Comparison and evaluation of physicochemical properties of the six betamethasone·17-valerate creams available locally were studied. Tests that were conducted include stiffness/hardness, grittiness. colour, odour, homogeneity (phase separation), pH, weight of loss, tackiness (stickiness) and microscopic examination. A point grading system was used 10 assess and compare the products. Results revealed that BetnovateT and CamnovaleT to be the most superior followed by BeavateT, SetrosoneT, BetasoneT and UniflexT
Increased consumerism ilfid diversity of economic activities have led to an increase in pressure from the increase and diversification in waste. Environmental stewardship has become essential to reduce the toxicological risk by an active involvement in waste disposal like planning of landfills for ensuring impedance at source. The risks from waste disposal practices in Malaysia are examined along with the essential considerations (or secure sites to prevent environmental hazards 10 health. KEYWORDS: Waste disposal, environmental stewardship, adequacy of disposal sites, collective analysis of considerations.
Hypomanic episodes have been reported in two patients who were known to have abused cannabis. The nature of its presentation, possible association and treatment modalities are discussed herewith. A greater awareness of such a condition can put clinicians in a better position to give appropriate treatment imediately, and thus prevent any kind of re-occurrence of such a condition especially in vulnerable patients. KEYWORDS: Cannabis, hypomania.
One (1) anti-Blastocystis serum from a monkey naturally infected with isolate M12 and four (4) hyperimmune sera raised in inbred Balb/c mice against crude antigens of two Blastocystis isolates (C and KPI). one each of Entamoeba histolytica (HK9) and Giardia lamblia (7404) were used to react with several homologous and heterologous Blastocystis isolates, E. histofytica, G. lambfia, Endolimax nana and Bac-4 (Escherichia coli isolated from culture medium of a B. hominis isolate KPl). All anti-Blastocystis sera did not show cross-reactivity with E. histolytica and G. lamblia by western blotting. Similarly, anti-E. histolytica and anti-G. lamblia sera also did not react against all Blastocystis isolates tested, even though these three protozoa are known to produce diarrhoea in humans. Polyclonal sera raised against antigen prepared from xenic culture of Blastocystis produced a smear reaction on the immunoblot, while antibodies raised against antigens prepared from axenic culture (isolate C) gave prominent reaction bands. This may be due to the purity of the immunogen used in inducing the immune response. The cross-reactions of sera from mice immunised with the xenic B. hominis isolates may also due to antibodies against E. coli. Anti-Blastocystis serum from monkey's with natural infection showed several prominent reaction bands together with a smear at above 40 kD were most probably induced by the excretory-secretory antigens of the parasite. A variety of reaction patterns were obtained with these anti-sera and the antigens from different Blastocystis isolates. These may be reflects from differences in antigenic components from various strains of this parasite. KEYWORDS: lJIastocysfis, polycional antibodies, immunoblot, experimental animals
Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disorder in the human population. It is characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and the overgrowth of marginal and subchondral bone. The commonest weight bearing joint affected is that of the knee, affecting over one third of people over Ihe age of 65 years. This article reviews the recent principles of non surgical management of osteoarthritis. This is divided into non drug management such as primary prevention, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and patient education. Drug management will include the use of different types of analgesics. viscosupplementation as well as joint injection. KEY WORDS: Osteoarthritis, management
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti tahap dan hubungan elemen ‘Suri Teladan’ dan ‘Celik Alam Sekitar’ dalam kalangan pelajar di negeri Sabah. Sampel adalah terdiri daripada 110 orang responden yang dipilih secara rawak mudah dalam kalangan pelajar tingkatan 5 di sebuah sekolah menengah di daerah Tawau, Sabah. Pendekatan kuantitatif dengan teknik tinjauan digunakan dalam kajian ini. Data deskriptif yang diperolehi menunjukkan bahawa tahap Celik Alam Sekitar (skor min= 4.20, SP= 0.30) dan ‘Suri Teladan’ (skor min= 4.09, SP= 0.34) pada guru adalah tinggi. Manakala Ujian-t menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan bagi celik alam sekitar dalam kalangan pelajar sekolah menengah harian berdasarkan penglibatan kelab dan persatuan. Namun begitu ujian korelasi Pearson menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang positif antara suri teladan dan celik alam sekitar. Kesimpulannya, tahap celik alam sekitar bagi pelajar adalah pada tahap yang boleh dibanggakan dan responden bersetuju bahawa suri teladan berhubungan positif dengan celik alam sekitar.
Malaysia recorded its first case of COVID-19 on January 24th, 2020 with a stable number of reported cases until March 2020, where there was an exponential spike due to a massive religious gathering in Kuala Lumpur. This caused Malaysia to be the hardest hit COVID-19 country in South East Asia at the time. In order to curb the transmission and better managed the clusters, Malaysia imposed the Movement Control Order (MCO) which is now in its fourth phase. The MCO together with targeted screening have slowed the spread of COVID-19 epidemic. The government has also provided three economic stimulus packages in order to cushion the impact of the shrinking economy. Nonetheless, early studies have shown that the MCO would greatly affect the lower and medium income groups, together with small and medium businesses.
In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) set a comprehensive set of nine global voluntary targets, including the landmark "25 by 25" mortality reduction target, and 25 indicators. WHO has also highlighted the importance of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) surveillance as a key action by Member States in addressing NCDs. This study aimed to examine the current national NCD surveillance tools, activities and performance in Malaysia based on the WHO Global Monitoring Framework for NCDs and to highlight gaps and priorities moving forward. A desk review was conducted from August to October in 2020, to examine the current national NCD surveillance activities in Malaysia from multiple sources. Policy and program documents relating to NCD surveillance in Malaysia from 2010 to 2020 were identified and analyzed. The findings of this review are presented according to the three major themes of the Global Monitoring Framework: monitoring of exposure/risk factor, monitoring of outcomes and health system capacity/response. Currently, there is a robust monitoring system for NCD Surveillance in Malaysia for indicators that are monitored by the WHO NCD Global Monitoring Framework, particularly for outcome and exposure monitoring. However, Malaysia still lacks data for the surveillance of the health system indicators of the framework. Although Malaysia has an NCD surveillance in place that is adequate for the WHO NCD Global Monitoring Framework, there are areas that require strengthening. The country must also look beyond these set of indicators in view of the increasing burden and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes incorporating mental health indicators and leveraging on alternate sources of data relating to behaviors.