Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 1405 in total

  1. Amin, Z.M., Koh, S.P., Tan, C.P., Yeap, S.K., Hamid, N.S.A., Long, K.
    To study the wound healing efficacy of breadfruit starch hydrolysate, an in vitro wound scratch assay was conducted, in which the migration rate of wounded NIH 3T3 fibroblasts was determined. Wounds treated with lower dextrose equivalent (DE), (DE 10-14) starch hydrolysate were found capable to improve the wound healing of NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell with the percentage of wound closure improvement of 77%, respectively when compared with higher DE range (DE 15-19 and DE 20-24). The findings obtained in the BrdU uptake and MTT viability assays confirmed the wound healing properties of breadfruit starch hydrolysate as the starch hydrolysate-treated wounded NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were able to proliferate well and no cytotoxicity was observed. Together, these findings indicated that the newly developed breadfruit starch hydrolysate performed better than commercial (COM) starch hydrolysate of the same DE ranges. In conclusion, breadfruit starch hydrolysate had better functional properties than did starch hydrolysates derived from other sources and that they could play a beneficial role in wound healing applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  2. Phan CW, Wang JK, Cheah SC, Naidu M, David P, Sabaratnam V
    Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 2018 Aug;38(5):762-777.
    PMID: 29124970 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2017.1399102
    Mushrooms have become increasingly important as a reliable food source. They have also been recognized as an important source of bioactive compounds of high nutritional and medicinal values. The nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides found in mushrooms play important roles in the regulation of various physiological processes in the human body via the purinergic and/or pyrimidine receptors. Cordycepin, a 3'-deoxyadenosine found in Cordyceps sinensis has received much attention as it possesses many medicinal values including anticancer properties. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the distribution of purine nucleobases (adenine and guanine); pyrimidine nucleobases (cytosine, uracil, and thymine); nucleosides (uridine, guanosine, adenosine and cytidine); as well as novel nucleosides/tides in edible and nonedible mushrooms. This review also discusses the latest research focusing on the successes, challenges, and future perspectives of the analytical methods used to determine nucleic acid constituents in mushrooms. Besides, the exotic taste and flavor of edible mushrooms are attributed to several nonvolatile and water-soluble substances, including the 5'-nucleotides. Therefore, we also discuss the total flavor 5'-nucleotides: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP), 5'-inosine monophosphate (5'-IMP), and 5'-xanthosine monophosphate (5'-XMP) in edible mushrooms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  3. Zakaria A, Jais MR, Ishak R
    J Nat Sci Biol Med, 2018 Jan-Jun;9(1):23-26.
    PMID: 29456388 DOI: 10.4103/jnsbm.JNSBM_131_17
    Background: This study investigates the analgesic properties of the aqueous extracts ofNigella sativa and Eucheuma cottoniiin mice. The analgesic properties of both extracts were evaluated in an experimental model of acetic acid-induced writhing test.

    Materials and Methods: The mice were divided into four different groups and received the test extracts and the standard drug (aspirin) for 14 days via force-feeding. On day 15, the mice were injected with 5% acetic acid, and the number of abdominal constriction and elongation of hind limb (writhes) were counted for 20 min.

    Results: The numbers of writhes were counted starting after 5 min of the acetic acid injection. TheN. sativaextracts significantly reduced the number of writhes as compared to the control group. Both of the extracts revealed a comparable result as referred to the aspirin effects in the mice.

    Conclusions: These findings indicate thatN. sativaandE. cottoniimay possess protective active constituent that is effective in reducing the sensation of pain in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  4. Ahmad H, Ong SQ, Tan EH
    Int J Insect Sci, 2019;11:1179543318823533.
    PMID: 30675104 DOI: 10.1177/1179543318823533
    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is one of the best-known diets for the swiftlet. Previous studies have addressed the problem of some mass rearing conditions for this insect; unfortunately, the details of the nutritional composition of the life stages and cost of the breeding materials were insufficiently reported, even though this information is crucial for farming the edible-nest swiftlet. We aimed to investigate the nutritional composition of the life stages of M scalaris on a cost basis using 3 common commercial breeding materials: chicken pellets (CPs), fish pellets (FPs), and mouse pellets (MPs). Modified Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) proximate and mineral analyses were carried out on the insect's third instar larvae, pupal, and adult stages to determine the nutritional composition. Regardless of the breeding materials, the adult stage of M scalaris had significantly higher crude protein than the other stages; the pupae were rich in calcium, which is required for egg production; and the third instar larvae had the highest amount of crude fat compared with the other stages. Regarding the energy content, there were no significant differences among the stages according to the breeding materials. In terms of nutritional cost, CP was the most economic breeding material and generated the highest amount of nutrients per US dollar (US $). Different life stages of M scalaris were used by the swiftlets by supplying the required nutrients, and future studies should focus on effective diet feeding methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  5. Siti F. Masre, Muzamir, M.K, Sabarina, I., Jehan, N., Yanti Rosli
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2018;16(101):41-45.
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of argan oil with the exposure of low frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) on open wound healing in mice. Eighteen male mice (20-40 g) were divided into three groups: phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as negative control, solcoseryl gel as positive control, and argan oil with the exposure of low frequency EMF, 1.2 mT (treatment group). Full thickness wounds (4 mm diameter) were induced on the shaved dorsal of the mouse. All mice were sacrificed on day 12 after the final treatment. Macroscopic observation, wound contraction rate, histopathology analysis and total protein content were examined in this study. Results showed that wounds treated with argan oil and exposed to low frequency EMF has a significant increase in wound contraction rate (p < 0.05) and total protein content (p < 0.05). Moreover, histopathological analysis on the wound tissues displayed complete re-epithelization with thick and dense collagen fibers in the argan oil with low frequency EMF exposure treated group. In conclusion, topical treatment of argan oil with low frequency EMF exposure yield a better healing progress and showed the ability to accelerate wound healing
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  6. Rajaratanam DD, Ariffin H, Hassan MA, Nik Abd Rahman NMA, Nishida H
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(6):e0199742.
    PMID: 29944726 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199742
    In order to clarify the in vitro cytotoxicity effect of superheated steam (SHS) treated poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) for biomaterial applications, SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoester samples: P(HB-co-6%-HHx) and P(HB-co-11%-HHx) with low and high percentages of unsaturated chain ends were evaluated for their cytotoxicity effects toward the growth of mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3. From the results obtained after 24 and 48 h of the growth test, the SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoesters were found to be nontoxic to the growth of mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cell line with cell viability percentages of more than 95%. In order to serve as a potential resorbable medical suture, PHBHHx oligoesters were blended with poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with a weight ratio of PHBHHx oligoester/PLLA = 20:80 (wt/wt) to improve mechanical properties of PHBHHx oligoesters. The PHBHHx oligoesters/PLLA blend films were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, and surface wetting properties. Thermal properties of the blend films suggested a good compatibility between PHBHHx oligoesters and PLLA components. Mechanical properties of the blend films were determined to be close enough to a desirable strength range of medical sutures. Moreover, contact angle range of 65 < θ < 70° for the blend samples could provide desirable cell adhesion when used as biomaterials. Therefore, the blend of SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoesters and PLLA would be an ideal choice to be used as biomedical materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  7. Mason VC, Helgen KM, Murphy WJ
    J. Hered., 2019 Mar 05;110(2):158-172.
    PMID: 30247638 DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esy046
    The evolutionary history of the colugo, a gliding arboreal mammal distributed throughout Sundaland, was influenced by the location of and connections between forest habitats. By comparing colugo phylogenetic patterns, species ecology, sample distributions, and times of divergence to those of other Sundaic taxa with different life-history traits and dispersal capabilities, we inferred the probable distribution of paleo-forest corridors and their influence on observed biogeographic patterns. We identified a consistent pattern of early diversification between east and west Bornean lineages in colugos, lesser mouse deer, and Sunda pangolins, but not in greater mouse deer. This deep east-west split within Borneo has not been commonly described in mammals. Colugos on West Borneo diverged from colugos in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra in the late Pliocene, however most other mammalian populations distributed across these same geographic regions diverged from a common ancestor more recently in the Pleistocene. Low genetic divergence between colugos on large landmasses and their neighboring satellite islands indicated that past forest distributions were recently much larger than present refugial distributions. Our analysis of colugo evolutionary history reconstructs Borneo as the most likely ancestral area of origin for Sunda colugos, and suggests that forests present during the middle Pliocene within the Sunda Shelf were more evergreen and contiguous, while forests were more fragmented, transient, seasonal, or with lower density canopies in the Pleistocene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  8. Nurhidanatasha Abu Bakar, Zainal Abidin Abu Hasan, Nurul Izza Nordin, Bohari Mohamad Yamin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2007;36:39-44.
    Ferrocene plays an important role in chemistry and industry. The structure and bonding discovered in ferrocene has led to new developments in organometallic chemistry, and the discovery of entirely new organometallic compounds. The high stability of this compound is also related to its interesting electrochemical properties that makes it effective electrochemical, reduction and combustion catalysts. Nevertheless, ferrocenyl derivatives are also capable of enhancing the activity of certain biological compounds. Indeed, recently ferrocene and its derivatives have been incorporated into antimalarial agents. Therefore, the evaluation of the possible toxic effects of ferrocene derivative called ferrocenium tetrachloroantimonate (C10H10FeSbCl4 or FC) on acute and subchronic toxicity tests using different dose concentrations according to the body weight for different time interval was carried out in an in vivo model. Results showed that FC was acutely toxic with the LD50 value of 194.70 mg/kg body weight (BW) with signs of toxicity associated with respiratory depression. In the 28-day acute toxicity test, the dose of 100 mg/kg BW resulted in 60 % mortality with signs of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effects or abnormal behaviors during the 28 days observation. While in the 90-day subchronic toxicity test at the lower dose of 10 mg/kg BW, however, showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mortality rates, and showed no sign of toxicity. These results indicated that FC had different toxicity levels, and mice appeared to tolerate well at the lower dose of 10 mg/kg BW.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  9. Polat OK, Uno M, Maruyama T, Tran HN, Imamura K, Wong CF, et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2019 Sep;30(9):1587-1603.
    PMID: 31266820 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2018070756
    BACKGROUND: TRPC6 is a nonselective cation channel, and mutations of this gene are associated with FSGS. These mutations are associated with TRPC6 current amplitude amplification and/or delay of the channel inactivation (gain-of-function phenotype). However, the mechanism of the gain-of-function in TRPC6 activity has not yet been clearly solved.

    METHODS: We performed electrophysiologic, biochemical, and biophysical experiments to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying calmodulin (CaM)-mediated Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of TRPC6. To address the pathophysiologic contribution of CDI, we assessed the actin filament organization in cultured mouse podocytes.

    RESULTS: Both lobes of CaM helped induce CDI. Moreover, CaM binding to the TRPC6 CaM-binding domain (CBD) was Ca2+-dependent and exhibited a 1:2 (CaM/CBD) stoichiometry. The TRPC6 coiled-coil assembly, which brought two CBDs into adequate proximity, was essential for CDI. Deletion of the coiled-coil slowed CDI of TRPC6, indicating that the coiled-coil assembly configures both lobes of CaM binding on two CBDs to induce normal CDI. The FSGS-associated TRPC6 mutations within the coiled-coil severely delayed CDI and often increased TRPC6 current amplitudes. In cultured mouse podocytes, FSGS-associated channels and CaM mutations led to sustained Ca2+ elevations and a disorganized cytoskeleton.

    CONCLUSIONS: The gain-of-function mechanism found in FSGS-causing mutations in TRPC6 can be explained by impairments of the CDI, caused by disruptions of TRPC's coiled-coil assembly which is essential for CaM binding. The resulting excess Ca2+ may contribute to structural damage in the podocytes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  10. Amran EN, Sudik S, Omar AF, Mail MH, Seeni A
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2019 Sep;27:380-384.
    PMID: 31301437 DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.07.006
    The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between the color changes of phenol red and the growth of cancer cells, i.e., HeLa and DU145 cells, over a specific period of time. Normal mouse skin fibroblasts (L929 cells) were used as a reference. In this research, the color changes of phenol red due to the acidification of the cell culture medium from the growth of the cells over a period of nine hours showed potential colorimetric characteristics of cancer cells. The color changes of phenol red were observed using visible absorbance spectroscopy. The transformation of the absorbance spectra into coefficients of determination against the examined range of wavelengths created a distinctive spectral signature that signifies phenol red discoloration in cancer and normal cell culture lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  11. Bakshi HA, Mishra V, Satija S, Mehta M, Hakkim FL, Kesharwani P, et al.
    Inflammation, 2019 Aug 03.
    PMID: 31377947 DOI: 10.1007/s10753-019-01065-3
    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors are shown to be protective in several models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, these non-selective inhibitors are known to inhibit all the three isoforms of PHD, i.e. PHD-1, PHD-2 and PHD-3. In the present report, we investigated the associated changes in levels of PHDs during the development and recovery of chemically induced colitis in mice. The results indicated that in the experimental model of murine colitis, levels of both, PHD-1 and PHD-2 were found to be increased with the progression of the disease; however, the level of PHD-3 remained the same in group of healthy controls and mice with colitis. Thus, the findings advocated that inhibitors, which inhibited all three isoforms of PHD could not be ideal therapeutics for IBD since PHD-3 is required for normal gut function. Hence, this necessitates the development of new compounds capable of selectively inhibiting PHD-1 and PHD-2 for effective treatment of IBD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  12. Lim CL, Ling KH, Cheah PS
    J Biol Methods, 2018;5(1):e87.
    PMID: 31453240 DOI: 10.14440/jbm.2018.219
    Satellite cells are myogenic cells responsible for muscle growth shortly after birth and muscle repair/regeneration during adulthood. Therapies based on satellite cells hold promise for treating muscular dysfunctions. Studying satellite cells is technically challenging owing to their low abundance, small size and anatomical dispersed location between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of myofibers. In this article, we present three improved protocol strategies for studying the properties of satellite cells of the mouse during the different stages of muscle regeneration: (1) immunostaining of freshly isolated single myofibers to facilitate the study of quiescent satellite cells, (2) cultivation of single myofibers on Matrigel®-coated dish to study the myogenesis programs initiated by satellite cell activation, and (3) cultivation of single myofibers in floating conditions to analyze activated satellite cells or the doubling time of satellite cells in myofibers. In brief, when compared to previously published protocols, this article presented an improved protocol that requires shorter experimental time and less laborious approach for higher yield of intact single myofibers for downstream analyses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  13. Sani MH, Taher M, Susanti D, Kek TL, Salleh MZ, Zakaria ZA
    Biol Res Nurs, 2015 Jan;17(1):68-77.
    PMID: 25504952 DOI: 10.1177/1099800414529648
    Elucidate the antinociceptive mechanisms of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia malaccensis Linn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  14. Radford R, Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier A, Wong MB, Eaton ED, Quilty M, Blizzard C, et al.
    Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 2015 Mar;65:68-81.
    PMID: 25731829 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2015.02.015
    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) exhibits widespread astrogliosis together with α-synuclein (α-syn) glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in mature oligodendrocytes. We quantified astrocyte activation by morphometric analysis of MSA cases, and investigated the correlation to GCI proximity. Using Imaris software, we obtained "skinned" three-dimensional models of GFAP-positive astrocytes in MSA and control tissue (n=75) from confocal z-stacks and measured the astrocyte process length and thickness and radial distance to the GCI. Astrocytes proximal to GCI-containing oligodendrocytes (r<25μm) had significantly (p, 0.05) longer and thicker processes characteristic of activation than distal astrocytes (r>25μm), with a reciprocal linear correlation (m, 90μm(2)) between mean process length and radial distance to the nearest GCI (R(2), 0.7). In primary cell culture studies, α-syn addition caused ERK-dependent activation of rat astrocytes and perinuclear α-syn inclusions in mature (MOSP-positive) rat oligodendrocytes. Activated astrocytes were also observed in close proximity to α-syn deposits in a unilateral rotenone-lesion mouse model. Moreover, unilateral injection of MSA tissue-derived α-syn into the mouse medial forebrain bundle resulted in widespread neuroinflammation in the α-syn-injected, but not sham-injected hemisphere. Taken together, our data suggests that the action of localized concentrations of α-syn may underlie both astrocyte and oligodendrocyte MSA pathological features.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  15. Pandey M, Mohamad N, Amin MC
    Mol. Pharm., 2014 Oct 6;11(10):3596-608.
    PMID: 25157890 DOI: 10.1021/mp500337r
    The objective of this study is to synthesize and evaluate acute toxicity of the bacterial cellulose (BC)/acrylamide (Am) hydrogels as noncytotoxic and biocompatible oral drug delivery vehicles. A novel series of solubilized BC/Am hydrogels were synthesized using a microwave irradiation method. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), swelling ratio, porosity, drug release, and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility experiments. FTIR spectra revealed that the BC crystallinity and gel fraction decreased as the NaOH concentration increased from 2% to 10% w/v, whereas the optical transparency, pH sensitivity, and porosity were enhanced with increasing alkali concentration. Theophylline was used as a model drug for drug loading and release studies. The percentage of drug released was higher at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.5. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolytic tests indicated that the BC/Am hydrogel is noncytotoxic and hemocompatible. Results of acute oral toxicity tests on ICR mice suggested that the hydrogels are nontoxic up to 2000 mg/kg when administered orally, as no toxic response or histopathological changes were observed in comparison to control mice. The results of this study demonstrated that the pH-sensitive smart hydrogel makes it a possible safe carrier for oral drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  16. Muthuraju S, Islam MR, Pati S, Jaafar H, Abdullah JM, Yusoff KM
    Int. J. Neurosci., 2015;125(9):686-92.
    PMID: 25180987 DOI: 10.3109/00207454.2014.961065
    Dopamine (DA) is one of the key neurotransmitters in the striatum, which is functionally important for a variety of cognitive and motor behaviours. It is known that the striatum is vulnerable to damage from traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, a therapeutic approach has not yet been established to treat TBI. Hence, the present work aimed to evaluate the ability of Normobaric hyperoxia treatment (NBOT) to recover dopaminergic neurons following a fluid percussion injury (FPI) as a TBI experimental animal model. To examine this, mice were divided into four groups: (i) Control, (ii) Sham, (iii) FPI and (iv) FPI+NBOT. Mice were anesthetized and surgically prepared for FPI in the striatum and immediate exposure to NBOT at various time points (3, 6, 12 and 24 h). Dopamine levels were then estimated post injury by utilizing a commercially available ELISA method specific to DA. We found that DA levels were significantly reduced at 3 h, but there was no reduction at 6, 12 and 24 h in FPI groups when compared to the control and sham groups. Subjects receiving NBOT showed consistent increased DA levels at each time point when compared with Sham and FPI groups. These results suggest that FPI may alter DA levels at the early post-TBI stages but not in later stages. While DA levels increased in 6, 12 and 24 h in the FPI groups, NBOT could be used to accelerate the prevention of early dopaminergic neuronal damage following FPI injury and improve DA levels consistently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  17. Dups J, Middleton D, Long F, Arkinstall R, Marsh GA, Wang LF
    Virol. J., 2014;11:102.
    PMID: 24890603 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-11-102
    Nipah virus and Hendra virus are closely related and following natural or experimental exposure induce similar clinical disease. In humans, encephalitis is the most serious outcome of infection and, hitherto, research into the pathogenesis of henipavirus encephalitis has been limited by the lack of a suitable model. Recently we reported a wild-type mouse model of Hendra virus (HeV) encephalitis that should facilitate detailed investigations of its neuropathogenesis, including mechanisms of disease recrudescence. In this study we investigated the possibility of developing a similar model of Nipah virus encephalitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred C57BL
  18. Yeap SK, Beh BK, Ali NM, Mohd Yusof H, Ho WY, Koh SP, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:694842.
    PMID: 24877129 DOI: 10.1155/2014/694842
    Mung bean has been traditionally used to alleviate heat stress. This effect may be contributed by the presence of flavonoids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). On the other hand, fermentation and germination have been practised to enhance the nutritional and antioxidant properties of certain food products. The main focus of current study was to compare the antistress effect of none-process, fermented and germinated mung bean extracts. Acute and chronic restraint stresses were observed to promote the elevation of serum biochemical markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, liver enzymes, and glucose. Chronic cold restraint stress was observed to increase the adrenal gland weight, brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while reducing brain antioxidant enzyme level. However, these parameters were found reverted in mice treated with diazepam, high concentration of fermented mung bean and high concentration of germinated mung bean. Moreover, enhanced level of antioxidant on the chronic stress mice was observed in fermented and germinated mung bean treated groups. In comparison between germinated and fermented mung bean, fermented mung bean always showed better antistress and antioxidant effects throughout this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  19. Leong PK, Tan CH, Sim SM, Fung SY, Sumana K, Sitprija V, et al.
    Acta Trop., 2014 Apr;132:7-14.
    PMID: 24384454 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.12.015
    Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in many rural areas of Asia and Africa. Antivenom has hitherto been the definite treatment for snake envenomation. Owing to a lack of local production of specific antivenom, most countries in these regions fully depend on foreign supplies of antivenoms. Often, the effectiveness of the imported antivenoms against local medically important species has not been validated. This study aimed to assess cross-neutralizing capacity of a recently developed polyvalent antivenom, Hemato Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (HPAV), against venoms of a common viper and some pit vipers from Southeast Asia. Neutralisation assays showed that HPAV was able to effectively neutralize lethality of the common Southeast Asian viperid venoms examined (Calloselasma, Crytelytrops, Popeia, and Daboia sp.) except for Tropidolaemus wagleri venom. HPAV also effectively neutralized the procoagulant and hemorrhagic activities of all the venoms examined, corroboratively supporting the capability of HPAV in neutralizing viperid venoms which are principally hematoxic. The study also indicated that HPAV fully prevented the occurrence of hematuria and proteinuria in mice envenomed with Thai Daboia siamensis venom but was only partially effective against venoms of Myanmar D. siamensis. Thus, HPAV appears to be useful against its homologous venoms and venoms from Southeast Asian viperids including several medically important pit vipers belonging to the Trimeresurus complex. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of HPAV as a paraspecific antivenom for treatment of viperid envenomation in Southeast Asian region requires further assessment from future clinical trials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  20. Fazalul Rahiman SS, Basir R, Talib H, Tie TH, Chuah YK, Jabbarzare M, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Dec;30(4):663-80.
    PMID: 24522137 MyJurnal
    Interleukin-27 (IL-27) has a pleiotropic role either as a pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokine in inflammatory related diseases. The role and involvement of IL-27 during malaria was investigated and the effects of modulating its release on the production of major inflammatory cytokines and the histopathological consequences in major affected organs during the infection were evaluated. Results showed that IL-27 concentration was significantly elevated throughout the infection but no positive correlation with the parasitaemia development observed. Augmentation of IL-27 significantly elevated the release of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 whereas antagonising and neutralising IL-27 produced the opposite. A significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-6) was also observed, both during augmentation and inhibition of IL-27. Thus, it is suggested that IL-27 exerts an anti-inflammatory activity in the Th1 type response by signalling the production of IL-10 during malaria. Histopathological examination showed sequestration of PRBC in the microvasculature of major organs in malarial mice. Other significant histopathological changes include hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the Kupffer cells in the liver, hyaline membrane formation in lung tissue, enlargement of the white and red pulp followed by the disappearance of germinal centre of the spleen, and tubular vacuolation of the kidney tissues. In conclusion, it is suggested that IL-27 may possibly acts as an anti-inflammatory cytokine during the infection. Modulation of its release produced a positive impact on inflammatory cytokine production during the infection, suggesting its potential in malaria immunotherapy, in which the host may benefit from its inhibition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
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