Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 313 in total

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  1. Alkhader E, Billa N, Roberts CJ
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2017 May;18(4):1009-1018.
    PMID: 27582072 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0623-y
    In the present study, we report the properties of a mucoadhesive chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate formulation able to retain its integrity in the milieu of the upper gastrointestinal tract and subsequently, mucoadhere and release curcumin in colon conditions. Using this system, we aimed to deliver curcumin to the colon for the possible management of colorectal cancer. The delivery system comprised of a chitosan-pectinate composite nanopolymeric with a z-average of 206.0 nm (±6.6 nm) and zeta potential of +32.8 mV (±0.5 mV) and encapsulation efficiency of 64%. The nanoparticles mucoadhesiveness was higher at alkaline pH compared to acidic pH. Furthermore, more than 80% release of curcumin was achieved in pectinase-enriched medium (pH 6.4) as opposed to negligible release in acidic and enzyme-restricted media at pH 6.8. SEM images of the nanoparticles after exposure to the various media indicate a retained matrix in acid media as opposed to a distorted/fragmented matrix in pectinase-enriched medium. The data strongly indicates that the system has the potential to be applied as a colon-targeted mucoadhesive curcumin delivery system for the possible treatment of colon cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  2. Hussain Z, Thu HE, Shuid AN, Katas H, Hussain F
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(5):527-550.
    PMID: 28676002 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170704132523
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the chronic, non-healing complications of diabetic mellitus which compels a significant burden to the patients and the healthcare system. Peripheral vascular disease, diabetic neuropathy, and abnormal cellular and cytokine/chemokine activity are among the prime players which exacerbate the severity and prevent wound repair. Unlike acute wounds, DFUs impose a substantial challenge to the conventional wound dressings and demand the development of novel and advanced wound healing modalities. In general, an ideal wound dressing should provide a moist wound environment, offer protection from secondary infections, eliminate wound exudate and stimulate tissue regeneration.

    OBJECTIVE: To date, numerous conventional wound dressings are employed for the management of DFUs but there is a lack of absolute and versatile choice. The current review was therefore aimed to summarize and critically discuss the available evidences related to pharmaceutical and therapeutic viability of polymer-based dressings for the treatment of DFUs.

    RESULTS: A versatile range of naturally-originated polymers including chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), cellulose, alginate, dextran, collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibrin and silk fibroin have been utilized for the treatment of DFUs. These polymers have been used in the form of hydrogels, films, hydrocolloids, foams, membranes, scaffolds, microparticles, and nanoparticles. Moreover, the wound healing viability and clinical applicability of various mutually modified, semi-synthetic or synthetic polymers have also been critically discussed.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, this review enlightens the most recent developments in polymer-based wound dressings with special emphasis on advanced polymeric biomaterials, innovative therapeutic strategies and delivery approaches for the treatment of DFUs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*; Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use
  3. Latfi ASA, Pramanik S, Poon CT, Gumel AM, Lai KW, Annuar MSM, et al.
    J Biomater Appl, 2019 01;33(6):854-865.
    PMID: 30458659 DOI: 10.1177/0885328218812490
    Natural biopolymers have many attractive medical applications; however, complications due to fibrosis caused a reduction in diffusion and dispersal of nutrients and waste products. Consequently, severe immunocompatibility problems and poor mechanical and degradation properties in synthetic polymers ensue. Hence, the present study investigates a novel hydrogel material synthesized from caprolactone, ethylene glycol, ethylenediamine, polyethylene glycol, ammonium persulfate, and tetramethylethylenediamine via chemo-enzymatic route. Spectroscopic analyses indicated the formation of polyurea and polyhydroxyurethane as the primary building block of the hydrogel starting material. Biocompatibility studies showed positive observation in biosafety test using direct contact cytotoxicity assay in addition to active cellular growth on the hydrogel scaffold based on fluorescence observation. The synthesized hydrogel also exhibited (self)fluorescence properties under specific wavelength excitation. Hence, synthesized hydrogel could be a potential candidate for medical imaging as well as tissue engineering applications as a tissue expander, coating material, biosensor, and drug delivery system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemical synthesis; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  4. Ullah S, Zainol I, Idrus RH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Nov;104(Pt A):1020-1029.
    PMID: 28668615 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.06.080
    The zinc oxide nanoparticles (particles size <50nm) incorporated into chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds and investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on microstructure, mechanical properties, biodegradation and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds. The 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% zinc oxide nanoparticles chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation effects consisting in chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were investigated by mechanical and swelling tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds examined microscopically. The biodegradation and cytocompatibility tests were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The mean pore size and swelling ratio of scaffolds were decreased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles however, the porosity, tensile modulus and biodegradation rate were increased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles facilitated cell adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. It was found that the zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation enhanced porosity, tensile modulus and cytocompatibility of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  5. Samrot AV, Sean TC, Kudaiyappan T, Bisyarah U, Mirarmandi A, Faradjeva E, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Dec 15;165(Pt B):3088-3105.
    PMID: 33098896 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.104
    Chitosan, collagen, gelatin, polylactic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are notable examples of biopolymers, which are essentially bio-derived polymers produced by living cells. With the right techniques, these biological macromolecules can be exploited for nanotechnological advents, including for the fabrication of nanocarriers. In the world of nanotechnology, it is highly essential (and optimal) for nanocarriers to be biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic for safe in vivo applications, including for drug delivery, cancer immunotherapy, tissue engineering, gene delivery, photodynamic therapy and many more. The recent advancements in understanding nanotechnology and the physicochemical properties of biopolymers allows us to modify biological macromolecules and use them in a multitude of fields, most notably for clinical and therapeutic applications. By utilizing chitosan, collagen, gelatin, polylactic acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates and various other biopolymers as synthesis ingredients, the 'optimal' properties of a nanocarrier can easily be attained. With emphasis on the aforementioned biological macromolecules, this review presents the various biopolymers utilized for nanocarrier synthesis along with their specific synthetization methods. We further discussed on the characterization techniques and related applications for the synthesized nanocarriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  6. Vardar E, Vythilingam G, Pinnagoda K, Engelhardt EM, Zambelli PY, Hubbell JA, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2019 06;206:41-48.
    PMID: 30925287 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.03.030
    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a life changing condition, affecting 20 million women worldwide. In this study, we developed a bioactive, injectable bulking agent that consists of Permacol™ (Medtronic, Switzerland) and recombinant insulin like growth factor-1 conjugated fibrin micro-beads (fib_rIGF-1) for its bulk stability and capacity to induce muscle regeneration. Therefore, Permacol™ formulations were injected in the submucosal space of rabbit bladders. The ability of a bulking material to form a stable and muscle-inducing bulk represents for us a promising therapeutic approach to achieve a long-lasting treatment for SUI. The fib_rIGF-1 showed no adverse effect on human smooth muscle cell metabolic activity and viability in vitro based on AlamarBlue assays and Live/Dead staining. Three months after injection of fib_rIGF-1 together with Permacol™ into the rabbit bladder wall, we observed a smooth muscle tissue like formation within the injected materials. Positive staining for alpha smooth muscle actin, calponin, and caldesmon demonstrated a contractile phenotype of the newly formed smooth muscle tissue. Moreover, the fib_rIGF-1 treated group also improved the neovascularization at the injection site, confirmed by CD31 positive staining compared to bulks made of PermacolTM only. The results of this study encourage us to further develop this injectable, bioactive bulking material towards a future therapeutic approach for a minimal invasive and long-lasting treatment of SUI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use*; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  7. Qasim SSB, Nogueria LP, Fawzy AS, Daood U
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2020 Jun 16;21(5):173.
    PMID: 32548717 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-020-01708-x
    Innovative strategies for periodontal regeneration have been the focus of research clusters across the globe for decades. In order to overcome the drawbacks of currently available options, investigators have suggested a novel concept of functionally graded membrane (FGM) templates with different structural and morphological gradients. Chitosan (CH) has been used in the past for similar purpose. However, the composite formulation of composite and tetracycline when cross-linked with glutaraldehyde have received little attention. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the drug loading and release characteristics of novel freeze gelated chitosan templates at different percentages of glutaraldehyde. These were cross-linked with 0.1 and 1% glutaraldehyde and loaded with doxycycline hyclate. The electron micrographs depicted porous morphology of neat templates. After cross-linking, these templates showed compressed ultrastructures. Computerized tomography analysis showed that the templates had 88 to 92% porosity with average pore diameter decreased from 78 to 44.9 μm with increasing concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed alterations in the glycosidic segment of chitosan fingerprint region which after drug loading showed a dominant doxycycline spectral composite profile. Interestingly, swelling profile was not affected by cross-linking either at 0.1 and 1% glutaraldehyde and template showed a swelling ratio of 80%, which gained equilibrium after 15 min. The drug release pattern also showed a 40 μg/mL of release after 24 h. These doxycycline-loaded templates show their tendency to be used in a functionally graded membrane facing the defect site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacokinetics; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  8. Taguchi K, Chuang VTG, Hashimoto M, Nakayama M, Sakuragi M, Enoki Y, et al.
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2020;68(8):766-772.
    PMID: 32741918 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c20-00222
    Lactoferrin (Lf) nanoparticles have been developed as a carrier of drugs and gene. Two main methods, desolvation technique and emulsification method, for preparation of protein nanoparticles have been reported so far, but most of the previous reports of Lf nanoparticles preparation are limited to emulsification method. In this study, we investigated the optimal conditions by desolvation technique for the preparation of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bovine Lf (bLf) nanoparticles within the size range of 100-200 nm, and evaluated their properties as a carrier for oral and intravenous drug delivery. The experimental results of dynamic light scattering and Transmission Electron Microscope suggested that glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bLf nanoparticles with 150 nm in size could be produced by addition of 2-propanol as the desolvating solvent into the bLf solution adjusted to pH 6, followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. These cross-linked bLf nanoparticles were found to be compatible to blood components and resistant against rapid degradation by pepsin. Thus, cross-linked bLf nanoparticles prepared by desolvation technique can be applied as a drug carrier for intravenous administration and oral delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  9. Wu XH, Liew YK, Mai CW, Then YY
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Mar 24;22(7).
    PMID: 33805207 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22073341
    Medical devices are indispensable in the healthcare setting, ranging from diagnostic tools to therapeutic instruments, and even supporting equipment. However, these medical devices may be associated with life-threatening complications when exposed to blood. To date, medical device-related infections have been a major drawback causing high mortality. Device-induced hemolysis, albeit often neglected, results in negative impacts, including thrombotic events. Various strategies have been approached to overcome these issues, but the outcomes are yet to be considered as successful. Recently, superhydrophobic materials or coatings have been brought to attention in various fields. Superhydrophobic surfaces are proposed to be ideal blood-compatible biomaterials attributed to their beneficial characteristics. Reports have substantiated the blood repellence of a superhydrophobic surface, which helps to prevent damage on blood cells upon cell-surface interaction, thereby alleviating subsequent complications. The anti-biofouling effect of superhydrophobic surfaces is also desired in medical devices as it resists the adhesion of organic substances, such as blood cells and microorganisms. In this review, we will focus on the discussion about the potential contribution of superhydrophobic surfaces on enhancing the hemocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  10. Gomathysankar S, Halim AS, Yaacob NS
    Arch Plast Surg, 2014 Sep;41(5):452-7.
    PMID: 25276634 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2014.41.5.452
    In the field of tissue engineering and reconstruction, the development of efficient biomaterial is in high demand to achieve uncomplicated wound healing. Chronic wounds and excessive scarring are the major complications of tissue repair and, as this inadequate healing continues to increase, novel therapies and treatments for dysfunctional skin repair and reconstruction are important. This paper reviews the various aspects of the complications related to wound healing and focuses on chitosan because of its unique function in accelerating wound healing. The proliferation of keratinocytes is essential for wound closure, and adipose-derived stem cells play a significant role in wound healing. Thus, chitosan in combination with keratinocytes and adipose-derived stem cells may act as a vehicle for delivering cells, which would increase the proliferation of keratinocytes and help complete recovery from injuries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  11. Mahshim N, Reza F, Omar NS
    J Conserv Dent, 2013 Jul;16(4):331-5.
    PMID: 23956536 DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.114364
    To evaluate physical properties and cytotoxicity of pure gypsum-based (pure-GYP) and experimental gypsum-based biomaterials mixed with polyacrylic acid (Gyp-PA). The results were compared with calcium hydroxide (CH) and glass ionomer cement (GIC) for application as base/liner materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  12. Periayah MH, Halim AS, Saad AZ
    Pharmacogn Rev, 2016 Jan-Jun;10(19):39-42.
    PMID: 27041872 DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.176545
    Biomaterials created 50 years ago are still receiving considerable attention for their potential to support development in the biomedical field. Diverse naturally obtained polysaccharides supply a broad range of resources applicable in the biomedical field. Lately, chitosan, a marine polysaccharide derived from chitins-which are extracted from the shells of arthropods such as crab, shrimp, and lobster-is becoming the most wanted biopolymer for use toward therapeutic interventions. This is a general short review of chitosan, highlighting the history, properties, chemical structure, processing method, and factors influencing the usage of chitosan derivatives in the biomedical field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  13. Liu J, Tan CSY, Yu Z, Li N, Abell C, Scherman OA
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2017 Jun;29(22).
    PMID: 28370560 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605325
    Recent progress on highly tough and stretchable polymer networks has highlighted the potential of wearable electronic devices and structural biomaterials such as cartilage. For some given applications, a combination of desirable mechanical properties including stiffness, strength, toughness, damping, fatigue resistance, and self-healing ability is required. However, integrating such a rigorous set of requirements imposes substantial complexity and difficulty in the design and fabrication of these polymer networks, and has rarely been realized. Here, we describe the construction of supramolecular polymer networks through an in situ copolymerization of acrylamide and functional monomers, which are dynamically complexed with the host molecule cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]). High molecular weight, thus sufficient chain entanglement, combined with a small-amount dynamic CB[8]-mediated non-covalent crosslinking (2.5 mol%), yields extremely stretchable and tough supramolecular polymer networks, exhibiting remarkable self-healing capability at room temperature. These supramolecular polymer networks can be stretched more than 100× their original length and are able to lift objects 2000× their weight. The reversible association/dissociation of the host-guest complexes bestows the networks with remarkable energy dissipation capability, but also facile complete self-healing at room temperature. In addition to their outstanding mechanical properties, the networks are ionically conductive and transparent. The CB[8]-based supramolecular networks are synthetically accessible in large scale and exhibit outstanding mechanical properties. They could readily lead to the promising use as wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors and structural biomaterials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  14. Tin-Oo, M.M., Gopalakrishnan, V., Samsuddin, A.R., Al Salihi, K.A., Shamsuria, O.
    MyJurnal
    Use of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) in biomedical applications is well warranted. It has shown to have an excellent biocompatibility in human tooth and bones. Additionally it has been documented to possess antibacterial potentials. The present study was conducted to assess the presence of any such potential in locally produced (HA) using Streptococcus mutans, a common pathogen in the oral cavity. The study was carried out using 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 800 mg/ml concentration of HA. The antibacterial property of HA was assessed using Miles and Misra method. Our studies showed that bacterial growth inhibitions of S. mutans occurred from 50 mg/ml, and complete inhibition was perceived at concentrations at 200mg/ml of HA. The antibacterial property HA should be used to good advantage as a bioactive biomaterial in dental and maxillofacial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  15. Abdul Khodir WKW, Abdul Razak AH, Ng MH, Guarino V, Susanti D
    J Funct Biomater, 2018 May 18;9(2).
    PMID: 29783681 DOI: 10.3390/jfb9020036
    In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is tremendously diffusing as skin substitutes. Indeed, engineered skin grafts or analogues frequently play an important role in the treatment of chronic skin wounds, by supporting the regeneration of newly formed tissue, and at the same time preventing infections during the long-term treatment. In this context, natural proteins such as collagen-natively present in the skin tissue-embedded in synthetic polymers (i.e., PCL) allow the development of micro-structured matrices able to mimic the functions and to structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Moreover, the encapsulation of drugs, such as gentamicin sulfate, also improves the bioactivity of nanofibers, due to the efficient loading and a controlled drug release towards the site of interest. Herein, we have done a preliminary investigation on the capability of gentamicin sulfate, loaded into collagen-added nanofibers, for the controlled release in local infection treatments. Experimental studies have demonstrated that collagen added fibers can be efficaciously used to administrate gentamicin for 72 h without any toxic in vitro response, thus emerging as a valid candidate for the therapeutic treatment of infected wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  16. Mohd Kherman Suparman, Hazmyr Abdul Wahab, Nazer Berahim, Tengku Intan Baizura Tengku Jamaluddin
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2017;2017(1):1-12.
    MyJurnal
    Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) is a natural autologous fibrin matrix and is an effective biomaterial product. The application of PRF in oral surgery is not limited to tissue regeneration, but it has been utilized in several minor and major oral surgical procedures. Numerous studies have proven that either alone or in combination with bone graft, PRF acts as bone and soft tissue regeneration and it is able to stimulate physiological wound healing. This case report will introduce the utilization of PRF combined with autogenous bone graft in restoring four walls dental socket defect due to post-surgical extraction complication and plan for implant placement in the future. It acts in the form of a resorbable membrane and stem cell connector to the bone. After 3 months post-surgery review, there was no signs of infection or tissue rejection and the harvested bone was still viable. The PRF is comparable to commercially available membrane in the market, where clinical results can be predicted and possibility of reduction in post-surgical complications is achieved. This is due to 1) its compatibility with bone graft materials notably autogenous type, 2) induced neovascularisation and 3) reduction in inflammatory reaction. Our team is confident that the result of PRF at the edentulous region for rehabilitation purposes is beneficial and cost-effective to our patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  17. Mehrali M, Thakur A, Pennisi CP, Talebian S, Arpanaei A, Nikkhah M, et al.
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2017 Feb;29(8).
    PMID: 27966826 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603612
    Given their highly porous nature and excellent water retention, hydrogel-based biomaterials can mimic critical properties of the native cellular environment. However, their potential to emulate the electromechanical milieu of native tissues or conform well with the curved topology of human organs needs to be further explored to address a broad range of physiological demands of the body. In this regard, the incorporation of nanomaterials within hydrogels has shown great promise, as a simple one-step approach, to generate multifunctional scaffolds with previously unattainable biological, mechanical, and electrical properties. Here, recent advances in the fabrication and application of nanocomposite hydrogels in tissue engineering applications are described, with specific attention toward skeletal and electroactive tissues, such as cardiac, nerve, bone, cartilage, and skeletal muscle. Additionally, some potential uses of nanoreinforced hydrogels within the emerging disciplines of cyborganics, bionics, and soft biorobotics are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  18. Matmin J, Affendi I, Endud S
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2018 Jul 10;8(7).
    PMID: 29996468 DOI: 10.3390/nano8070514
    The conventional synthesis route of nanostructured titania-silica (Ti-SiNS) based on sol-gel requires the use of a surfactant-type template that suffers from hazardous risks, environmental concerns, and a tedious stepwise process. Alternatively, biomaterials have been introduced as an indirect template, but still required for pre-suspended scaffold structures, which hinder their practical application. Herein, we report an easy and industrially viable direct-continuous strategy for the preparation of Ti-SiNS from nanostructured-silica (SiNS) using a hydrolyzed rice starch template. This strategy fits into the conventional industrial process flow, as it allows starch to be used directly in time-effective and less complicated steps, with the potential to upscale. The formation of Ti-SiNS is mainly attributed to Ti attachment in the SiNS frameworks after the polycondensation of the sol-gel composition under acidic-media. The SiNS had pseudo-spherical morphology (nanoparticles with the size of 13 to 22 nm), short order crystal structure (amorphous) and high surface area (538.74 m²·g−1). The functionalized SiNS into Ti-SiNS delivered considerable catalytic activity for epoxidation of 1-naphtol into 1,4-naphthoquinone. The described direct-continuous preparation shows great promise for a cheap, green, and efficient synthesis of Ti-SiNS for advanced applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  19. Soon G, Pingguan-Murphy B, Akbar SA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 04;68:26-31.
    PMID: 28135639 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.01.028
    This study utilizes the technique of self-assembly to fabricate arrays of nanoislands on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates with miscut of 10° toward <110> direction. These self-assembled nanostructures were annealed at 1100°C for 5h upon doping with 10mol% gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) by powder-suspension based method. X-Ray diffraction result showed that the miscut substrate after doping GDC was in the cubic phase. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) illustrates that the nanopatterned material contains all the elements from the GDC source and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. It also demonstrates a higher surface roughness and a more hydrophilic surface. The nanostructured materials were subsequently used for an in vitro study using a human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB). An improved spreading, enhanced cell proliferation and up-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were observed on the nanopatterned substrates compared to the control substrates. Calcium deposits, which were stained positively by Alizarin Red S, appeared to be more abundant on the nanopatterned surfaces on day 7. The overall findings suggest that post fabrication treatment with surface modification such as creating a nanostructure (e.g. nanopatterns) can improve biocompatibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  20. Muhamad II, Zulkifli N, Selvakumaran SA, Lazim NAM
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(11):1147-1162.
    PMID: 31258069 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190618152133
    BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been an increased interest in the utilization of polysaccharides showing biological activity for various novel applications owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and some specific therapeutic activities. Increasing studies have started in the past few years to develop algal polysaccharides-based biomaterials for various applications.

    METHODS: Saccharide mapping or enzymatic profiling plays a role in quality control of polysaccharides. Whereby, in vitro and in vivo tests as well as toxicity level discriminating polysaccharides biological activities. Extraction and purification methods are performed in obtaining algal derived polysaccharides followed by chromatographic profiles of their active compounds, structural features, physicochemical properties, and reported biological activities.

    RESULTS: Marine algae are capable of synthesizing Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and non-GAGs or GAG mimetics such as sulfated glycans. The cell walls of algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides, including alginate, carrageenan, ulvan and fucoidan. These biopolymers are widely used algal-derived polysaccharides for biological and biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility and availability. They constitute biochemical compounds that have multi-functionalization, therapeutic potential and immunomodulatory abilities, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of biomedical applications.

    CONCLUSION: Algal-derived polysaccharides with clearly elucidated compositions/structures, identified cellular activities, as well as desirable physical properties have shown the potential that may create new opportunities. They could be maximally exploited to serve as therapeutic tools such as immunoregulatory agents or drug delivery vehicles. Hence, novel strategies could be applied to tailor multi-functionalization of the polysaccharides from algal species with vast biomedical application potentials.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
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