Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 372 in total

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  1. Suzana Shahar, Chiah, Hui Lin, Hasnah Haron
    MyJurnal
    Polyphenol is a non-nutrient phytochemical compound existed abundantly in plant-based diet which has the properties to prevent age related oxidative damage induced diseases. However, there are difficulties in quantifying its intake and local food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment is not available. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate FFQ for estimation of dietary polyphenol intake among 93 individuals aged 60 years and above recruited from several senior citizen clubs in Klang Valley. Phase I of the study involved the development of FFQ consisted of 117 items under 9 categories and formation of the database extracted from PHENOL-EXPLORER. In Phase II, the intake of polyphenol estimated using FFQ was compared with reference method consisted of 2-day diet records and diet history questionnaire (DHQ). The mean dietary polyphenol intake estimated from FFQ and the reference method was 2770.7 ± 1552.4 mg/d and 2171.4 ± 898.8 mg/d, respectively. Spearman’s rho and Kendall’s tau-b analysis indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between polyphenol intake estimated from FFQ and reference method (r = 0.41, p < 0.001; r = 0.28, p < 0.001). For Bland-Altman plot, 95.7% of scattered plot fell within ± 1.96 SD limits of agreement revealed that there was good agreement between the two methods used. Cross-classifi cation analysis showed that 36.6% was categorized in the same quartile, 78.5% in identical and contiguous quartiles, with only 3.2% in the opposite quartiles. Regression analysis showed that all categories in FFQ signifi cantly account for the inter-variance for dietary polyphenol intake after controlling for the other variables (R2 = 1.000, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the newly developed FFQ is considered valid and has the potential to be used as a tool to estimate polyphenol intake among elderly individuals in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  2. Hie, Ung Ngian, Jamsiah, M., Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Sharifa Ezat, W.P.
    MyJurnal
    This study examines the level of quality initiatives commitment among public hospital managers and its determinants in view of limited study :0 date and a decline in self-initiated quality initiatives activities in Sarawak, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional study with universal sampling method conducted in all the Z1 public iwspimls in Sarawak. The study population were the senior, middle and lower level managers. The research wal was self-administered structured questionnaire. A total of 382 managers responded, corresponding ta a response irate of 8 7. 2%. As a complement, four focus group discussions were conducted, consisting 31 participants. It was found that the level of quality initiatives commitment 0f managers was generally high (mecm= 4.23, SD=O.45). The regression analysis indicated that empowerment, communication and procedural justice (promotion) accounted for 38.9%, 346% and 1.2% respectively of the variation in commitment level. Dissatisfaction with resources, top management commitment and peer influence are among others being identified by participants of focus groups as important determinants of quality initiatives commitment. It is strongly recommended that there should be greater empowerment of hospital managers, more structured and effective communication, greater transparency in procedure for promotion and commitment of resources to quality efforts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  3. Low, C.Y., Hii, S.L., Leong, L.K., Yim, Y.Y., Tan, H.W.
    ASM Science Journal, 2012;6(1):61-66.
    MyJurnal
    Cassava starch was used as feedstock for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cassava starch was hydrolyzed using commercial α-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes followed by a batch ethanol fermentation process using saccharified starch slurry. By using 110 g/L of reducing sugar from saccharified starch slurry, the ethanol yield was promising with maximum ethanol concentration of 20.6 g/L recorded after 55 hours of cultivation process. Three different models - the Logistic model, Luedeking-Piret-like equation and Gompertz equation - were used to characterize and explain the cell growth, reducing sugar consumption and production formation, respectively. The kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the experimental data to the proposed models using non-linear regression analysis. The correlation coefficient r2 values for the Logistic model, Luedeking-Piret-like equation and the Gompertz equation were 0.994, 0.996 and 0.990, respectively. The high correlation coefficient values indicate that the proposed models were able to describe the ethanol fermentation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  4. Chang, Teo Yong, Nasir Yusoff, Begum, Tahamina
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2015;16(1):75-83.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: Literatures on factors influencing performance of the Stroop interference have been elusive on coping styles. Past investigations of coping influence on Stroop test have been indirect and inconclusive due to variability of multidimensional coping models and application of different Stroop test. The concept of constricted versus flexible or broad cognitive style have linked personality and coping styles to Stroop performance. The objective of this study was to determine the associations of coping styles with Stroop resistance towards interference (Stroop RI) and subsequently determine the predictors of Stroop performance. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community research design study with purposive sampling. In this study, the self-administered Brief COPE inventory questionnaires and Stroop Test were performed among 205 undergraduate medical students. Results: Findings revealed that behavioural disengagement (r=-0.361), dysfunctional coping (r=-0.355), self-blame (r = 0.222), and substance abuse (r = -0.173) showed negative correlation and proven strong association with Stroop RI. Further multiple regression analyses identified behavioural disengagement (R2 = 0.13), and dysfunctional coping (R2 = 0.024) as significant predictors for interference. Conclusion: Coping styles have implication on Stroop test exhibited in varied cognitive styles. Integrating coping styles factor on Stroop test has glimpsed the future direction of other neuropsychological assessment batteries on the importance of profiling individualistic baseline norms. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 16 (1): January – June 2015: XX XX.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  5. Phang, Cheng Kar, Firdaus Mukhtar, Normala Ibrahim, Keng, Shian-Ling, Sherina Mohd Sidik
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DVDdelivered mindfulness-based intervention for reducing stress among medical students in a Malaysian university. Methods: A total of 76 medical students participated in the intervention program (Mindful-Gym DVD). They were stratified according to year of studies and randomly allocated to intervention (N = 38) and control groups (N = 38). The following outcome variables were measured at pre- and post-intervention: mindfulness (with Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS); perceived stress (with Perceived Stress Scale, PSS); mental distress (with Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, DASS); and self-efficacy (with General Selfefficacy Scale, GSE). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the effect of group (Intervention vs. Control) on changes in the outcome variables. Results: One week after the intervention, participants in the intervention group reported significantly greater improvements with small to medium effect sizes in self-reported levels of mindfulness (β =0.19, ∆R2= 0.04, p = 0.028, f2= 0.07), perceived stress (β = -0.25, ∆R2=0.06, p = 0.006, f2= 0.11), mental distress (β = -0.27, ∆R2= 0.07, p =0.003, f2= 0.13), and self-efficacy (β = 0.27, ∆R2= 0.07, p = 0.003, f2= 0.13), compared to participants in the control group. The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve ‘normal’ levels of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms (as indicated by the DASS scores) were 5, 8, and 6 respectively. Conclusions: This study found that the DVD-delivered mindfulness-based program is potentially a labour- and cost-effective and easily accessible stress reduction program for medical students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  6. Mohalijah, M.A., Boo, H.C., Muhammad Shahrim, A.K., Ainul Zakiah, A.B.
    MyJurnal
    Athletes are a special group of consumers whose specific diet requirement is important during training and competition to ensure their success. As commercial foodservice establishments are increasing involved in providing foods to this group of consumers on one hand and the lack of research investigating the athletes’ dining satisfaction, especially meeting their diet requirement on the other hand, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of nutritional factors in athletes’ dining satisfaction and the acceptance of various foods provided in an international sporting event. Following a stratified random sampling, 700 athletes were selected from the entire population of 1330 participants. The final usable sample size was 450 (64.3% response rate). Regression analysis revealed that overall service, overall food quality, grooming of server, and nutritional information tag significantly influence the overall dining satisfaction among athletes. In addition, nutritional value, menu variety, fat content, freshness, and taste were found as the most important determinant in almost all food categories. It is intriguing that meeting diet requirement is not a significant factor but nutritional information tag is. Important implications were discussed. Nutrition education is recommended for foodservice operators especially when they are involved in providing food for sporting events. It is advisable that an appointed specialized sport dietitian or nutritionist to a sporting event works together with the foodservice operators to ensure that the menu meets the nutritional requirement of athletes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  7. Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Arieff, S.R., Rohman, A., Amin, I., Shuhaimi, M., Khatib, A.
    MyJurnal
    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is developed and used for detection of butter adulteration with lard. Butter has the similar characteristics to lard makes lard a desirable adulterant in butter. DSC provides unique thermal profiling for lard and butter. In the heating thermogram of the mixture, there was one major endothermic peak (peak A) with a smaller shoulder peak embedded in the major peak that gradually smoothed out to the major peak as the lard percent increased. In the cooling thermogram, there were one minor peak (peak B) and two major exothermic peaks, peak C which increased as lard percent increased and peak D which decreased in size as the lard percent increased. From Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) analysis, two independent variables were found to be able to predict lard percent adulteration in butter with R2 (adjusted) of 95.82. The SMLR equation of lard percent adulteration in butter is 293.1 - 11.36 (Te A) - 2.17 (Tr D); where Te A is the endset of peak A and Tr D is the range of thermal transition for peak D. These parameters can serve as a good measurement parameter in detecting lard adulteration in butter. DSC is a very useful means for halal screening technique to enhance the authenticity of Halal process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  8. Clark EM, Quigg R, Wong JE, Richards R, Black KE, Skidmore PM
    Health Place, 2014 Nov;30:78-85.
    PMID: 25218636 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.08.008
    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  9. Mohammad AH, Al-Sadat N, Siew Yim L, Chinna K
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:302097.
    PMID: 25276774 DOI: 10.1155/2014/302097
    This study aims to test the translated Hausa version of the stroke impact scale SIS (3.0) and further evaluate its psychometric properties. The SIS 3.0 was translated from English into Hausa and was tested for its reliability and validity on a stratified random sample adult stroke survivors attending rehabilitation services at stroke referral hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. Psychometric analysis of the Hausa-SIS 3.0 involved face, content, criterion, and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. In reliability analyses, the Cronbach's alpha values for the items in Strength, Hand function, Mobility, ADL/IADL, Memory and thinking, Communication, Emotion, and Social participation domains were 0.80, 0.92, 0.90, 0.78, 0.84, 0.89, 0.58, and 0.74, respectively. There are 8 domains in stroke impact scale 3.0 in confirmatory factory analysis; some of the items in the Hausa-SIS questionnaire have to be dropped due to lack of discriminate validity. In the final analysis, a parsimonious model was obtained with two items per construct for the 8 constructs (Chi-square/df < 3, TLI and CFI > 0.9, and RMSEA < 0.08). Cross validation with 1000 bootstrap samples gave a satisfactory result (P = 0.011). In conclusion, the shorter 16-item Hausa-SIS seems to measure adequately the QOL outcomes in the 8 domains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  10. Ibrahim N, Amit N, Suen MW
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(10):e110670.
    PMID: 25340331 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110670
    BACKGROUND: There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide.

    METHOD: The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females), aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21) was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation.

    CONCLUSION: Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  11. Al-Darraji HA, Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Aug;21(8):1049-1058.
    PMID: 27197601 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12726
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of previously undiagnosed active tuberculosis (TB) cases among prisoners in Malaysia's largest prison using an intensified TB case-finding strategy.

    METHODS: From October 2012 to May 2013, prisoners housed in two distinct units (HIV-negative and HIV-positive) were approached to participate in the TB screening study. Consenting prisoners submitted two sputum samples that were examined using GeneXpert MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and liquid culture. Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected and correlates of active TB, defined as having either a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF or culture results, were assessed using regression analyses.

    RESULTS: Among the total of 559 prisoners, 442 (79.1%) had complete data; 28.7% were HIV-infected, 80.8% were men and the average age was 36.4 (SD 9.8) years. Overall, 34 (7.7%) had previously undiagnosed active TB, of whom 64.7% were unable to complete their TB treatment in prison due to insufficient time (<6 months) remaining in prison. Previously undiagnosed active TB was independently associated with older age groups (AOR 11.44 and 6.06 for age ≥ 50 and age 40-49 years, respectively) and with higher levels of immunosuppression (CD4 < 200 cells/ml) in HIV-infected prisoners (AOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.03-9.17).

    CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed active TB in this prison highlights the inadequate performance of internationally recommended case-finding strategies and suggests that passive case-finding policies should be abandoned, especially in prison settings where HIV infection is prevalent. Moreover, partnerships between criminal justice and public health treatment systems are crucial to continue TB treatment after release.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  12. Kaewboonchoo O, Isahak M, Susilowati I, Phuong TN, Morioka I, Harncharoen K, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016 Jul;28(5):438-49.
    PMID: 27273897 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516651957
    Work ability is related to many factors that might influence one's capacity to work. This study aimed to examine the work ability and its related factors among small and medium enterprises (SME) workers in 4 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. The participants in this study included 2098 workers from food and textile industries in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey of anonymous self-administrated questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic factors, work environment and ergonomic condition, musculoskeletal disorders, and work ability. Bivariate correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analyses were used to predict the work ability. Results of this study confirm that work ability in 4 ASEAN countries was similar to that in European countries, and that the sociodemographic factors, work environment and ergonomic condition, and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) were associated with work ability. These factors are important for considering occupational health and safety policy to promote work ability in food, textile, and other SME workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  13. Rajesh, S.M., Muirhead, V., Mohd Dom, T.N., Ismail, N.M., Jamaludin, M., Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 2013;20(1):1-7.
    MyJurnal
    To explore the association between social
    support and stress levels in preclinical and clinical dental
    students in Malaysia. Method: A cross sectional survey
    of dental undergraduate students was conducted at the
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Universiti
    Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    Stress was measured using the Dental Environment Stress
    (DES) questionnaire. A DES-32 item was used to measure
    stress for the clinical students and DES-16 item for the
    preclinical students. Four questions were used to measure
    social support. The total stress scores were standardized
    for comparison purposes. Results: A total of 357 (79.7%)
    preclinical and 417 (71.8%) clinical undergraduate dental
    students responded to the questionnaires. The clinical
    students experienced higher stress [mean standardized
    DES score = 72.63, SD = 10.64] than preclinical students
    [mean standardized DES score = 70.19, SD=12.01]. The
    two most stressful items reported by preclinical students
    were “fear of failing” and “examination and grades”.
    Among clinical students, the two most stressful items related
    to academic were “completing course requirement” and
    “fear of failing course” and items related to clinical session
    were “fear of being barred due to the clinical schedule”
    and “patients late or absent”. Multiple regression analyses
    revealed that low stress levels among preclinical students
    were significantly associated to a lot of contact with
    students of the same course. Conclusion: To some extent,
    social support does play a role in explaining differences in
    perceived stress, in particular among preclinical students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  14. Ali HS, Abdul-Rahim AS, Ribadu MB
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jan;24(2):1967-1974.
    PMID: 27798805 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7935-z
    The main aim of this article is to examine empirically the impact of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in Singapore from 1970 to 2015. The autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach is applied within the analysis. The main finding reveals a negative and significant impact of urbanization on carbon emissions in Singapore, which means that urban development in Singapore is not a barrier to the improvement of environmental quality. Thus, urbanization enhances environmental quality by reducing carbon emissions in the sample country. The result also highlighted that economic growth has a positive and significant impact on carbon emissions, which suggests that economic growth reduces environmental quality through its direct effect of increasing carbon emissions in the country. Despite the high level of urbanization in Singapore, which shows that 100 % of the populace is living in the urban center, it does not lead to more environmental degradation. Hence, urbanization will not be considered an obstacle when initiating policies that will be used to reduce environmental degradation in the country. Policy makers should consider the country's level of economic growth instead of urbanization when formulating policies to reduce environmental degradation, due to its direct impact on increasing carbon dioxide emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  15. Ahmed Kaid, N. A., Norbaiyah, M. B., Imad, M. A., Norazian, M. H.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: This study aims to build a standardization method for preparation of effective powder from
    FSA and to quantify diosgenin in FSA. Methodology: One kg of FS were used in this study. Setting: BMS, KOM
    and KOP, IIUM Kuantan campus. FS were washed with distilled water to exclude any foreign matter, and
    were then air dried. FS-powder were put in distilled water in a ratio of 1 g of powder in 20 ml of distilled
    water and were shaken at room temperature for 24 hours. Ten mg of hydrolyzed extract sample was diluted
    in 10 ml volumetric flask with methanol for 15 minutes. Chromatographic estimation was performed using
    an equilibrated reverse phase Eclipse XDB-C18 column (particle size 5 µg, 4.6 mm x 150 mm). Results: One
    gram of FSA extract was hydrolyzed to produce sapogenins and 46.6% was recovered. A calibration curve
    that was constructed based on five dilutions of diosgenin standard at concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and
    50 ppm produced a linear graft (r = 0.999). The concentration of diosgenin in FSA extract as calculated using
    the regression analysis was found to be 29.66 µg/ml, 13.81 % w/w on dried weight basis. Conclusion:
    Preparation and standardization of effective powder from FSA are the corner stone of many scientific
    researches in IIUM and Malaysia. Diosgenin is available in the FSA in adequate concentration. The adequate
    amount of diosgenin in the FSA will guide us to do further study in the way of preparation of a natural
    product that can be used in the field of reversible anti-fertility therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  16. Mirta Widia, Siti Zawiah Md Dawal, Nukman Yusoff
    MyJurnal
    Most studies have examined the association of ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal discomfort in developed countries. Meanwhile the data are still lacking in developing countries such as Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between risk factors and musculoskeletal discomfort among manual material handling workers in Malaysian automotive industries. A total of211 manual material handling workers from automotive industries completed a set of questionnaire on the individual, physical and environmental factors and the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort. The Chi-Square test and logistics regression analysis were used to determine the relationship of the risk factors and musculoskeletal. The findings highlighted that job tenure was significantly correlated with musculoskeletal discomfort among the workers (OR=2.33-5.56). The most significant physical risk factor that was associated with musculoskeletal discomfort was bending the trunk forward slightly, hands above knee level, which was significantly related to lower back discomfort (OR=5.13, 95%CI=1.56-16.8), thigh discomfort (OR=5.1, 95%CI=1.01-25.53) and wrist discomfort (OR=3.65, 95%CI=1.06-12.53). Twisting of the trunk (over 45o) and bending sideways were significantly associated to lower back discomfort (OR=4.04, 95%CI=1.44-14.44), and thigh discomfort (OR=4.3, 95%CI=1.29-8.50). The findings also highlighted that environmental factors was associated with musculoskeletal discomfort (p < 0.05. Musculoskeletal discomfort can be reduced by lowering work-related risk factors among automotive manual material handling workers, particularly by focusing on significant factors, including job tenure, bending or twisting postures and environmental factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  17. Abdel Aziz MH, Badr El Dine FM, Saeed NM
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2016 Nov;44:103-110.
    PMID: 27743546 DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2016.10.003
    INTRODUCTION: Identification of sex and ethnicity has always been a challenge in the fields of forensic medicine and criminal investigations. Fingerprinting and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used in this context. However, since they cannot always be used, it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints.

    AIM OF THE WORK: Is to study the pattern of lip print in Egyptian and Malaysian populations and its relation to sex and populations difference. Also, to develop equations for sex and populations detection using lip print pattern by different populations (Egyptian and Malaysian).

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample comprised of 120 adults volunteers divided into two ethnic groups; sixty adult Egyptians (30 males and 30 females) and sixty adult Malaysians (30 males and 30 females). The lip prints were collected on a white paper. Each lip print was divided into four compartments and were classified and scored according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Data were statistically analyzed.

    RESULTS: The results showed that type III lip print pattern (intersected grooves) was the predominant type in both the Egyptian and Malaysian populations. Type II and III were the most frequent in Egyptian males (28.3% each), while in Egyptian females type III pattern was predominant (46.7%). As regards Malaysian males, type III lip print pattern was the predominant one (41.7%), while type II lip print pattern was predominant (30.8%) in Malaysian females. Statistical analysis of different quadrants showed significant differences between males and females in the Egyptian population in the third and fourth quadrants. On the other hand, significant differences were detected only in the second quadrant between Malaysian males and females. Also, a statistically significant difference was present in the second quadrant between Egyptian and Malaysian males. Using the regression analysis, four regression equations were obtained.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  18. Butt M, Ali AM, Bakry MM
    Curr Diabetes Rev, 2019;15(5):402-406.
    PMID: 30156163 DOI: 10.2174/1573399814666180828152754
    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the association between self-reported adherence with concurrent and subsequent glycemic control amongst type 2 diabetes patients at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Demographic and clinical variables were assessed at baseline, after three and six months in 73 type 2 diabetes patients. Regression analysis, using SPSS, evaluated the concurrent and longitudinal association of medication adherence and glycemic control. Potential confounders of variables were identified using bi-variate correlation analyses.

    RESULTS: Concurrent Medication adherence and HbA1c association were significant after adjusting for ethnicity (P = 0.005). For longitudinal observation at 3 months, the association was significant after adjusting for ethnicity (P = 0.016); however, it became non-significant when baseline glycemic control was included in the model (P = 0.28).

    CONCLUSION: Easy to administer MALMAS significantly predicted concurrent glycemic control independent of potential confounders. This association persisted in longitudinal observation after 3 months when adjusted for confounders and became non-significant after adjusting for baseline glycemic control.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  19. Ng SC, Kaplan GG, Tang W, Banerjee R, Adigopula B, Underwood FE, et al.
    Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2019 Jan;114(1):107-115.
    PMID: 30177785 DOI: 10.1038/s41395-018-0233-2
    INTRODUCTION: Living in an urban environment may increase the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is unclear if this observation is seen globally. We conducted a population-based study to assess the relationship between urbanization and incidence of IBD in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Newly diagnosed IBD cases between 2011 and 2013 from 13 countries or regions in Asia-Pacific were included. Incidence was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI) and pooled using random-effects model. Meta-regression analysis was used to assess incidence rates and their association with population density, latitude, and longitude.

    RESULTS: We identified 1175 ulcerative colitis (UC), 656 Crohn's disease (CD), and 37 IBD undetermined (IBD-U). Mean annual IBD incidence per 100 000 was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.43-1.57). India (9.31; 95% CI: 8.38-10.31) and China (3.64; 95% CI, 2.97-4.42) had the highest IBD incidence in Asia. Incidence of overall IBD (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01-4.76]) and CD (IRR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.83-9.12) was higher across 19 areas of Asia with a higher population density. In China, incidence of IBD (IRR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.10-5.16) and UC (IRR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.2-5.8) was positively associated with gross domestic product. A south-to-north disease gradient (IRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91-0.98) was observed for IBD incidence and a west-to-east gradient (IRR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05-1.24) was observed for CD incidence in China. This study received IRB approval.

    CONCLUSIONS: Regions in Asia with a high population density had a higher CD and UC incidence. Coastal areas within China had higher IBD incidence. With increasing urbanization and a shift from rural areas to cities, disease incidence may continue to climb in Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  20. Lee SC, Chua LL, Yap SH, Khang TF, Leng CY, Raja Azwa RI, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 09 24;8(1):14277.
    PMID: 30250162 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-32585-x
    We explored the gut microbiota profile among HIV-infected individuals with diverse immune recovery profiles following long-term suppressive ART and investigated the relationship between the altered bacteria with markers of immune dysfunction. The microbiota profile of rectal swabs from 26 HIV-infected individuals and 20 HIV-uninfected controls were examined. Patients were classified as suboptimal responders, sIR (n = 10, CD4 T-cell <350 cells/ul) and optimal responders, oIR (n = 16, CD4 T-cell >500 cells/ul) after a minimum of 2 years on suppressive ART. Canonical correlation analysis(CCA) and multiple regression modelling were used to explore the association between fecal bacterial taxa abundance and immunological profiles in optimal and suboptimal responders. We found Fusobacterium was significantly enriched among the HIV-infected and the sIR group. CCA results showed that Fusobacterium abundance was negatively correlated with CD4 T-cell counts, but positively correlated with CD4 T-cell activation and CD4 Tregs. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, baseline CD4 T-cell count, antibiotic exposure and MSM status indicated that higher Fusobacterium relative abundance was independently associated with poorer CD4 T-cell recovery following ART. Enrichment of Fusobacterium was associated with reduced immune recovery and persistent immune dysfunction following ART. Modulating the abundance of this bacterial taxa in the gut may be a viable intervention to improve immune reconstitution in our setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
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