Although open tibial fractures are common in Malaysia, the outcomes for these patients have not been evaluated in the literature. This retrospective study was conducted to examine the factors associated with infection and non-union in open tibial fractures managed at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA), Kuantan, in 2009.
Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn how to volitionally influence the neuronal activation in the brain by employing real-time neural activity as feedback. NFB has already been performed with electroencephalography (EEG) since the 1970s. Functional MRI (fMRI), offering a higher spatial resolution, has further increased the spatial specificity. In this paper, we briefly outline the general principles behind NFB, the implementation of fMRI-NFB studies, the feasibility of fMRI-NFB, and the application of NFB as a supplementary therapy tool.
This research aimed to compare the nutrient intake of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) with that of normal children (without CLP) in the same age groups. The study was conducted at the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 139 children, of both sexes, from two to six years of age, either with CLP (40 children) or without CLP (99 children), were selected. The CLP and non-CLP children were grouped according to age, which is a key determinant of nutrient intake. Children in subgroup I were between the ages of 2 and 4 years, the group comprising 48 normal children of mean age 39.85 months (SD 7.1), and 20 CLP children of mean age 37.05 months (SD 5.9). Children in subgroup II were those over 4 years and up to 6 years old, and the group comprised 51 normal children, of mean age 64.16 months (SD 7.9), and 20 CLP children of mean age 56.75 months (SD 9.9). A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate nutrient intake in subgroups I and II, using a 24 hours diet recall method. The nutrient intake of CLP children was shown to have no significant differences from that of normal children. A comparison of intake per day with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Malaysian children showed that the consumption of nutrients was inadequate in both the normal and CLP children, in both age sub-groups.
Awake craniotomy is a brain surgery performed on awake patients and is indicated for certain intracranial pathologies. These include procedures that require an awake patient for electrocorticographic mapping or precise electrophysiological recordings, resection of lesions located close to or in the motor and speech of the brain, or minor intracranial procedures that aim to avoid general anaesthesia for faster recovery and earlier discharge. This type of brain surgery is quite new and has only recently begun to be performed in a few neurosurgical centres in Malaysia. The success of the surgery requires exceptional teamwork from the neurosurgeon, neuroanaesthesiologist, and neurologist. The aim of this article is to briefly describe the history of awake craniotomy procedures at our institution.
Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.
Physical inactivity and reduced energy expenditure has led to increased obesity among office workers. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite health programme aimed at improving physical health among obese civil servants.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare disease with poor prognosis. Treatment including wide or radical excision is very important. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are additional treatment options, but no conclusive results for their efficacy have been shown until date. Imaging modalities can give important clues for diagnosis and management planning. Angioembolization before surgery could be useful as prophylaxis to control intraoperative bleeding, increasing the likelihood of complete resection.
Immunology has now developed into an independent discipline in medicine which covers not only germ infection which is related to immunity solely but also covers a lot of non-infectious diseases such as autoimmune disease, allergies, and others. Therefore, "The Immune Mechanism: "A Double-Edged Sword" means that the immune mechanism (consisted of antibody mediated mechanism and T cell mediated mechanism), just like one edge playing the role of giving benefit (immunity) as it destroys the agent of infection, and another one can be detrimental as it will cause tissue/cell damages and then give rise to immune diseases (immunopathology). Now, the prevalence of these immune diseases is on the rise and has become a new challenge to our country towards developed country in 2020. Therefore, we have to make ample preparation (laboratory facilities/services, main power, and research) from now on in order to face the problems and challenges.
Lymphocytic mastitis, or diabetic mastopathy, is an unusual finding in early-onset and long-standing diabetes. It can presents as a non-tender or tender palpable breast mass. Mammogram and ultrasound frequently demonstrate findings suspicious of malignancy, thus biopsy and histological confirmation is usually required. We reviewed two cases of lymphocytic mastitis with characteristics findings on mammogram, ultrasound, and histopathology. Diagnoses were confirmed with excision biopsy.
Fournier's gangrene is a severe life-threatening infection involving the perianal area, perineum, and external genitalia. It demands prompt recognition, critical care therapy, surgical therapy, and a combination of antibiotics. The infection commonly spreads via the fascial planes and causes superficial vascular thrombosis within the Colles' fascia around the external genitalia. It can extend cephalad to involve the Scarpa's fascia and Camper's fascia in the abdominal wall. The treatment would include multiple debridements, which would result in disfiguring scars of the perineum and might lead to significant physical and psychological complications. We describe a case of a 58-years-old man presenting with Fournier's gangrene resulting from an infection of an impacted urethral stone. The patient previously had obstructive voiding symptoms for 1 month but chose to neglect them. The resultant infection was severe and caused penile and right testicular gangrene. He underwent multiple wound debridements, which included a total penectomy and right orchiectomy. Psychological and rehabilitative support was necessary for him to overcome his loss and disfigurement.
The study objective was to determine the diagnostic value of physical examinations for positive computer tomography (CT) scans in children with mild head injuries. Retrospective data of patients evaluated for mild head injuries with loss of consciousness (LOC) or amnesia were reviewed. Estimations of prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated. Agreement between the physical examinations and CT brain scans was calculated using the Kappa test. 225 patients were included in the study. Of this group, 19.56% of patients had positive CT scans and 7.56% had normal physical examinations. 15 underwent neurosurgical intervention. For positive CT scans, sensitivity and specificity were 61.36% and 60.22%, respectively. Agreement between physical examinations and CT scans was Kappa = 0.147 (P < 0.05), 95% CI (0.035, 0.259). The present study demonstrated that physical examinations were significantly associated with positive CT scans (P = 0.01). However, the calculated Kappa value showed only slight agreement between these 2 variables and the low sensitivity and specificity of the physical examinations suggest that intracranial pathology in children with mild head injuries and LOC or amnesia cannot be excluded based on physical examinations alone.
This study aimed to determine the perception and level of safety satisfaction of staff nurses with regards to Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) management practice in the Sabah Health Department, and to associate the OSH management dimensions, to Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback.
This study aimed to determine the perceptions and expectations of bone cancer patients with respect to their doctors and the breaking of bad news as well as the environment in which the news was delivered.
Medical training is often regarded as a stressful period. Studies have previously found that 21.6%-50% of medical students experience significant psychological distress. The present study compared the prevalence and levels of psychological distress between 2 cohorts of first-year medical students that underwent different admission selection processes.
Different computational methods have been used for the prediction of X-ray spectra and beam quality in diagnostic radiology. The purpose of this study was to compare X-ray beam qualities based on half-value layers (HVLs) determined through measurements and computational model estimations.
Traditionally, the most common diagnostic approach used for diagnosing leptospirosis was the demonstration of immune-seroconversion in acute and convalescent patient serum samples. Recently, a variety of molecular techniques, including conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been developed for the specific detection of pathogenic bacteria from the genus Leptospira. PCR is a sensitive, specific, and rapid technique that has been successfully used to detect several microorganisms; including those of clinical significance.