The study was conducted to create specific formulae for stature estimation of adult male population in Malaysia based on measurements of femur, tibia and fibula lengths using radiographic method. A number of thirty two Malaysians from hospitals involved as subjects in this study. The subjects were Malays (14), Chinese (8) and Indians (10) from 25-45 years old. The standing height of the subject was recorded before femur, tibia and fibula were scanned with an x-ray
machine. The bones length was measured on the x-ray film in centimetres (cm) and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 for Windows. The results showed a significant relationship (p < 0.05) between stature and measurements of length of femur, tibia and fibula. Stature of Malays and Indians were significant (p < 0.05) with measurements of length of femur, tibia and fibula but insignificant in Chinese. Simple Linear Regression Analysis was used to derive regression equation for single bone and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was used to derive regression equation for combination of femur, tibia and fibula. Six formulae for stature estimation of adult male population in Malaysia were derived. The formulae consist of three formulae for single bone, a formulae for combination bones with unknown race, a formulae for combination bones of Malays population and a formulae for combination bones of Indians population. Formulae for combination bones had the highest correlation coefficient compared to the formula using a single bone. Standard error was found to be high in all the formulae due to small sample size. Extension for this study is essential to provide Malaysia with accurate formulae.
Polyphenol is a non-nutrient phytochemical compound existed abundantly in plant-based diet which has the properties to prevent age related oxidative damage induced diseases. However, there are difficulties in quantifying its intake and local food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment is not available. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate FFQ for estimation of dietary polyphenol intake among 93 individuals aged 60 years and above recruited from several senior citizen clubs in Klang Valley. Phase I of the study involved the development of FFQ consisted of 117 items under 9 categories and formation of the database extracted from PHENOL-EXPLORER. In Phase II, the intake of polyphenol estimated using FFQ was compared with reference method consisted of 2-day diet records and diet history questionnaire (DHQ). The mean dietary polyphenol intake estimated from FFQ and the reference method was 2770.7 ± 1552.4 mg/d and 2171.4 ± 898.8 mg/d, respectively. Spearman’s rho and Kendall’s tau-b analysis indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between polyphenol intake estimated from FFQ and reference method (r = 0.41, p < 0.001; r = 0.28, p < 0.001). For Bland-Altman plot, 95.7% of scattered plot fell within ± 1.96 SD limits of agreement revealed that there was good agreement between the two methods used. Cross-classifi cation analysis showed that 36.6% was categorized in the same quartile, 78.5% in identical and contiguous quartiles, with only 3.2% in the opposite quartiles. Regression analysis showed that all categories in FFQ signifi cantly account for the inter-variance for dietary polyphenol intake after controlling for the other variables (R2 = 1.000, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the newly developed FFQ is considered valid and has the potential to be used as a tool to estimate polyphenol intake among elderly individuals in Malaysia.
This study examines the level of quality initiatives commitment among public hospital managers and its determinants in view of limited study :0 date and a decline in self-initiated quality initiatives activities in Sarawak, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional study with universal sampling method conducted in all the Z1 public iwspimls in Sarawak. The study population were the senior, middle and lower level managers. The research wal was self-administered structured questionnaire. A total of 382 managers responded, corresponding ta a response irate of 8 7. 2%. As a complement, four focus group discussions were conducted, consisting 31 participants. It was found that the level of quality initiatives commitment 0f managers was generally high (mecm= 4.23, SD=O.45). The regression analysis indicated that empowerment, communication and procedural justice (promotion) accounted for 38.9%, 346% and 1.2% respectively of the variation in commitment level. Dissatisfaction with resources, top management commitment and peer influence are among others being identified by participants of focus groups as important determinants of quality initiatives commitment. It is strongly recommended that there should be greater empowerment of hospital managers, more structured and effective communication, greater transparency in procedure for promotion and commitment of resources to quality efforts.
Objective: Literatures on factors influencing performance of the Stroop interference have been elusive on coping styles. Past investigations of coping influence on Stroop test have been indirect and inconclusive due to variability of multidimensional coping models and application of different Stroop test. The concept of constricted versus flexible or broad cognitive style have linked personality and coping styles to Stroop performance. The objective of this study was to determine the associations of coping styles with Stroop resistance towards interference (Stroop RI) and subsequently determine the predictors of Stroop performance. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community research design study with purposive sampling. In this study, the self-administered Brief COPE inventory questionnaires and Stroop Test were performed among 205 undergraduate medical students. Results: Findings revealed that behavioural disengagement (r=-0.361), dysfunctional coping (r=-0.355), self-blame (r = 0.222), and substance abuse (r = -0.173) showed negative correlation and proven strong association with Stroop RI. Further multiple regression analyses identified behavioural disengagement (R2 = 0.13), and dysfunctional coping (R2 = 0.024) as significant predictors for interference. Conclusion: Coping styles have implication on Stroop test exhibited in varied cognitive styles. Integrating coping styles factor on Stroop test has glimpsed the future direction of other neuropsychological assessment batteries on the importance of profiling individualistic baseline norms. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 16 (1): January – June 2015: XX XX.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DVDdelivered mindfulness-based intervention for reducing stress among medical students in a Malaysian university. Methods: A total of 76 medical students participated in the intervention program (Mindful-Gym DVD). They were stratified according to year of studies and randomly allocated to intervention (N = 38) and control groups (N = 38). The following outcome variables were measured at pre- and post-intervention: mindfulness (with Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS); perceived stress (with Perceived Stress Scale, PSS); mental distress (with Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, DASS); and self-efficacy (with General Selfefficacy Scale, GSE). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the effect of group (Intervention vs. Control) on changes in the outcome variables. Results: One week after the intervention, participants in the intervention group reported significantly greater improvements with small to medium effect sizes in self-reported levels of mindfulness (β =0.19, ∆R2= 0.04, p = 0.028, f2= 0.07), perceived stress (β = -0.25, ∆R2=0.06, p = 0.006, f2= 0.11), mental distress (β = -0.27, ∆R2= 0.07, p =0.003, f2= 0.13), and self-efficacy (β = 0.27, ∆R2= 0.07, p = 0.003, f2= 0.13), compared to participants in the control group. The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve ‘normal’ levels of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms (as indicated by the DASS scores) were 5, 8, and 6 respectively. Conclusions: This study found that the DVD-delivered mindfulness-based program is potentially a labour- and cost-effective and easily accessible stress reduction program for medical students.
Smoking among school children is becoming a serious problem in developing countries, including Bangladesh. The early initiation of smoking needs urgent intervention to protect this vulnerable group and preventing them to be addicted. This study aims to determine the age at initiation of smoking and factors affecting it. A two-stage cluster sampling was used with a selection of schools on probability proportional to enrolment size followed by stratified random sampling of government and private schools and then a random start in classes VIII, IX and X of each school targeting the students aged 13 years and above. Data collected from secondary school students using self-administered structured questionnaire. All analyses were performed with SPSS version 20.0. Missing value was treated by multiple imputations. A total of 6877 data were analysed in which 84.7% were non-smoker, 9.5% were ever smoker and 5.8% were current smokers. Among the ever smoker (n=823), 38% were current smokers, 56.5% former and 5.5% were recent quitters. The mean (SD) age at initiation of smoking was 10.9 (0.2) years. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that class grade, peer pressure and offered free cigarette appeared to be significant predictors of smoking initiation (p0.05). Promotion of smoking resistance skills among children and teens through comprehensive approaches designed to enhance general personal competence by teaching an array of personal and social life skills is recommended.
Introduction: Each year, more than 20 million people are injured and 1.17 million are killed due to road
trafﬁ c accidents. Developing countries account for over 85% of the deaths, and close to 90% of the disability caused by road trafﬁ c crashes worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice and the factors inﬂ uencing university students in Malaysia concerning road trafﬁc accident. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among the students of Management and Science University, Malaysia. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to the students of the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13, T-test and ANOVA. Results: The total number of 109 students with the mean age of 20.94±1.89 years participated in this study. Approximately 39 (35.7%) of the participant had been involved in one or more than one road trafﬁ c accident. About 93.6% of them were very strongly/strongly convinced of seat belts importance. Multivariate analysis using the multiple linear regression method showed that age and attitude were signiﬁ cantly associated with the exposure to the accident. Conclusion: The study participants had moderate knowledge about road trafﬁc regulations and most of them mentioned that high speed, drivers’ lack of awareness about trafﬁ c regulation and laws, and drivers’ non-compliance with trafﬁ c rules and regulation were the most important cause of road trafﬁc accidents. Almost all students were very strongly/strongly convinced of seatbelts importance. Age and attitude were signiﬁ cantly associated with the exposure to the accident.
Introduction: A number of researches suggest smoking serves as a form of self-medication to reduce the side effects of antipsychotic medications, to alleviate negative symptoms, and/or to ameliorate a number of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of cigarette smoking with verbal working memory and psychopathology of patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Fifty-three patients with schizophrenia were assessed by a single rater using the Malay Version of Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MVAVLT) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Smokers (n=30) were compared with nonsmokers (n=23) on socio-demographic, clinical, psychopathology and verbal memory variables. Single linear and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine factors associated with verbal memory performance.
Results: Verbal working memory performance is associated with lower number of admission to ward, lesser severity of the negative symptoms or general psychopathology of schizophrenia and use of atypical antipsychotics in all schizophrenic subjects. Smokers with schizophrenia scored higher than non- smoker in measures that reflect immediate memory, delayed recall and recognition memory. However, the association between verbal working
memory performance and smoking status was found to be not significant. Conclusion: Verbal working memory performance is associated with negative symptoms but not positive symptoms. This study failed to detect association of smoking on verbal working memory.
Prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) are essential for the study of rare samples such as meteorites because of non-destructivity and relatively being free from contaminations. The objective of this research is to utilize PGA and INAA techniques for comparative study and apply them to meteorite analyses. In this study, 11 meteorite samples received from the Meteorite Working Group of NASA were analyzed. The Allende meteorite powder was included as quality control material. Results from PGA and INAA for Allende showed in good agreement with literature values, signifying the reliabilities of these two methods. Elements Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na and Ti were determined by both methods and their results are compared. Comparison of PGA and INAA data using linear regression analysis showed correlations coefficients r2 > 0.90 for Al, Ca, Mn and Ti, 0.85 for Mg, and 0.38 for Na. The PGA results for Na using 472 keV were less accurate due to the interference from the broad B peak. Therefore, Na results from INAA method are preferred. For other elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Ti), PGA and INAA results can be used as cross-reference for consistency. The PGA and INAA techniques have been applied to meteorite samples and results are comparable to literature values compiled from previously analyzed meteorites. In summary, both PGA and INAA methods give reasonably good agreement and are indispensable in the study of meteorites.
A longitudinal study was conducted to relate basal metabolic rate (BMR) with growth during adolescence. Subjects comprise 70 boys and 69 girls aged between ten and thirteen years at the time of recruitment. Parameters studied include anthropometric measurements and BMR, which was measured by indirect calorimetry using the Deltatrac metabolic monitor. Measurements were carried out serially once every six months, with a total of 713 BMR data points collected over three years. Mean BMR of boys aged 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were 4.96 Â± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.28 Â± 0.71 MJ/day, 5.73 Â± 0.68 MJ/day and 5.92 Â± 0.63 MJ/day, respectively; while mean BMR of girls in the 10, 11, 12 and 13 year age groups were 4.96 Â± 0.63 MJ/day, 4.85 Â± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.05 Â± 0.55 MJ/day and 4.94 Â± 0.51 MJ/day, respectively. Comparison of measured BMR with BMR values predicted from the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations shows that the predictive equations overestimated the BMR of Malaysian boys by 3% and that of girls by 5%. The Henry & Rees (1991) equations for populations in the tropics underestimated BMR of boys and girls by 1% and 2%, respectively. Linear regression equations to predict BMR based on body weight were derived according to sex and age groups. It is recommended that these predictive equations be used for the estimation of BMR of Malaysian adolescents.
Introduction : Stress is part of our life. It can happen anywhere including in medical school. Medical school is perceived as being stressful because their difficulties in education, longest period of study and dealing with the patients. Stress can be perceive as negative or positive. Coping strategies are the method that we can use to prevent stress when it comes to us. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of stress and coping strategies among of medical students in National University of Malaysia, Malaysia University of Sabah and Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak.
Methods : This study involved 450 medical students through stratified sampling in which 150 medical students from each of the three universities. This study was conducted through self administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included were socio demographic factor, Personal Stress Inventory (using Stress Symptoms Scale with 52 items), BRIEF COPE (Coping Orientation for Problems Experienced with 28 items). The determination of cut off point for stress symptoms score was using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve.
Results : Response rate was 90.8%. The prevalence of stress among medical students were 44.1%. The contributory factors to the stress were financial problems, stress of up coming examination period, relationship problems with parents, peers, siblings and lecturers. Coping mechanisms which had significant association with stress includes self distraction, venting of emotion, denial, behavioral disengagement, humor and self blaming. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association (p
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is developed and used for detection of butter adulteration with lard. Butter has the similar characteristics to lard makes lard a desirable adulterant in butter. DSC provides unique thermal profiling for lard and butter. In the heating thermogram of the mixture, there was one major endothermic peak (peak A) with a smaller shoulder peak embedded in the major peak that gradually smoothed out to the major peak as the lard percent increased. In the cooling thermogram, there were one minor peak (peak B) and two major exothermic peaks, peak C which increased as lard percent increased and peak D which decreased in size as the lard percent increased. From Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) analysis, two independent variables were found to be able to predict lard percent adulteration in butter with R2 (adjusted) of 95.82. The SMLR equation of lard percent adulteration in butter is 293.1 - 11.36 (Te A) - 2.17 (Tr D); where Te A is the endset of peak A and Tr D is the range of thermal transition for peak D. These parameters can serve as a good measurement parameter in detecting lard adulteration in butter. DSC is a very useful means for halal screening technique to enhance the authenticity of Halal process.
Athletes are a special group of consumers whose specific diet requirement is important during training and competition to ensure their success. As commercial foodservice establishments are increasing involved in providing foods to this group of consumers on one hand and the lack of research investigating the athletes’ dining satisfaction, especially meeting their diet requirement on the other hand, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of nutritional factors in athletes’ dining satisfaction and the acceptance of various foods provided in an international sporting event. Following a stratified random sampling, 700 athletes were selected from the entire population of 1330 participants. The final usable sample size was 450 (64.3% response rate). Regression analysis revealed that overall service, overall food quality, grooming of server, and nutritional information tag significantly influence the overall dining satisfaction among athletes. In addition, nutritional value, menu variety, fat content, freshness, and taste were found as the most important determinant in almost all food categories. It is intriguing that meeting diet requirement is not a significant factor but nutritional information tag is. Important implications were discussed. Nutrition education is recommended for foodservice operators especially when they are involved in providing food for sporting events. It is advisable that an appointed specialized sport dietitian or nutritionist to a sporting event works together with the foodservice operators to ensure that the menu meets the nutritional requirement of athletes.
PURPOSE: Non-linear regression analysis was used to determine dark adaptation indices in people with retinitis pigmentosa and in control subjects.
METHODS: Dark adaptation data were collected for 13 people with retinitis pigmentosa and 21 controls using the Goldmann-Weekers Dark Adaptometer. Data were analysed using an exponential non-linear regression model and dark adaptation indices derived. The results were compared to age-related values.
RESULTS: The mean cone threshold of the group with RP (4.73 +/- 0.19 log units) was significantly greater than that found in the control group (3.69 +/- 0.12 log units). The rate of cone dark adaptation in the RP group was not significantly different from that of the control group. The a break in the RP group (6.46 +/- 0.70 minutes) was delayed when compared to the control group (4.29 +/- 0.21 minutes) and the rate of rod dark adaptation in the RP group was slower (10 +/- 2 per cent per minute) than that of the control group (15 +/- 1 per cent per minute).
CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that a relatively simple data analysis can provide a more quantitative and intuitive description of dark adaptation rates in people with retinal disease. This technique will enable more effective use of dark adaptometry as a supplement to objective electrophysiology, when monitoring people with retinitis pigmentosa.
Study site: Retinitis Pigmentosa Society of NSW, the National Foundation of Blind Citizens in New South Wales and the Low Vision Clinic of the School of Optometry University of NSW, Australia
Previous studies on individual differences in mathematical abilities have shown that working memory contributes to early arithmetic performance. In this study, we extended the investigation to algebraic word problem solving. A total of 151 10-year-olds were administered algebraic word problems and measures of working memory, intelligence quotient (IQ), and reading ability. Regression results were consistent with findings from the arithmetic literature showing that a literacy composite measure provided greater contribution than did executive function capacity. However, a series of path analyses showed that the overall contribution of executive function was comparable to that of literacy; the effect of executive function was mediated by that of literacy. Both the phonological loop and the visual spatial sketchpad failed to contribute directly; they contributed only indirectly by way of literacy and performance IQ, respectively.
The main aim of this article is to examine empirically the impact of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in Singapore from 1970 to 2015. The autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach is applied within the analysis. The main finding reveals a negative and significant impact of urbanization on carbon emissions in Singapore, which means that urban development in Singapore is not a barrier to the improvement of environmental quality. Thus, urbanization enhances environmental quality by reducing carbon emissions in the sample country. The result also highlighted that economic growth has a positive and significant impact on carbon emissions, which suggests that economic growth reduces environmental quality through its direct effect of increasing carbon emissions in the country. Despite the high level of urbanization in Singapore, which shows that 100 % of the populace is living in the urban center, it does not lead to more environmental degradation. Hence, urbanization will not be considered an obstacle when initiating policies that will be used to reduce environmental degradation in the country. Policy makers should consider the country's level of economic growth instead of urbanization when formulating policies to reduce environmental degradation, due to its direct impact on increasing carbon dioxide emissions.
To explore the association between social
support and stress levels in preclinical and clinical dental
students in Malaysia. Method: A cross sectional survey
of dental undergraduate students was conducted at the
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Stress was measured using the Dental Environment Stress
(DES) questionnaire. A DES-32 item was used to measure
stress for the clinical students and DES-16 item for the
preclinical students. Four questions were used to measure
social support. The total stress scores were standardized
for comparison purposes. Results: A total of 357 (79.7%)
preclinical and 417 (71.8%) clinical undergraduate dental
students responded to the questionnaires. The clinical
students experienced higher stress [mean standardized
DES score = 72.63, SD = 10.64] than preclinical students
[mean standardized DES score = 70.19, SD=12.01]. The
two most stressful items reported by preclinical students
were “fear of failing” and “examination and grades”.
Among clinical students, the two most stressful items related
to academic were “completing course requirement” and
“fear of failing course” and items related to clinical session
were “fear of being barred due to the clinical schedule”
and “patients late or absent”. Multiple regression analyses
revealed that low stress levels among preclinical students
were significantly associated to a lot of contact with
students of the same course. Conclusion: To some extent,
social support does play a role in explaining differences in
perceived stress, in particular among preclinical students.
The health benefits of breastfeeding to infants and mothers have been well recognised. This study applies linear regression analysis to assess the determinants of breastfeeding duration of first born using data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey. The proportion of women who breastfed their first child is 82 percent, of which 97 percent reported their breastfeeding duration. The distribution of breastfeeding duration has a mean of 5.7 months and a median of two months. Important determinants of breastfeeding duration include maternal age, ethnicity, period of first birth, husband's occupation and work status of the woman.
Introduction: This study aims to build a standardization method for preparation of effective powder from
FSA and to quantify diosgenin in FSA. Methodology: One kg of FS were used in this study. Setting: BMS, KOM
and KOP, IIUM Kuantan campus. FS were washed with distilled water to exclude any foreign matter, and
were then air dried. FS-powder were put in distilled water in a ratio of 1 g of powder in 20 ml of distilled
water and were shaken at room temperature for 24 hours. Ten mg of hydrolyzed extract sample was diluted
in 10 ml volumetric flask with methanol for 15 minutes. Chromatographic estimation was performed using
an equilibrated reverse phase Eclipse XDB-C18 column (particle size 5 µg, 4.6 mm x 150 mm). Results: One
gram of FSA extract was hydrolyzed to produce sapogenins and 46.6% was recovered. A calibration curve
that was constructed based on five dilutions of diosgenin standard at concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and
50 ppm produced a linear graft (r = 0.999). The concentration of diosgenin in FSA extract as calculated using
the regression analysis was found to be 29.66 µg/ml, 13.81 % w/w on dried weight basis. Conclusion:
Preparation and standardization of effective powder from FSA are the corner stone of many scientific
researches in IIUM and Malaysia. Diosgenin is available in the FSA in adequate concentration. The adequate
amount of diosgenin in the FSA will guide us to do further study in the way of preparation of a natural
product that can be used in the field of reversible anti-fertility therapy.
Most studies have examined the association of ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal discomfort in developed countries. Meanwhile the data are still lacking in developing countries such as Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between risk factors and musculoskeletal discomfort among manual material handling workers in Malaysian automotive industries. A total of211 manual material handling workers from automotive industries completed a set of questionnaire on the individual, physical and environmental factors and the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort. The Chi-Square test and logistics regression analysis were used to determine the relationship of the risk factors and musculoskeletal. The findings highlighted that job tenure was significantly correlated with musculoskeletal discomfort among the workers (OR=2.33-5.56). The most significant physical risk factor that was associated with musculoskeletal discomfort was bending the trunk forward slightly, hands above knee level, which was significantly related to lower back discomfort (OR=5.13, 95%CI=1.56-16.8), thigh discomfort (OR=5.1, 95%CI=1.01-25.53) and wrist discomfort (OR=3.65, 95%CI=1.06-12.53). Twisting of the trunk (over 45o) and bending sideways were significantly associated to lower back discomfort (OR=4.04, 95%CI=1.44-14.44), and thigh discomfort (OR=4.3, 95%CI=1.29-8.50). The findings also highlighted that environmental factors was associated with musculoskeletal discomfort (p < 0.05. Musculoskeletal discomfort can be reduced by lowering work-related risk factors among automotive manual material handling workers, particularly by focusing on significant factors, including job tenure, bending or twisting postures and environmental factors.