Geopolymer coating using rice husk ash (RHA) as the aluminosilicate source has shown excellent fire retardant properties. However, incorporation of rice husk ash into the geopolymer matrix increased water absorption properties of the polymer composite. As such, silicone rubber (SiR) was introduced to improve the moisture absorption and fire retardant properties of the composite. Additionally, the less efficient one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach was conventionally used in past studies on the RHA-based geopolymer composite. In understanding the optimum value and significant effect of factors on the fire retardant and moisture absorption properties of the binary blended geopolymer coating composite, the use of statistical analysis and regression coefficient model (mathematical model) was considered essential. The objectives of this study are to identify the significant effect of factors on moisture absorption and fire retardant properties, to determine the optimum composition, and to study the microstructure of the rice husk ash/silicone rubber (RHA/SiR)-based binary blended geopolymer coating composite. The RHA/AA and SiR/Ge ratios were chosen as factors, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to design experiments and conduct analyses. Fire retardant and moisture absorption tests were conducted. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the microstructure of geopolymer samples. The RHA/alkaline activator (AA) and SiR/Ge ratios were shown to have a significant effect on the responses (temperature at equilibrium and moisture absorption). The high ratio of RHA/AA and SiR/Ge resulted in a lower temperature at equilibrium (TAE) below 200°C and at moisture absorption below 16%. The optimum formulation for the geopolymer coating composite can be achieved when the RHA/AA ratio, SiR/Ge ratio, and sodium hydroxide concentration are set at 0.85, 0.70, and 14 M, respectively. SEM micrographs of samples with good fire retardant properties showed that the char residue of the geopolymer composite coating, which is a layer of excess silicone rubber, is porous and continuous, thus providing a shielding effect for the layer of geopolymer underneath. The sample with good moisture absorption showed the formation of a thin outer layer of silicone rubber without any cracks. The unreacted SiR formed a thin layer beneath the geopolymer composite matrix providing a good moisture barrier.
The fabrication of energy storage EDLC in this work is achieved with the implementation of a conducting chitosan-methylcellulose-NH4NO3-glycerol polymer electrolyte system. The simple solution cast method has been used to prepare the electrolyte. The impedance of the samples was fitted with equivalent circuits to design the circuit diagram. The parameters associated with ion transport are well studied at various plasticizer concentrations. The FTIR investigation has been done on the films to detect the interaction that occurs among plasticizer and polymer electrolyte. To get more insights into ion transport parameters, the FTIR was deconvoluted. The transport properties achieved from both impedance and FTIR are discussed in detail. It was discovered that the transport parameter findings are in good agreement with both impedance and FTIR studies. A sample with high transport properties was characterized for ion dominancy and stability through the TNM and LSV investigations. The dominancy of ions in the electrolyte verified as the tion of the electrolyte is established to be 0.933 whereas it is potentially stable up to 1.87 V. The rechargeability of the EDLC is steady up to 500 cycles. The internal resistance, energy density, and power density of the EDLC at the 1st cycle are 53 ohms, 6.97 Wh/kg, and 1941 W/kg, respectively.
Wastewater containing oil/water emulsion has a serious ecological impact and threatens human health. The impact worsens as its volume increases. Oil/water emulsion needs to be treated before it is discharged or reused again for processing. A membrane-based process is considered attractive in effectively treating oil/water emulsion, but progress has been dampened by the membrane fouling issue. The objective of this study is to develop polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes customized for oil/water emulsion separation by incorporating assembly of tannic acid (TA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the polymer matrix. The results show that the assembly of TA/PVP complexation was achieved as observed from the change in colour during the phase inversion and as also proven from the characterization analyses. Incorporation of the TA/PVP assembly leads to enhanced surface hydrophilicity by lowering the contact angle from 82° to 47°. In situ assembly of the TA/PVP complex also leads to enhanced clean water permeability by a factor of four as a result of enhanced mean flow pore size from 0.2 to 0.9 µm. Owing to enhanced surface chemistry and structural advantages, the optimum hydrophilic PVDF/TA/PVP membrane poses permeability of 540.18 L/(m2 h bar) for oil/water emulsion filtration, three times higher than the pristine PVDF membrane used as the reference.
The present study investigates the effects of close-range blast loading of fibre metal laminates (FMLs) fabricated from woven glass polypropylene and aluminium alloy 2024-T3. The polypropylene layers and anodized aluminium are stacked in 3/2 layering configuration to investigate the impact energy absorbed through deformation and damage. In order to study the blast responses of FMLs, a 4-cable instrumented pendulum blast set-up is used. Effects of blast impulse and stand-off distance were examined. Investigation of the cross-section of FMLs are presented and damages such as fibre fracture, debonding, and global deformation are examined. Increasing stand-off distance from 4 to 14 mm resulted in a change of damage mode from highly localized perforation to global deformation.
This report presents a facile and efficient methodology for the fabrication of plasticized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA):chitosan (CS) polymer electrolytes using a solution cast technique. Regarding characterizations of electrical properties and structural behavior, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used, respectively. Crystalline peaks appear in the XRD pattern of the PVA:CS:NH4I while no peaks can be seen in the XRD pattern of plasticized systems. The degree of crystallinity is calculated for all the samples from the deconvoluted area of crystalline and amorphous phases. Considering the EIS measurements, the most conductive plasticized system shows a relatively high conductivity of (1.37 × 10-4) S/cm, which is eligible for applications in energy storage devices. The analysis of the EIS spectra reveals a decrease in bulk resistance which indicates an increase in free ion carriers. The electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model is used in the analysis of EIS plots. Dielectric properties are modified with the addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. It is proved that the addition of glycerol as a plasticizer lowers ion association. It also shows, at the low-frequency region, a large value of a dielectric constant which is correlated with electrode polarization (EP). The distribution of relaxation times is associated with conducting ions.
The lack of aesthetic properties of electrospun nanofibres in terms of colour appearance is the drive in this preliminary study. This research is conducted to study the dyeing behaviour and colorimetric properties of electrospun nanofibres blended with Remazol Yellow FG reactive dye using dope-dyeing method via electrospinning process. This paper reports the colorimetric properties of dyed poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibres within the range of 2.5 wt.% to 12.5 wt.% dye content. The electrospinning parameters were fixed at the electrospinning distance of 10 cm, constant feed rate of 0.5 mL/h and applied voltage of 15 kV. The resulting impregnated dye of 10 wt.% exhibits acceptable colour difference of dyed PVA nanofibres, with a mean fibre diameter of 177.1 ± 11.5 nm. The SEM micrographs show the effect of dye content on morphology and fibre diameter upon the increment of dye used. Further increase of dye content adversely affects the jet stability during the electrospinning, resulting in macroscopic dropping phenomenon. The presence of all prominent peaks of Remazol dye in the PVA nanofibers was supported with FTIR analysis. The addition of dye into the nanofibres has resulted in the enhancement of thermal stability of the PVA as demonstrated by TGA analysis.
A sustainable super-hydrophobic coating composed of silica from palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was synthesised using isopropanol as a solvent and coated on a glass substrate. FESEM and AFM analyses were conducted to study the surface morphology of the coating. The super-hydrophobicity of the material was validated through goniometry, which showed a water contact angle of 151°. Cytotoxicity studies were conducted by assessing the cell viability and cell morphology of mouse fibroblast cell line (L929) and hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79) via tetrazolium salt 3-(4-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and microscopic methods, respectively. The clonogenic assay was performed on cell line V79 and the cell proliferation assay was performed on cell line L929. Both results validate that the toxicity of PDMS: SS coatings is dependent on the concentration of the super-hydrophobic coating. The results also indicate that concentrations above 12.5 mg/mL invariably leads to cell toxicity. These results conclusively support the possible utilisation of the synthesised super-hydrophobic coating for biomedical applications.
Citric acid (CA) can be found naturally in fruits and vegetables, particularly citrus fruit. CA is widely used in many fields but its usage as a green modifying agent and binder for wood is barely addressed. Esterification is one of the most common chemical reactions applied in wood modification. CA contains three carboxyl groups, making it possible to attain at least two esterification reactions that are required for crosslinking when reacting with the hydroxyl groups of the cell wall polymers. In addition, the reaction could form ester linkages to bring adhesivity and good bonding characteristics, and therefore CA could be used as wood binder too. This paper presents a review concerning the usage of CA as a wood modifying agent and binder. For wood modification, the reaction mechanism between wood and CA and the pros and cons of using CA are discussed. CA and its combination with various reactants and their respective optimum parameters are also compiled in this paper. As for the major wood bonding component, the bonding mechanism and types of wood composites bonded with CA are presented. The best working conditions for the CA in the fabrication of wood-based panels are discussed. In addition, the environmental impacts and future outlook of CA-treated wood and bonded composite are also considered.
To non-invasively monitor and screen for diabetes in patients, there is need to detect low concentration of acetone vapor in the range from 1.8 ppm to 5 ppm, which is the concentration range of acetone vapor in diabetic patients. This work presents an investigation for the utilization of chitosan-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor in the detection of trace concentration acetone vapor in the range of breath acetone in diabetic subjects. The structure, morphology, and elemental composition of the chitosan-PEG sensing layer were characterized using FTIR, UV-VIS, FESEM, EDX, AFM, and XPS methods. Response testing was conducted using low concentration of acetone vapor in the range of 0.5 ppm to 5 ppm using SPR technique. All the measurements were conducted at room temperature and 50 mL/min gas flow rate. The sensor showed good sensitivity, linearity, repeatability, reversibility, stability, and high affinity toward acetone vapor. The sensor also showed better selectivity to acetone compared to methanol, ethanol, and propanol vapors. More importantly, the lowest detection limit (LOD) of about 0.96 ppb confirmed the applicability of the sensor for the non-invasive monitoring and screening of diabetes.
Gelatin possesses biological properties that resemble native skin and can potentially be fabricated as a skin substitute for full-thickness wound treatment. The native property of gelatin, whereby it is easily melted and degraded at body temperature, could prevent its biofunctionality for various applications. This study aimed to fabricate and characterise buffalo gelatin (Infanca halal certified) crosslinked with chemical type crosslinker (genipin and genipin fortified with EDC) and physicaly crosslink using the dihydrothermal (DHT) method. A porous gelatin sponge (GS) was fabricated by a freeze-drying process followed by a complete crosslinking via chemical-natural and synthetic-or physical intervention using genipin (GNP), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) (EDC) and dihydrothermal (DHT) methods, respectively. The physicochemical, biomechanical, cellular biocompatibility and cell-biomaterial interaction of GS towards human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were evaluated. Results showed that GS had a uniform porous structure with pore size ranging between 60 and 200 µm with high porosity (>78.6 ± 4.1%), high wettability (<72.2 ± 7.0°), high tensile strain (>13.65 ± 1.10%) and 14 h of degradation rate. An increase in the concentration and double-crosslinking approach demonstrated an increment in the crosslinking degree, enzymatic hydrolysis resistance, thermal stability, porosity, wettability and mechanical strength. The GS can be tuned differently from the control by approaching the GS via a different crosslinking strategy. However, a decreasing trend was observed in the pore size, water retention and water absorption ability. Crosslinking with DHT resulted in large pore sizes (85-300 µm) and low water retention (236.9 ± 18.7 g/m2·day) and a comparable swelling ratio with the control (89.6 ± 7.1%). Moreover no changes in the chemical content and amorphous phase identification were observed. The HEK and HDF revealed slight toxicity with double crosslinking. HEK and HDF attachment and proliferation remain similar to each crosslinking approach. Immunogenicity was observed to be higher in the double-crosslinking compared to the single-crosslinking intervention. The fabricated GS demonstrated a dynamic potential to be tailored according to wound types by manipulating the crosslinking intervention.
The gelatin microsphere (GM) provides an attractive option for tissue engineering due to its versatility, as reported by various studies. This review presents the history, characteristics of, and the multiple approaches to, the production of GM, and in particular, the water in oil emulsification technique. Thereafter, the application of GM as a drug delivery system for cartilage diseases is introduced. The review then focusses on the emerging application of GM as a carrier for cells and biologics, and biologics delivery within a cartilage construct. The influence of GM on chondrocytes in terms of promoting chondrocyte proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation is highlighted. Furthermore, GM seeded with cells has been shown to have a high tendency to form aggregates; hence the concept of using GM seeded with cells as the building block for the formation of a complex tissue construct. Despite the advancement in GM research, some issues must still be addressed, particularly the improvement of GM's ability to home to defect sites. As such, the strategy of intraarticular injection of GM seeded with antibody-coated cells is proposed. By addressing this in future studies, a better-targeted delivery system, that would result in more effective intervention, can be achieved.
Recently, many scientists and polymer engineers have been working on eco-friendly materials for starch-based food packaging purposes, which are based on biopolymers, due to the health and environmental issues caused by the non-biodegradable food packaging. However, to maintain food freshness and quality, it is necessary to choose the correct materials and packaging technologies. On the other hand, the starch-based film's biggest flaws are high permeability to water vapor transfer and the ease of spoilage by bacteria and fungi. One of the several possibilities that are being extensively studied is the incorporation of essential oils (EOs) into the packaging material. The EOs used in food packaging films actively prevent inhibition of bacteria and fungi and have a positive effect on food storage. This work intended to present their mechanical and barrier properties, as well as the antimicrobial activity of anti-microbacterial agent reinforced starch composites for extending product shelf life. A better inhibition of zone of antimicrobial activity was observed with higher content of essential oil. Besides that, the mechanical properties of starch-based polymer was slightly decreased for tensile strength as the increasing of essential oil while elongation at break was increased. The increasing of essential oil would cause the reduction of the cohesion forces of polymer chain, creating heterogeneous matrix and subsequently lowering the tensile strength and increasing the elongation (E%) of the films. The present review demonstrated that the use of essential oil represents an interesting alternative for the production of active packaging and for the development of eco-friendly technologies.
This work aims to give insight on the effect of accelerated weathering, i.e., the combination of ultraviolet (UV) exposure and water spraying, on the visual and mechanical properties of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) composites. The solvent exchange method, sonication and high shear milling technique were used to prepare the nanocomposite laminates. Three types of laminates were fabricated, i.e., unmodified BFRP, nanosilica modified BFRP and graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) modified BFRP composites with the total fiber loading of 45 wt.%. Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminate was also prepared for performance comparison purposes between the natural and synthetic fibers. The laminates were exposed to UV with a total weathering condition of 504 h using a Quantum-UV accelerated weathering tester. The weathering condition cycle was set at 8 h 60 °C UV exposure and 4 h 50 °C condensation. The discoloration visual inspection on the tested specimen was observed under the optical microscope. The obtained results showed that the UV exposure and water absorption caused severe discoloration of the laminates due to photo-oxidation reaction. The effect of weathering conditions on tensile and flexural properties of unmodified BFRP composites indicated that the UV exposure and water absorption caused reduction by 12% in tensile strength and by 7% in flexural strength. It is also found that the reduction in tensile and flexural properties of nanomodified BFRP composites was smaller than the unmodified system. It concluded from this work, that the mineral based composites (i.e., BFRP) has high potential for structural applications owing to its better properties than synthetic based composites (i.e., GFRP).
Antibacterial sugar palm starch biopolymer composite films were developed and derived from renewable sources and inorganic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as main ingredients for antibacterial coatings. The composite films were produced by solution casting method and the mechanical and physicochemical properties were determined by tensile test, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), antibacterial screening test and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images. It was found that mechanical and antibacterial properties of biocomposite films were improved after the addition of AgNPs compared with the film without active metals. The weakness of neat biocomposite films was improved by incorporating inorganic AgNPs as a nanofiller in the films' matrix to avoid bacterial growth. The results showed that the tensile strength ranged between 8 kPa and 408 kPa and the elasticity modulus was between 5.72 kPa and 9.86 kPa. The addition of AgNPs in FTIR analysis decreased the transmittance value, caused small changes in the chemical structure, caused small differences in the intensity peaks, and produced longer wavelengths. These active films increased the degradation weight and decomposition temperature due to the more heat-stable AgNPs. Meanwhile, the average inhibited areas measured were between 7.66 and 7.83 mm (Escherichia coli), 7.5 and 8.0 mm (Salmonella cholerasuis), and 0.1 and 0.5 mm for Staphylococcus aureus. From the microscopic analysis, it was observed that the average size of all microbes for 1 wt% and 4 wt% AgNPs ranged from 0.57 to 2.90 mm. Overall, 3 wt% AgNP nanofiller was found to be the best composition that fulfilled all the mechanical properties and had better antimicrobial properties. Thus, the development of an organic-inorganic hybrid of antibacterial biopolymer composite films is suitable for antibacterial coatings.
New environmentally friendly plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) kenaf biocomposites were obtained through a melt blending process from a combination of epoxidized jatropha oil, a type of nonedible vegetable oil material, and renewable plasticizer. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the incorporation of epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) as a plasticizer and alkaline treatment of kenaf fiber on the thermal properties of PLA/Kenaf/EJO biocomposites. Kenaf fiber was treated with 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 4 h. The thermal properties of the biocomposites were analyzed using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It must be highlighted that the addition of EJO resulted in a decrease of glass transition temperature which aided PLA chain mobility in the blend as predicted. TGA demonstrated that the presence of treated kenaf fiber together with EJO in the blends reduced the rate of decomposition of PLA and enhanced the thermal stability of the blend. The treatment showed a rougher surface fiber in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs and had a greater mechanical locking with matrix, and this was further supported with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Overall, the increasing content of EJO as a plasticizer has improved the thermal properties of PLA/Kenaf/EJO biocomposites.
As a result of their significant importance and applications in vast areas, including oil and gas, building construction, offshore structures, ships, and bridges, coating materials are regularly exposed to harsh environments which leads to coating delamination. Therefore, optimum interfacial bonding between coating and substrate, and the reason behind excellent adhesion strength is of utmost importance. However, the majority of studies on polymer coatings have used a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach. The main objective of this study was to implement statistical analysis in optimizing the factors to provide the optimum adhesion strength and to study the microstructure of a rice husk ash (RHA)-based geopolymer composite coating (GCC). Response surface methodology was used to design experiments and perform analyses. RHA/alkali activated (AA) ratio and curing temperature were chosen as factors. Adhesion tests were carried out using an Elcometer and a scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microstructure. Results showed that an optimum adhesion strength of 4.7 MPa could be achieved with the combination of RHA/AA ratio of 0.25 and curing temperature at 75 °C. The microstructure analysis revealed that coating with high adhesion strength had good interfacial bonding with the substrate. This coating had good wetting ability in which the coating penetrated the valleys of the profiles, thus wetting the entire substrate surface. A large portion of dense gel matrix also contributed to the high adhesion strength. Conversely, a large quantity of unreacted or partially reacted particles may result in low adhesion strength.
In the present review, we focused on the fundamental concepts of hydrogels-classification, the polymers involved, synthesis methods, types of hydrogels, properties, and applications of the hydrogel. Hydrogels can be synthesized from natural polymers, synthetic polymers, polymerizable synthetic monomers, and a combination of natural and synthetic polymers. Synthesis of hydrogels involves physical, chemical, and hybrid bonding. The bonding is formed via different routes, such as solution casting, solution mixing, bulk polymerization, free radical mechanism, radiation method, and interpenetrating network formation. The synthesized hydrogels have significant properties, such as mechanical strength, biocompatibility, biodegradability, swellability, and stimuli sensitivity. These properties are substantial for electrochemical and biomedical applications. Furthermore, this review emphasizes flexible and self-healable hydrogels as electrolytes for energy storage and energy conversion applications. Insufficient adhesiveness (less interfacial interaction) between electrodes and electrolytes and mechanical strength pose serious challenges, such as delamination of the supercapacitors, batteries, and solar cells. Owing to smart and aqueous hydrogels, robust mechanical strength, adhesiveness, stretchability, strain sensitivity, and self-healability are the critical factors that can identify the reliability and robustness of the energy storage and conversion devices. These devices are highly efficient and convenient for smart, light-weight, foldable electronics and modern pollution-free transportation in the current decade.
In this work, plasticized polymer electrolyte films consisting of chitosan, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and glycerol for utilization in energy storage devices was presented. Various microscopic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques were used to characterize the concerned electrolyte and the electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) assembly. The nature of complexation between the polymer electrolyte components was examined via X-ray diffraction analysis. In the morphological study, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to investigate the impact of glycerol as a plasticizer on the morphology of films. The polymer electrolyte (conducting membrane) was found to have a conductivity of 3.21 × 10-3 S/cm. It is indicated that the number density (n), mobility (μ) and diffusion coefficient (D) of ions are increased with the glycerol amount. The mechanism of charge storing was clarified, which implies a non-Faradaic process. The voltage window of the polymer electrolyte is 2.32 V. It was proved that the ion is responsible for charge-carrying via measuring the transference number (TNM). It was also determined that the internal resistance of the EDLC assembly lay between 39 and 50 Ω. The parameters associated with the EDLC assembly are of great importance and the specific capacitance (Cspe) was determined to be almost constant over 1 to 1000 cycles with an average of 124 F/g. Other decisive parameters were found: energy density (18 Wh/kg) and power density (2700 W/kg).
In the last two decades, the development of novel approaches for cancer treatment has attracted intense attention due to the growing number of patients and the inefficiency of the available current conventional treatments. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method in an alkaline medium. Then the nanoparticles were chemically modified by coating them with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sorafenib (SO)-zinc/aluminum layered double hydroxide (ZLDH) to improve their biocompatibility. The SPIONs and their coated and drug-loaded nanoparticles, M-PEG-SO-ZLDH are of the crystalline phase with the presence of C, O, Al, Fe, Cl, Zn in the latter, indicating the presence of the coating layers on the surface of the SPIONs. The superparamagnetic properties of the bare SPIONs were found to be reduced but retained in its coated drug delivery nanoparticles, M-PEG-SO-ZLDH. The latter has an average particle size of 16 nm and the release of the drug from it was found to be governed by the pseudo-second-order kinetic. The cytotoxicity and biocompatibility evaluation of the drug-loaded magnetic nanoparticles using 3T3 and HepG2 cells using the diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays shows that the synthesized nanoparticles were less toxic than the pure drug. This preliminary study indicates that the prepared nanoparticles are suitable to be used for the drug delivery system.
Supercapacitors are energy storage devices with high power density, rapid charge/discharge rate, and excellent cycle stability. Carbon-based supercapacitors are increasingly attracting attention because of their large surface area and high porosity. Carbon-based materials research has been recently centered on biomass-based materials due to the rising need to maintain a sustainable environment. Cellulose and lignin constitute the major components of lignocellulose biomass. Since they are renewable, sustainable, and readily accessible, lignin and cellulose-based supercapacitors are economically viable and environmentally friendly. This review aims to systematically analyze published research findings on electrospun lignin, cellulose, and lignin/cellulose nanofibers for use as supercapacitor electrode materials. A rigorous scientific approach was employed to screen the eligibility of relevant articles to be included in this study. The research questions and the inclusion criteria were clearly defined. The included articles were used to draw up the research framework and develop coherent taxonomy of literature. Taxonomy of research literature generated from the included articles was classified into review papers, electrospun lignin, cellulose, and lignin/cellulose nanofibers for use as supercapacitor electrode materials. Furthermore, challenges, recommendations, and research directions for future studies were equally discussed extensively. Before this study, no review on electrospun lignin/cellulose nanofiber-based supercapacitors has been reported. Thus, this systematic review will provide a reference for other researchers interested in developing biomass-based supercapacitors as an alternative to conventional supercapacitors based on petroleum products.