Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 1456 in total

  1. Tan CH, Leong PK, Fung SY, Sim SM, Ponnudurai G, Ariaratnam C, et al.
    Acta Trop., 2011 Feb;117(2):119-24.
    PMID: 21073851 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.11.001
    Hypnale hypnale (hump-nosed pit viper) is a medically important venomous snake in Sri Lanka and Southwestern India. Bite of this snake may result in hemostatic dysfunction, acute kidney injury and death. Clinical studies indicated that the locally available polyvalent antivenoms produced in India are not effective against hump-nosed pit viper envenoming. Hence, there is an urgent need to search for effective antivenom. In this paper, we examined the ability of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) monovalent antivenom and the Hemato polyvalent antivenom (both produced by Thai Red Cross Society, TRCS) to neutralize the lethality and toxic effects of H. hypnale venom, as C. rhodostoma is considered a sister taxon of H. hypnale. In vitro neutralization studies showed that the Hemato polyvalent antivenom effectively neutralized the lethality of H. hypnale venom (1.52mgvenom/mL antivenom) as well as the hemorrhagic, procoagulant and necrotic activities of the venom. The monovalent C. rhodostoma antivenom could also neutralize the lethality and toxic activities of the venom, but the potency was lower. The Hemato polyvalent antivenom also effectively protected mice from the lethal and local effects of H. hypnale venom in an in vivo rodent model of envenoming. Furthermore, the polyvalent antivenom could also effectively neutralize the venom of Daboia russelii (2.50mgvenom/mL antivenom), another common cause of snake bites in Sri Lanka and South India. These findings suggested that the Hemato polyvalent antivenom may be beneficial in the antivenom treatment of H. hypnale envenoming.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  2. Lang G, Mitova MI, Cole AL, Din LB, Vikineswary S, Abdullah N, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2006 Oct;69(10):1389-93.
    PMID: 17067148
    Six new linear peptides, pterulamides I-VI (1-6), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of a Malaysian Pterula species. The structures were elucidated by MS and 2D NMR experiments, and the absolute configurations of the constituent amino acids established using Marfey's method. The pterulamides are mainly assembled from nonpolar N-methylated amino acids and, most interestingly, have non-amino-acid N-terminal groups, among them the unusual cinnamoyl, (E)-3-methylsulfinylpropenoyl, and (E)-3-methylthiopropenoyl groups. Furthermore, pterulamides I-V are the first natural peptides with a methylamide C-terminus. Pterulamides I and IV are cytotoxic against the P388 cell line with IC50 values of 0.55 and 0.95 microg/mL (0.79 and 1.33 microM), respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  3. Phan CW, Wang JK, Cheah SC, Naidu M, David P, Sabaratnam V
    Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 2018 Aug;38(5):762-777.
    PMID: 29124970 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2017.1399102
    Mushrooms have become increasingly important as a reliable food source. They have also been recognized as an important source of bioactive compounds of high nutritional and medicinal values. The nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides found in mushrooms play important roles in the regulation of various physiological processes in the human body via the purinergic and/or pyrimidine receptors. Cordycepin, a 3'-deoxyadenosine found in Cordyceps sinensis has received much attention as it possesses many medicinal values including anticancer properties. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the distribution of purine nucleobases (adenine and guanine); pyrimidine nucleobases (cytosine, uracil, and thymine); nucleosides (uridine, guanosine, adenosine and cytidine); as well as novel nucleosides/tides in edible and nonedible mushrooms. This review also discusses the latest research focusing on the successes, challenges, and future perspectives of the analytical methods used to determine nucleic acid constituents in mushrooms. Besides, the exotic taste and flavor of edible mushrooms are attributed to several nonvolatile and water-soluble substances, including the 5'-nucleotides. Therefore, we also discuss the total flavor 5'-nucleotides: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP), 5'-inosine monophosphate (5'-IMP), and 5'-xanthosine monophosphate (5'-XMP) in edible mushrooms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  4. Amin, Z.M., Koh, S.P., Tan, C.P., Yeap, S.K., Hamid, N.S.A., Long, K.
    To study the wound healing efficacy of breadfruit starch hydrolysate, an in vitro wound scratch assay was conducted, in which the migration rate of wounded NIH 3T3 fibroblasts was determined. Wounds treated with lower dextrose equivalent (DE), (DE 10-14) starch hydrolysate were found capable to improve the wound healing of NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell with the percentage of wound closure improvement of 77%, respectively when compared with higher DE range (DE 15-19 and DE 20-24). The findings obtained in the BrdU uptake and MTT viability assays confirmed the wound healing properties of breadfruit starch hydrolysate as the starch hydrolysate-treated wounded NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were able to proliferate well and no cytotoxicity was observed. Together, these findings indicated that the newly developed breadfruit starch hydrolysate performed better than commercial (COM) starch hydrolysate of the same DE ranges. In conclusion, breadfruit starch hydrolysate had better functional properties than did starch hydrolysates derived from other sources and that they could play a beneficial role in wound healing applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  5. Rajaratanam DD, Ariffin H, Hassan MA, Nik Abd Rahman NMA, Nishida H
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(6):e0199742.
    PMID: 29944726 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199742
    In order to clarify the in vitro cytotoxicity effect of superheated steam (SHS) treated poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) for biomaterial applications, SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoester samples: P(HB-co-6%-HHx) and P(HB-co-11%-HHx) with low and high percentages of unsaturated chain ends were evaluated for their cytotoxicity effects toward the growth of mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3. From the results obtained after 24 and 48 h of the growth test, the SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoesters were found to be nontoxic to the growth of mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cell line with cell viability percentages of more than 95%. In order to serve as a potential resorbable medical suture, PHBHHx oligoesters were blended with poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with a weight ratio of PHBHHx oligoester/PLLA = 20:80 (wt/wt) to improve mechanical properties of PHBHHx oligoesters. The PHBHHx oligoesters/PLLA blend films were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, and surface wetting properties. Thermal properties of the blend films suggested a good compatibility between PHBHHx oligoesters and PLLA components. Mechanical properties of the blend films were determined to be close enough to a desirable strength range of medical sutures. Moreover, contact angle range of 65 < θ < 70° for the blend samples could provide desirable cell adhesion when used as biomaterials. Therefore, the blend of SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoesters and PLLA would be an ideal choice to be used as biomedical materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  6. Ratanabanangkoon K, Simsiriwong P, Pruksaphon K, Tan KY, Chantrathonkul B, Eursakun S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 06 26;8(1):9716.
    PMID: 29946111 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-27794-3
    In order to facilitate/expedite the production of effective and affordable snake antivenoms, a novel in vitro potency assay was previously developed. The assay is based on an antiserum's ability to bind to postsynaptic neurotoxin (PSNT) and thereby inhibit the PSNT binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The assay was shown to work well with antiserum against Thai Naja kaouthia which produces predominantly the lethal PSNTs. In this work, the assay is demonstrated to work well with antiserum/antivenom against Bungarus candidus (BC), which also produces lethal presynaptic neurotoxins, as well as antivenom against Sri Lankan Naja naja (NN), which produces an abundance of cytotoxins. The in vitro and in vivo median effective ratios (ER50s) for various batches of antisera against BC showed a correlation (R2) of 0.8922 (p mice and accelerate production of life-saving antivenoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  7. Zakaria A, Jais MR, Ishak R
    J Nat Sci Biol Med, 2018 Jan-Jun;9(1):23-26.
    PMID: 29456388 DOI: 10.4103/jnsbm.JNSBM_131_17
    Background: This study investigates the analgesic properties of the aqueous extracts ofNigella sativa and Eucheuma cottoniiin mice. The analgesic properties of both extracts were evaluated in an experimental model of acetic acid-induced writhing test.

    Materials and Methods: The mice were divided into four different groups and received the test extracts and the standard drug (aspirin) for 14 days via force-feeding. On day 15, the mice were injected with 5% acetic acid, and the number of abdominal constriction and elongation of hind limb (writhes) were counted for 20 min.

    Results: The numbers of writhes were counted starting after 5 min of the acetic acid injection. TheN. sativaextracts significantly reduced the number of writhes as compared to the control group. Both of the extracts revealed a comparable result as referred to the aspirin effects in the mice.

    Conclusions: These findings indicate thatN. sativaandE. cottoniimay possess protective active constituent that is effective in reducing the sensation of pain in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  8. Xin GLL, Khee YP, Ying TY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Kunnath AP, et al.
    Curr. Diab. Rep., 2019 03 23;19(5):22.
    PMID: 30905013 DOI: 10.1007/s11892-019-1144-3
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs when there is destruction of beta cells within the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas due to autoimmunity. It is considered a complex disease, and different complications can surface and worsen the condition if T1D is not managed well. Since it is an incurable disease, numerous treatments and therapies have been postulated in order to control T1D by balancing hyperglycemia control while minimizing hypoglycemic episodes. The purpose of this review is to primarily look into the current state of the available immunological therapies and their advantages for the treatment of T1D.

    RECENT FINDINGS: Over the years, immunological therapy has become the center of attraction to treat T1D. Immunomodulatory approaches on non-antigens involving agents such as cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil, anti-CD20, cytotoxic T cells, anti-TNF, anti-CD3, and anti-thymocyte globulin as well as immunomodulative approaches on antigens such as insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and heat shock protein 60 have been studied. Aside from these two approaches, studies and trials have also been conducted on regulatory T cells, dendritic cells, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, M2 macrophages, and rapamycin/interleukin 2 combination therapy to test their effects on patients with T1D. Many of these agents have successfully suppressed T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and in human trials. However, some have shown negative results. To date, the insights into the management of the immune system have been increasing rapidly to search for potential therapies and treatments for T1D. Nevertheless, some of the challenges are still inevitable. A lot of work and effort need to be put into the investigation on T1D through immunological therapy, particularly to reduce complications to improve and enhance clinical outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred NOD
  9. Nurhidanatasha Abu Bakar, Zainal Abidin Abu Hasan, Nurul Izza Nordin, Bohari Mohamad Yamin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2007;36:39-44.
    Ferrocene plays an important role in chemistry and industry. The structure and bonding discovered in ferrocene has led to new developments in organometallic chemistry, and the discovery of entirely new organometallic compounds. The high stability of this compound is also related to its interesting electrochemical properties that makes it effective electrochemical, reduction and combustion catalysts. Nevertheless, ferrocenyl derivatives are also capable of enhancing the activity of certain biological compounds. Indeed, recently ferrocene and its derivatives have been incorporated into antimalarial agents. Therefore, the evaluation of the possible toxic effects of ferrocene derivative called ferrocenium tetrachloroantimonate (C10H10FeSbCl4 or FC) on acute and subchronic toxicity tests using different dose concentrations according to the body weight for different time interval was carried out in an in vivo model. Results showed that FC was acutely toxic with the LD50 value of 194.70 mg/kg body weight (BW) with signs of toxicity associated with respiratory depression. In the 28-day acute toxicity test, the dose of 100 mg/kg BW resulted in 60 % mortality with signs of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effects or abnormal behaviors during the 28 days observation. While in the 90-day subchronic toxicity test at the lower dose of 10 mg/kg BW, however, showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mortality rates, and showed no sign of toxicity. These results indicated that FC had different toxicity levels, and mice appeared to tolerate well at the lower dose of 10 mg/kg BW.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  10. Siti F. Masre, Muzamir, M.K, Sabarina, I., Jehan, N., Yanti Rosli
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2018;16(101):41-45.
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of argan oil with the exposure of low frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) on open wound healing in mice. Eighteen male mice (20-40 g) were divided into three groups: phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as negative control, solcoseryl gel as positive control, and argan oil with the exposure of low frequency EMF, 1.2 mT (treatment group). Full thickness wounds (4 mm diameter) were induced on the shaved dorsal of the mouse. All mice were sacrificed on day 12 after the final treatment. Macroscopic observation, wound contraction rate, histopathology analysis and total protein content were examined in this study. Results showed that wounds treated with argan oil and exposed to low frequency EMF has a significant increase in wound contraction rate (p < 0.05) and total protein content (p < 0.05). Moreover, histopathological analysis on the wound tissues displayed complete re-epithelization with thick and dense collagen fibers in the argan oil with low frequency EMF exposure treated group. In conclusion, topical treatment of argan oil with low frequency EMF exposure yield a better healing progress and showed the ability to accelerate wound healing
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  11. Polat OK, Uno M, Maruyama T, Tran HN, Imamura K, Wong CF, et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2019 Sep;30(9):1587-1603.
    PMID: 31266820 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2018070756
    BACKGROUND: TRPC6 is a nonselective cation channel, and mutations of this gene are associated with FSGS. These mutations are associated with TRPC6 current amplitude amplification and/or delay of the channel inactivation (gain-of-function phenotype). However, the mechanism of the gain-of-function in TRPC6 activity has not yet been clearly solved.

    METHODS: We performed electrophysiologic, biochemical, and biophysical experiments to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying calmodulin (CaM)-mediated Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of TRPC6. To address the pathophysiologic contribution of CDI, we assessed the actin filament organization in cultured mouse podocytes.

    RESULTS: Both lobes of CaM helped induce CDI. Moreover, CaM binding to the TRPC6 CaM-binding domain (CBD) was Ca2+-dependent and exhibited a 1:2 (CaM/CBD) stoichiometry. The TRPC6 coiled-coil assembly, which brought two CBDs into adequate proximity, was essential for CDI. Deletion of the coiled-coil slowed CDI of TRPC6, indicating that the coiled-coil assembly configures both lobes of CaM binding on two CBDs to induce normal CDI. The FSGS-associated TRPC6 mutations within the coiled-coil severely delayed CDI and often increased TRPC6 current amplitudes. In cultured mouse podocytes, FSGS-associated channels and CaM mutations led to sustained Ca2+ elevations and a disorganized cytoskeleton.

    CONCLUSIONS: The gain-of-function mechanism found in FSGS-causing mutations in TRPC6 can be explained by impairments of the CDI, caused by disruptions of TRPC's coiled-coil assembly which is essential for CaM binding. The resulting excess Ca2+ may contribute to structural damage in the podocytes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  12. Mustafa I, Chin NL, Fakurazi S, Palanisamy A
    Foods, 2019 Oct 06;8(10).
    PMID: 31590464 DOI: 10.3390/foods8100456
    The effects of different drying methods, including sun-, oven-, and freeze-drying on the changes in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) rhizome were studied. Sun-, oven-, and freeze-dried ginger showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in phenolic content by 1.79, 1.53, and 1.91-fold; flavonoid content increased by 6.06, 5.27, and 4.90-fold; FRAP increased by 3.95, 3.51, and 3.15-fold; ABTS•+ scavenging activity increased by 2.07, 1.72, and 1.61-fold; and DPPH• inhibition increased by 78%, 58%, and 56%, respectively. Dried ginger also exhibited better inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharides-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7. The drying process demonstrated a positive effect on the bioactivities of ginger. The sun-dried ginger exhibited the most potent antioxidant properties with the best enhanced anti-inflammatory activity followed by the oven-dried ginger and lastly, the freeze-dried ginger.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  13. Lim CL, Ling KH, Cheah PS
    J Biol Methods, 2018;5(1):e87.
    PMID: 31453240 DOI: 10.14440/jbm.2018.219
    Satellite cells are myogenic cells responsible for muscle growth shortly after birth and muscle repair/regeneration during adulthood. Therapies based on satellite cells hold promise for treating muscular dysfunctions. Studying satellite cells is technically challenging owing to their low abundance, small size and anatomical dispersed location between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of myofibers. In this article, we present three improved protocol strategies for studying the properties of satellite cells of the mouse during the different stages of muscle regeneration: (1) immunostaining of freshly isolated single myofibers to facilitate the study of quiescent satellite cells, (2) cultivation of single myofibers on Matrigel®-coated dish to study the myogenesis programs initiated by satellite cell activation, and (3) cultivation of single myofibers in floating conditions to analyze activated satellite cells or the doubling time of satellite cells in myofibers. In brief, when compared to previously published protocols, this article presented an improved protocol that requires shorter experimental time and less laborious approach for higher yield of intact single myofibers for downstream analyses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  14. Ahmad H, Ong SQ, Tan EH
    Int J Insect Sci, 2019;11:1179543318823533.
    PMID: 30675104 DOI: 10.1177/1179543318823533
    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is one of the best-known diets for the swiftlet. Previous studies have addressed the problem of some mass rearing conditions for this insect; unfortunately, the details of the nutritional composition of the life stages and cost of the breeding materials were insufficiently reported, even though this information is crucial for farming the edible-nest swiftlet. We aimed to investigate the nutritional composition of the life stages of M scalaris on a cost basis using 3 common commercial breeding materials: chicken pellets (CPs), fish pellets (FPs), and mouse pellets (MPs). Modified Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) proximate and mineral analyses were carried out on the insect's third instar larvae, pupal, and adult stages to determine the nutritional composition. Regardless of the breeding materials, the adult stage of M scalaris had significantly higher crude protein than the other stages; the pupae were rich in calcium, which is required for egg production; and the third instar larvae had the highest amount of crude fat compared with the other stages. Regarding the energy content, there were no significant differences among the stages according to the breeding materials. In terms of nutritional cost, CP was the most economic breeding material and generated the highest amount of nutrients per US dollar (US $). Different life stages of M scalaris were used by the swiftlets by supplying the required nutrients, and future studies should focus on effective diet feeding methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  15. Housseau F, Wu S, Wick EC, Fan H, Wu X, Llosa NJ, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2016 04 15;76(8):2115-24.
    PMID: 26880802 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-0749
    IL17-producing Th17 cells, generated through a STAT3-dependent mechanism, have been shown to promote carcinogenesis in many systems, including microbe-driven colon cancer. Additional sources of IL17, such as γδ T cells, become available under inflammatory conditions, but their contributions to cancer development are unclear. In this study, we modeled Th17-driven colon tumorigenesis by colonizing Min(Ap) (c+/-) mice with the human gut bacterium, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), to investigate the link between inflammation and colorectal cancer. We found that ablating Th17 cells by knocking out Stat3 in CD4(+) T cells delayed tumorigenesis, but failed to suppress the eventual formation of colonic tumors. However, IL17 blockade significantly attenuated tumor formation, indicating a critical requirement for IL17 in tumorigenesis, but from a source other than Th17 cells. Notably, genetic ablation of γδ T cells in ETBF-colonized Th17-deficient Min mice prevented the late emergence of colonic tumors. Taken together, these findings support a redundant role for adaptive Th17 cell- and innate γδT17 cell-derived IL17 in bacteria-induced colon carcinogenesis, stressing the importance of therapeutically targeting the cytokine itself rather than its cellular sources. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2115-24. ©2016 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  16. Herr DR, Reolo MJ, Peh YX, Wang W, Lee CW, Rivera R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 Apr 15;6:24541.
    PMID: 27080739 DOI: 10.1038/srep24541
    Ototoxic drugs, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics, often lead to permanent hearing loss through apoptosis of neuroepithelial hair cells and afferent neurons of the cochlea. There is no approved therapy for preventing or reversing this process. Our previous studies identified a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), S1P2, as a potential mediator of otoprotection. We therefore sought to identify a pharmacological approach to prevent cochlear degeneration via activation of S1P2. The cochleae of S1pr2(-/-) knockout mice were evaluated for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. This showed that loss of S1P2 results in accumulation of ROS that precedes progressive cochlear degeneration as previously reported. These findings were supported by in vitro cell-based assays to evaluate cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and accumulation of ROS following activation of S1P2 in the presence of cisplatin. We show for the first time, that activation of S1P2 with a selective receptor agonist increases cell viability and reduces cisplatin-mediated cell death by reducing ROS. Cumulatively, these results suggest that S1P2 may serve as a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Knockout; Mice
  17. Hong YH, Yang C, Betik AC, Lee-Young RS, McConell GK
    Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 2016 05 15;310(10):E838-45.
    PMID: 27006199 DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00513.2015
    Nitric oxide influences intramuscular signaling that affects skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise. The role of the main NO-producing enzyme isoform activated during skeletal muscle contraction, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-μ (nNOSμ), in modulating glucose uptake has not been investigated in a physiological exercise model. In this study, conscious and unrestrained chronically catheterized nNOSμ(+/+) and nNOSμ(-/-) mice either remained at rest or ran on a treadmill at 17 m/min for 30 min. Both groups of mice demonstrated similar exercise capacity during a maximal exercise test to exhaustion (17.7 ± 0.6 vs. 15.9 ± 0.9 min for nNOSμ(+/+) and nNOSμ(-/-), respectively, P > 0.05). Resting and exercise blood glucose levels were comparable between the genotypes. Very low levels of NOS activity were detected in skeletal muscle from nNOSμ(-/-) mice, and exercise increased NOS activity only in nNOSμ(+/+) mice (4.4 ± 0.3 to 5.2 ± 0.4 pmol·mg(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05). Exercise significantly increased glucose uptake in gastrocnemius muscle (5- to 7-fold) and, surprisingly, more so in nNOSμ(-/-) than in nNOSμ(+/+) mice (P < 0.05). This is in parallel with a greater increase in AMPK phosphorylation during exercise in nNOSμ(-/-) mice. In conclusion, nNOSμ is not essential for skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise, and the higher skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise in nNOSμ(-/-) mice may be due to compensatory increases in AMPK activation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Knockout; Mice
  18. Ishak MF, See GB, Hui CK, Abdullah Ab, Saim Lb, Saim Ab, et al.
    Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol., 2015 Oct;79(10):1634-9.
    PMID: 26250439 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.06.034
    This study aimed to isolate, culture-expand and characterize the chondrocytes isolated from microtic cartilage and evaluate its potential as a cell source for ear cartilage reconstruction. Specific attention was to construct the auricular cartilage tissue by using fibrin as scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Nude; Mice
  19. Jose S, Tan SW, Tong CK, Vidyadaran S
    Cell Biol. Int., 2015 Dec;39(12):1355-63.
    PMID: 26194799 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10516
    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Apart from playing vital roles as sentinel cells, they are crucial in physiological processes such as synaptic pruning during brain development. CNS disorders require an understanding of the contribution of each cellular compartment to the pathogenesis. Elucidating the role of microglia in disease development and progression in the intricate CNS environment is technically challenging and requires the establishment of reliable, reproducible techniques to isolate and culture microglia. A number of different protocols have been developed for isolation of neonatal microglia and here we compare two widely used methods, namely, mild trypsinization and EasySep® magnetic separation. EasySep® magnetic separation provided higher microglia yield, and flow cytometric evaluation of CD11b and F4/80 markers revealed that EasySep® separation method also produced significantly higher purity compared to mild trypsinization. Microglia isolated using EasySep® separation method were functional, as demonstrated by the generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, this study has revealed that magnetic separation is superior to mild trypsinization in terms of yield and purity of microglia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  20. Zulazmi NA, Gopalsamy B, Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, Bharatham BH, Perimal EK
    Fitoterapia, 2015 Sep;105:215-21.
    PMID: 26205045 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2015.07.011
    Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is difficult to be treated. Current therapies available are either ineffective or non-specific thus requiring newer treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene from Zingiber zerumbet in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain animal model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of zerumbone (5, 10, 50, 100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCI-induced neuropathic pain when evaluated using the electronic von Frey anesthesiometer, cold plate, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer and the Hargreaves plantar test. Zerumbone significantly alleviated tactile and cold allodynia as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Our findings are in comparison to the positive control drugs thatused gabapentin (20 mg/kgi.p.) and morphine (1 mg/kgi.p.). Together, these results showed that the systemic administration of zerumbone produced marked antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in the CCI-induced neuropathic pain in mice and may serve as a potential lead compound for further analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
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