Miocene larger benthic foraminifera have been discovered from a limestone unit of the Kalumpang Formation. The limestone is exposed at the Teck Guan Quarry, Tawau, southeast Sabah. The Kalumpang Formation consists predominantly of interbedded mudstone and sandstone (graywacke), conglomerate, limestone, marl, chert and volcanic rocks. Five limestone samples have been collected and processed for petrographic analysis and identification of larger benthic foraminifera. The limestone is classified as packstone and mudstone. A total of seventeen species of larger benthic foraminifera have been identified. The foraminifera are divided into two assemblages namely Assemblage I and Assemblage II. Assemblage I is characterized by the presence of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) parva, Operculina sp. and Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) formosa. This assemblage is an indicative of Aquitanian to Burdigalian in age (Early Miocene). Assembalge II comprises of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) sumatrensis, Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) angulosa, Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) ferreroi Lepidocyclina sp., Miogypsina sp., Katacycloclypeus annulatus, Katacyloclypeus martini, Cycloclypeus carpenteri, Cycloclypeus indopacificus, Cycloclypeus sp., Flosculinella bontangensis, Operculina complanata, Amphistegina bowdenensis and Amphistegina sp. This assemblage is an indicative of Langhian to Serravallian age (Middle Miocene). The foraminiferal assemblages suggest that the depositional environment was a warm tropical shallow-marine at the fore-reef shelf zone.
Dengue fever is a vector-borne viral disease which is now endemic in more than 100 countries affecting more than 2.5 billion people worldwide. In recent years, dengue fever has become a major threat to public health in Pakistan. In this paper, we derived an explicit formula for reproduction number R0 (the most important epidemiological parameter) and then used real data of dengue fever cases of different hospitals of Lahore (Pakistan) on R0. Conditions for local stability of equilibrium points are discussed. In the end, simulations are carried out for different situations.
The growth of residential and commercial areas threatens vegetation and ecosystems. Thus, an urgent urban management
issue involves determining the state and the quantity of urban tree species to protect the environment, as well as controlling
their growth and decline. This study focused on the detection of urban tree species by considering three types of tree
species, namely, Mesua ferrea L., Samanea saman, and Casuarina sumatrana. New rule sets were developed to detect these
three species. In this regard, two pixel-based classification methods were applied and compared; namely, the method of
maximum likelihood classification and support vector machines. These methods were then compared with object-based
image analysis (OBIA) classification. OBIA was used to develop rule sets by extracting spatial, spectral, textural and color
attributes, among others. Finally, the new rule sets were implemented into WorldView-2 imagery. The results indicated
that the OBIA based on the rule sets displayed a significant potential to detect different tree species with high accuracy.
Prevention and mitigation of rainfall induced geological hazards after the Ms=8 Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008 were significant for rebuild of earthquake hit regions. After the Wenchuan earthquake, there were tens of thousands of fractured slopes which were broken and loosened by the ground shaking, they were very susceptible to heavy rainfall and change forms into potential debris flows. In order to carry out this disaster reduction and prediction effectively in Longmenshan region, careful real-time monitoring and pre-warning of mountain hazards in both regional and site-specific scales is reasonable as alternatives in Wenchuan earthquake regions. For pre-warning the failure of fractured slopes induced by rainfall, the threshold value or the critical value of the precipitation of hazards should be proposed. However, the identification of critical criterion and parameters to pre-warning is the most difficult issue in mountainous hazards monitoring and pre-warning system especially in the elusive and massive fractured slopes widespread in Wenchuan earthquake regions. In this study, a natural coseismic fractured landslide in the Taziping village, Hongkou County, Dujianyan City, was selected to conduct the field experimental test, in order to identify the threshold parameters and critical criterion of the fractured slopes of Taziping. After the field experimental test, the correlation of rainfall intensity, rainfall duration and accumulative rainfall was investigated. The field experimental test was capable of identifying the threshold factors for failure of rainfall-induced fractured slopes after the giant earthquake.
This paper investigates the compressibility characteristics of compacted clay treated with cement, peat ash and silica
sand. For this purpose, one dimensional consolidation tests were conducted to determine the soil consolidation properties.
The test specimens were trimmed from the compaction test specimen. The 1D consolidation test specimen was subjected
to the normal pressures of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 kPa in sequence on the test specimen which was saturated with
distilled water. At the end of the loading period of 80 kPa, the vertical load was removed and the specimen was allowed
to expand for 24 h for the purpose of evaluating of its swelling behavior. The results showed that void ratio of the soil
specimens decreased with increasing effective normal pressure. The laboratory investigation clearly demonstrates that,
settlement is as the compression of a soil specimen due to vertical loading applied at the top surface of the 1D consolidation
test specimen. It was concluded that, the compression settlement of the stabilized soil with the binder composition of
18% cement, 2% peat ash and 5% silica sand improved by almost 1.3-fold. A notable discovery is the suitability of the
stabilized soil for road embankment and low lying marginal area for foundation works; also solving the environmental
problems in relation to peaty ground. However, sufficient laboratory and field testing are required.
In most research including environmental research, missing recorded data often exists and has become a common problem for data quality. In this study, several imputation methods that have been designed based on the techniques for functional data analysis are introduced and the capability of the methods for estimating missing values is investigated. Single imputation methods and iterative imputation methods are conducted by means of curve estimation using regression and roughness penalty smoothing approaches. The performance of the methods is compared using a reference data set, the real PM10 data from an air quality monitoring station namely the Petaling Jaya station located at the western part of Peninsular Malaysia. A hundred of the missing data sets that have been generated from a reference data set with six different patterns of missing values are used to investigate the performance of the considered methods. The patterns are simulated according to three percentages (5, 10 and 15) of missing values with respect to two different sizes (3 and 7) of maximum gap lengths (consecutive missing points). By means of the mean absolute error, the index of agreement and the coefficient of determination as the performance indicators, the results have showed that the iterative imputation method using the roughness penalty approach is more flexible and superior to other methods.
A single sample from the logged section at eastern side of Gua Panjang limestone hill, southwest of Kampung Kubang
Rasa Village, Merapoh, has yielded 5 very important conodont species. They are Hindeodus parvus erectus, Hindeodus
parvus parvus, Hindeodus latidentatus latidentatus, Hindeodus latidentatus praeparvus, Hindeodus postparvus, Hindeodus
eurypge and Isarcicella staeschi. These Early Triassic conodonts were obtained in a bioclastic dolostone sample, located
2.5 m above bioclastic grainstone which yielded Late Permian foraminifera. The conodonts found were given Conodont
Alteration Index (CAI) scale of 5, consistent with the heating of Main Range granitoid during Indosinian Orogeny.
Limestone harbouring basal Triassic conodonts in Gua Panjang is interpreted to be deposited in an open shallow marine
This paper examines the effects of energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development on carbon emissions in a panel of 122 countries. We employ both first-generation and second-generation cointegration and estimation procedures in order to address diverse economic and econometric issues such as heterogeneity, endogeneity, and cross-sectional dependence. We find a cointegration relationship between the variables. Energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development have detrimental effects on carbon emissions in the full sample. When the sample is split into different income groups, we reveal that economic growth and financial development mitigate carbon emissions in high-income group but have the opposite effects in low-income and middle-income groups. The implication of the findings is that energy consumption increases carbon emissions. While high levels of income and financial development decrease carbon emissions, low levels of income and financial development intensify it. Based on the findings, the paper makes some policy recommendations.
The combined effort of the neuroscience and psychology cluster at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)-fundamental, applied and clinical-has moved the institution to the number two position in the country, behind Universiti Malaya. The strategy to join the Global Brain Consortium (GBC) and put Malaysia on the map to address the GBC mission, vision, focus areas and outcomes began recently, in May 2019.
Collisions arising from lane departures have contributed to traffic accidents causing millions of injuries and tens of thousands of casualties per year worldwide. Many related studies had shown that single vehicle lane departure crashes accounted largely in road traffic deaths that results from drifting out of the roadway. Hence, automotive safety has becoming a concern for the road users as most of the road casualties occurred due to driver's fallacious judgement of vehicle path. This paper proposes a vision-based lane departure warning framework for lane departure detection under daytime and night-time driving environments. The traffic flow and conditions of the road surface for both urban roads and highways in the city of Malacca are analysed in terms of lane detection rate and false positive rate. The proposed vision-based lane departure warning framework includes lane detection followed by a computation of a lateral offset ratio. The lane detection is composed of two stages: pre-processing and detection. In the pre-processing, a colour space conversion, region of interest extraction, and lane marking segmentation are carried out. In the subsequent detection stage, Hough transform is used to detect lanes. Lastly, the lateral offset ratio is computed to yield a lane departure warning based on the detected X-coordinates of the bottom end-points of each lane boundary in the image plane. For lane detection and lane departure detection performance evaluation, real-life datasets for both urban roads and highways in daytime and night-time driving environments, traffic flows, and road surface conditions are considered. The experimental results show that the proposed framework yields satisfactory results. On average, detection rates of 94.71% for lane detection rate and 81.18% for lane departure detection rate were achieved using the proposed frameworks. In addition, benchmark lane marking segmentation methods and Caltech lanes dataset were also considered for comparison evaluation in lane detection. Challenges to lane detection and lane departure detection such as worn lane markings, low illumination, arrow signs, and occluded lane markings are highlighted as the contributors to the false positive rates.
Studies of habitat suitability (HS) are essential when animals' habitats have been altered or when animals migrate to a habitat different from their natural habitat. This study assessed HS and used an integrated geographic information system in the assessment of Rattus norvegicus in a highly developed urban environment. Using data from the Campbell market and the police quarters of George Town, Malaysia, home range (through the use of 100% Minimum Convex Polygon [MCP], 95% MCP and 95% Harmonic Mean [HM]) was estimated. Home range for male rats at Campbell market reached an asymptote, with a slight increase, at 96 radio fixes (home range = 133.52 m(2); core area = 29.39 m(2)). Female rats reached an asymptote at 62 radio fixes (home range = 13.38 m(2); core area = 9.17 m(2)). At Campbell market, male rats emerged at 1900 hours every day, whereas females emerged at 2000 hours; at police quarters, the most common time of emergence for males was 2000 hours and for females was 2200. Raster charts of R. norvegicus showed that rat hot spots can be grouped into 4 zones (market, shop houses, settlement and general places). The standardised raster chart isolated the market as the major rallying points of the rats (hot spots) by producing the highest rats frequencies of 255. All of the habitat suitability thresholds, including the built-up points, skip bins, water source and nature of the site explored in this study, produced a structural pattern (monotonic increase or decrease) of habitat suitability.
Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Social Environment
The study examined a conceptual model integrating existing knowledge on the linkages between life satisfaction, affect, purpose in life, and resilience with school engagement. This model posits direct relationships between all the social psychological variables and school engagement, and also indirect relationships between life satisfaction and school engagement as mediated by all the other variables in the study. The participants were 2381 students (1119 boys and 1262 girls) with average age of 15 years, from 40 national secondary schools in Malaysia. The findings supported the theoretical conceptualization. All variables were positively associated with school engagement. The strongest relationship was observed between overall life satisfaction and school engagement. The mediating model was partially supported. The study reiterates the adage that "it takes a village to raise a child". Implications for practice and future research are discussed in the context of engagement in school learning.
Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21.
Submergence or flood is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low-lying countries and crop losses due to waterlogging are considerably high. Plant breeding techniques, conventional or genetic engineering, might be an effective and economic way of developing crops to grow successfully in waterlogged condition. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is a new and more effective approach which can identify genomic regions of crops under stress, which could not be done previously. The discovery of comprehensive molecular linkage maps enables us to do the pyramiding of desirable traits to improve in submergence tolerance through MAS. However, because of genetic and environmental interaction, too many genes encoding a trait, and using undesirable populations the mapping of QTL was hampered to ensure proper growth and yield under waterlogged conditions Steady advances in the field of genomics and proteomics over the years will be helpful to increase the breeding programs which will help to accomplish a significant progress in the field crop variety development and also improvement in near future. Waterlogging response of soybean and major cereal crops, as rice, wheat, barley, and maize and discovery of QTL related with tolerance of waterlogging, development of resistant variety, and, in addition, future prospects have also been discussed.
Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key hormone for reproductive functions in vertebrates and non-vertebrates. Although GnRH neuronal system is regulated by several factors such as steroids, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, it is not fully understood how environmental signals control the GnRH neuronal system. RFamide peptides, members of peptides possessing an Arg-Phe-NH(2) motif at their C-terminus, have recently been characterized as major regulators of GnRH neurons. In particular, two key RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), are emerging as important regulators of the reproductive axis. Kisspeptin acts as the accelerator, directly driving GnRH neurons, whereas GnIH acts as the restraint. In addition, other RFamide peptides such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), PQRFa peptide, 26RFa/QRFP are also known to control reproduction. These RFamide peptides are regulated by environmental factors such as photoperiods, steroid hormones, metabolic signals, and stress. How environmental signals are integrated by RFamide peptides to regulate reproduction through the GnRH neurons?
Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ) score.
Marine organisms comprised about 70% of the total impinged materials by weight at water intake screens in the Kapar Power Station (KPS), Malaysia. The general groupings of 'fish', 'shrimp', 'crab', 'cephalopod' and 'others' contributed 26% (87 species), 65% (29), 2% (17), 2% (3) and 5% (42) of the total number of impinged organisms, respectively. In general, higher impingement occurred during spring tide, at nighttime and in shallow water. The glass perchlet, anchovies, ponyfishes, mojarra, catfishes, hairtail, scat and young croakers were the most vulnerable fishes. Vulnerable invertebrates included cephalopods, sea urchin, rockshells and jellyfishes, but penaeid shrimps were the most susceptible in terms of both mortality and body injury. Annually, KPS is estimated to kill 8.5 x 10(6) marine organisms (42 tons) by impingement. This amount, however, is minimal compared to commercial fishery harvests. Multispecies impingement at Malaysian power plants poses the problem of finding the best mitigation options for tropical situations.
A study was made of the oviposit behavior of gravid female Aedes mosquitos in man-made habitats under field conditions. The study showed that the gravid female Aedes mosquitos preferred containers with relatively easy access but not too open to external environmental influence. The dark surface of the containers served as the initial and long-range attractant to the breeding sites. Volatile chemicals generated by the decaying vegetation in the container may serve as a close-range attractant. Finally, the water quality and the quantity of 'food' derived from decaying vegetative matter in the water determined the amount of eggs deposited in each container. The study confirmed previous findings that each gravid female Aedes mosquito had the tendency to lay her eggs in more than one container. However, the results of the study suggests that under favorable conditions, each gravid female Aedes mosquito could be encouraged to lay all her eggs in a single breeding site.
Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.