetic method. Compound 3a-d showed excellent antibacterial activities against E. coli (MIC 75-94 ppm) and S. aureus (MIC 64-89 ppm) compared to ampicillin (MIC 93 and 124 ppm respectively), followed by 1a-d and 2a-d. The presence of reactive groups of -OH, N=N, C=O and halogens significantly contribute excellent interaction towards E. coli and S. aureus. Molecular dockings analysis of 3a against MIaC protein showed binding free energy of -7.2 kcal/mol (E. coli) and -6.6 kcal/mol (S. aureus).