Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 207 in total

  1. Mahadeva S, Yadav H, Everett SM, Goh KL
    J Neurogastroenterol Motil, 2012 Jan;18(1):43-57.
    PMID: 22323987 DOI: 10.5056/jnm.2012.18.1.43
    The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia.

    Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia.

    The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively.

    The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference.

    Asia; Dyspepsia; Health; Population; Quality-adjusted life years
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  2. Al-Naggar RA, Nagi NM, Ali MM, Almuasli M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(9):2335-41.
    PMID: 22296380
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the quality of life among breast cancer patients in Yemen based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.

    METHODOLOGY: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data collected from 106 female breast cancer patients who were chosen for recruitment from the outpatient in National Oncology Centre (NOC), Sana'a, Yemen from November 2008 to June 2011. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients during their visit to the outpatient clinics in the center. The instrument of this study consists of two parts: Socio-demographic and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire. Regarding data analysis, means and SD of subscales were evaluated for descriptive purpose. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare the three groups regarding QOL subscales. Whereas, independent t-test was performed for comparing two groups regarding QOL subscales. Multiple linear regression using backward analysis was performed to obtain the final model for each domain. The final model was chosen depending on R2 and the p value of the model. A p value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total number of 106 breast cancer patients were participated in this study. The majority of them were uneducated, unemployed with normal weight and had middle income (60.4%; 95.3%; 59.4%, 46.2%; respectively). As for clinical characteristics of the study participants; the majority of them had had no family history of breast cancer, have been diagnosed at least 2 years, were diagnosed at grade 3 and size of tumor greater than 2 cm (88.7%, 66.0%, 35.8%, 73.6%; respectively). The majority of them underwent mastectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen therapy (85.8%, 63.2%, 94.3% and 62.3%; respectively). For univariate analysis, the present study has identified several factors includes family monthly income, BMI, educational status, years after diagnosis, histological grade radiotherapy and surgery that influence the QOL of breast cancer patients in Yemen. For multivariate analysis, years after diagnosis, family monthly income and radiotherapy were significantly associated with total QOL of the breast cancer patients (p=0.01, p=0.023, p=0.039; respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Family monthly income, BMI, educational status, years after diagnosis, histological grade radiotherapy and surgery were significantly influence the QOL of breast cancer patients in Yemen, in univariate analysis. For multivariate analysis, years after diagnosis, family monthly income and radiotherapy were significantly associated with total QOL of the breast cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  3. Nor NA, Yusof ZY, Shahidan MN
    J Dent Educ, 2011 Dec;75(12):1611-9.
    PMID: 22184601
    The Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia has called for the implementation of a soft skills module in all public universities in Malaysia. In response to this and as part of curriculum development efforts for a new integrated program for 2011, a study was undertaken to improve the University of Malaya (UM) Faculty of Dentistry's communication skills course. One of the study objectives was to investigate dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and the association between their attitudes and demographic and education-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey--using a self-administered twenty-four-item adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) that contained both positive (PAS) and negative (NAS) attitude subscales--was carried out targeting all final-year dental students at the UM and the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A total of 148 students completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88.1 percent. Overall, UKM students had significantly more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning (PAS score: mean=48.69, SD=4.48, p<0.001) than UM students (mean=46.03, SD=4.22). There was no statistically significant difference in negative attitudes between the two groups. UKM students with more positive attitudes tended to be female (p<0.05). UM students with more negative attitudes perceived themselves as poor communicators (p<0.05), and UKM students with more negative attitudes tended to have poor English proficiency (p<0.05). This study found that both UM and UKM final-year dental students have positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. These attitudes were significantly associated with certain background and education-related attributes. Outcomes of this study served as a valuable guide in strengthening the communication skills course for the UM's new, integrated dental curriculum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  4. Ariff F, Suthahar A, Ramli M
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Jan;52(1):29-34.
    PMID: 21298238
    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between hypertensive patients and their coping style and associated lifestyle factors.
    METHODS: A total of 502 participants attending nine outpatient clinics completed the validated Bahasa Malaysia version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and sociodemographic questionnaires. The height, weight, pulse rate and blood pressure of all the participants were measured using standardised methods.
    RESULTS: A total of 264 (52.6 percent) participants were hypertensive, while 238 (47.4 percent) were not. Participants with a high task-oriented score showed a significantly lower risk of hypertension compared to those with a low score (odds ratio [OR] 0.546; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 0.371-0.804). Those with a high emotion-oriented coping score were associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR 1.691; 95 percent CI 1.107-2.582). Hypertension was also significantly associated with a higher mean body mass index, positive family history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia. In multiple logistic regression analysis with hypertension status as the dependent variable, a high emotion-oriented coping score, a low task-oriented coping score, age, body mass index, positive family history of hypertension and history of diabetes mellitus remain significant factors in the final model.
    CONCLUSION: These results indicated a significant relationship between hypertension and coping styles and lifestyle factors. They underscored the importance of further study as well as the development and implementation of intervention measures to improve coping skills among hypertensive patients, which may be incorporated into the management of hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  5. Afroz R, Hanaki K, Tudin R
    Environ Monit Assess, 2011 Aug;179(1-4):509-19.
    PMID: 21046234 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1753-4
    Information on waste generation, socioeconomic characteristics, and willingness of the households to separate waste was obtained from interviews with 402 respondents in Dhaka city. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the waste generation of the households. The results showed that the waste generation of the households in Dhaka city was significantly affected by household size, income, concern about the environment, and willingness to separate the waste. These factors are necessary to effectively improve waste management, growth and performance, as well as to reduce the environmental degradation of the household waste.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  6. Hairi NN, Bulgiba A, Cumming RG, Naganathan V, Mudla I
    BMC Public Health, 2010;10:492.
    PMID: 20716377 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-492
    The prevalence and correlates of physical disability and functional limitation among older people have been studied in many developed countries but not in a middle income country such as Malaysia. The present study investigated the epidemiology of physical disability and functional limitation among older people in Malaysia and compares findings to other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  7. Cheong HT, Ng KT, Ong LY, Chook JB, Chan KG, Takebe Y, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(10):e111236.
    PMID: 25340817 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111236
    A novel HIV-1 recombinant clade (CRF51_01B) was recently identified among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. As cases of sexually transmitted HIV-1 infection increase concurrently in two socioeconomically intimate countries such as Malaysia and Singapore, cross transmission of HIV-1 between said countries is highly probable. In order to investigate the timeline for the emergence of HIV-1 CRF51_01B in Singapore and its possible introduction into Malaysia, 595 HIV-positive subjects recruited in Kuala Lumpur from 2008 to 2012 were screened. Phylogenetic relationship of 485 amplified polymerase gene sequences was determined through neighbour-joining method. Next, near-full length sequences were amplified for genomic sequences inferred to be CRF51_01B and subjected to further analysis implemented through Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and maximum likelihood methods. Based on the near full length genomes, two isolates formed a phylogenetic cluster with CRF51_01B sequences of Singapore origin, sharing identical recombination structure. Spatial and temporal information from Bayesian MCMC coalescent and maximum likelihood analysis of the protease, gp120 and gp41 genes suggest that Singapore is probably the country of origin of CRF51_01B (as early as in the mid-1990s) and featured a Malaysian who acquired the infection through heterosexual contact as host for its ancestral lineages. CRF51_01B then spread rapidly among the MSM in Singapore and Malaysia. Although the importation of CRF51_01B from Singapore to Malaysia is supported by coalescence analysis, the narrow timeframe of the transmission event indicates a closely linked epidemic. Discrepancies in the estimated divergence times suggest that CRF51_01B may have arisen through multiple recombination events from more than one parental lineage. We report the cross transmission of a novel CRF51_01B lineage between countries that involved different sexual risk groups. Understanding the cross-border transmission of HIV-1 involving sexual networks is crucial for effective intervention strategies in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  8. Shohaimi S, Boekholdt MS, Luben R, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT
    BMC Public Health, 2014 Aug 28;14:782.
    PMID: 25179437 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-782
    BACKGROUND: Data on the relationship between plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and social class have been inconsistent. Most previous studies have used one classification of social class.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population based study with data on occupational social class, educational level obtained using a detailed health and lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 10,147 men and 12,304 women aged 45-80 years living in Norfolk, United Kingdom, were recruited using general practice age-sex registers as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in baseline samples. Social class was classified according to three classifications: occupation, educational level, and area deprivation score according to Townsend deprivation index. Differences in lipid levels by socio-economic status indices were quantified by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression after adjusting for body mass index and alcohol consumption.

    RESULTS: Total cholesterol levels were associated with occupational level among men, and with educational level among women. Triglyceride levels were associated with educational level and occupational level among women, but the latter association was lost after adjustment for age and body mass index. HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with both educational level and educational level among men and women. The relationships with educational level were substantially attenuated by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use, whereas the association with educational class was retained upon adjustment. LDL-cholesterol levels were not associated with social class indices among men, but a positive association was observed with educational class among women. This association was not affected by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that there are sex differences in the association between socio-economic status and serum lipid levels. The variations in lipid profile with socio-economic status may be largely attributed to potentially modifiable factors such as obesity, physical activity and dietary intake.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  9. Suthahar A, Gurpreet K, Ambigga D, Maniam T, Dhachayani S, Fuad I, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Jul;50(7):720-3.
    PMID: 19644630
    The aim of this paper was to determine the sociodemographic and cancer characteristics of patients with cancer at a tertiary care centre.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  10. Swami V, Frederick DA, Aavik T, Alcalay L, Allik J, Anderson D, et al.
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 2010 Mar;36(3):309-25.
    PMID: 20179313 DOI: 10.1177/0146167209359702
    This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about body weight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted body weight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  11. Al-Mekhlafi MS, Atiya AS, Lim YA, Mahdy AK, Ariffin WA, Abdullah HC, et al.
    PMID: 18613540
    Despite great development in socioeconomic status throughout 50 years of independence, Malaysia is still plagued with soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). STH continue to have a significant impact on public health particularly in rural communities. In order to determine the prevalence of STH among rural Orang Asli children and to investigate the possible risk factors affecting the pattern of this prevalence, fecal samples were collected from 292 Orang Asli primary schoolchildren (145 males and 147 females) age 7-12 years, from Pos Betau, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. The samples were examined by Kato-Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Socioeconomic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infections were 67.8, 95.5 and 13.4%, respectively. Twenty-nine point eight percent of the children had heavy trichuriasis, while 22.3% had heavy ascariasis. Sixty-seven point seven percent of the children had mixed infections. Age > 10 years (p = 0.016), no toilet in the house (p = 0.012), working mother (p = 0.040), low household income (p = 0.033), and large family size (p = 0.028) were identified as risk factors for ascariasis. Logistic regression confirmed low income, no toilet in the house and working mother as significant risk factors for ascariasis. The prevalence of STH is still very high in rural Malaysian communities. STH may also contribute to other health problems such as micronutrient deficiencies, protein-energy malnutrition and poor educational achievement. Public health personnel need to reassess current control measures and identify innovative and integrated ways in order to reduce STH significantly in rural communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  12. Mahadeva S, Goh KL
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2006 May 07;12(17):2661-6.
    PMID: 16718749 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i17.2661
    Dyspepsia refers to group of upper gastrointestinal symptoms that occur commonly in adults. Dyspepsia is known to result from organic causes, but the majority of patients suffer from non-ulcer or functional dyspepsia. Epidemiological data from population-based studies of various geographical locations have been reviewed, as they provide more realistic information. Population-based studies on true functional dyspepsia (FD) are few, due to the logistic difficulties of excluding structural disease in large numbers of people. Globally, the prevalence of uninvestigated dyspepsia (UD) varies between 7%-45%, depending on definition used and geographical location, whilst the prevalence of FD has been noted to vary between 11%-29.2%. Risk factors for FD have been shown to include females and underlying psychological disturbances, whilst environmental/ lifestyle habits such as poor socio-economic status, smoking, increased caffeine intake and ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appear to be more relevant to UD. It is clear that dyspepsia and FD in particular are common conditions globally, affecting most populations, regardless of location.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  13. Yu CP, Whynes DK, Sach TH
    Int J Health Plann Manage, 2006 10 19;21(3):193-210.
    PMID: 17044546
    Throughout the world, policy makers are considering or implementing financing strategies that are likely to have a substantial impact on the equity of health financing. The assessment of the equity implication is clearly important, given the potential impact that alternative finance sources have on households. Households incur out-of-pocket payment directly from their budget, apart from their public or private insurance. Out-of-pocket payment is the primary concern, given their undesirable impact on households. Progressivity measures departures from proportionality in the relationship between out-of-pocket payment and ability to pay. It is the most frequently used yardstick to assess the equity of out-of-pocket payments in empirical studies. This paper provides an evaluation of such progressivity measures, undertaken using four approaches (proportion approach, tabulation approach, concentration curve and Kakwani's index), in order to reveal their usefulness and underlying notion. It is illustrated empirically with data on out-of-pocket payment for health care in Malaysia for 1998/ 1999, based on the nationally representative Household Expenditure Survey. Results indicate that out-of-pocket payments are mildly progressive, whilst the four approaches have their benefits and limitations in assessing equity implications. This analysis is of interest from a policy perspective, given Malaysia's heavy reliance on out-of-pocket payments to finance health care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  14. Shariff ZM, Bond JT, Johnson NE
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2000 Dec;9(4):264-73.
    PMID: 24394502
    The relationship between nutrition, health and educational achievement of school-age population in less developed countries has been of interest to many researchers due to the frequent observation that many children did not complete primary school and those who completed, did not do as well as children in the developed countries. Nevertheless, nutritional and health status by itself is not the only variable affecting educational achievement, since biological, psychological, socioeconomic and cultural factors could directly or indirectly affect both nutrition, health status and educational achievement. The mechanism by which health and nutrition influence educational achievement is not well established, but poor health and malnutrition in early childhood may affect cognitive abilities, necessary for learning process and consequently educational achievement. A study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and educational achievement among primary schoolchildren from low income households (n = 399). A high percentage of them were mild-significantly underweight (52%), stunted (47%) and wasted (36%) and increasingly overweight (6%). In general, more boys than girls were found to experience some form of malnutrition. While weight-for-height did not differ significantly according to family, child and school factors, weight-for-age and height-for-age differed significantly by gender. Also, height-for-age was significantly related to household income. This indicates that stunting may be a consequence of prolonged socioeconomic deprivation. Educational achievement was measured based on test scores for Malay language (ML), English language (EL) and mathematics (MT). While a majority of the schoolchildren obtained optimum scores (>75) for ML and MT, the majority of them had insufficient scores (<50) for EL. Children's total score (TS) for the three subjects was significantly associated with household socioeconomic status, gender, birth order and heightfor- age. Even after controlling for household socioeconomic status, significant association between TS and height-for-age persisted. In this sample of schoolchildren, household income, gender, birth order and height-forage were significant predictors of TS. The finding that height-for-age is related to educational achievement agrees with other studies, which have reported that height-for-age, compared to weight-for-height or weight-forage is linked to educational achievement. Height-for-age reflects the accumulation of nutritional deprivation throughout the years, which may consequently affect the cognitive development of the children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  15. Ravindran J, Tan YI, Ngeow YF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):16-21.
    PMID: 10968132
    Chlamydia trachomatis is recognized as the most prevalent sexually transmitted organism in many parts of the world. Most complications associated with chlamydial infection in women and their infants can be avoided by appropriate treatment. However, treatment is often not initiated because infections are frequently asymptomatic. The identification of at risk patients and treatment of these patients is a practical clinical approach in the reduction of transmission and prevention of complications. The prevalence of chlamydial infection among patients with pelvic inflammatory disease admitted to Seremban General Hospital was 22.7%. The difference in seropositivity between PID patients (20.5%) and antenatal controls (2.3%) was statistically significant. The corresponding cervical antigen detection rates were 6.8% and 2.3% respectively. Chlamydial infection should be screened for in gynaecological patients and antibiotic policies should take cognizance of the aetiological role played by this organism in pelvic inflammatory disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  16. Armstrong RW, Imrey PB, Lye MS, Armstrong MJ, Yu MC, Sani S
    Int. J. Cancer, 1998 Jul 17;77(2):228-35.
    PMID: 9650558
    We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  17. Strickland SS, Duffield AE
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1998 Dec;7(3/4):300-6.
    PMID: 24393688
    The effects of population pressure on agricultural sustainability in the delicate tropical and subtropical ecosystems have often been thought to explain high prevalence rates of malnutrition in rural South-East Asia. However, recent studies in rural Sarawak suggest that processes of modernisation have resulted in increased variations in energy nutritional status in adults. A contributory factor may be consumption of the areca nut (Malay pinang, of the palm Areca catechu). This is thought to influence energy balance through effects on appetite and resting metabolic rate. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) data for 325 Iban men and 438 non-pregnant Iban women, measured in 1990 and again in 1996, have been analysed in relation to areca use, smoking behaviour, socio-economic status, and reported morbidity. Body composition derived from skinfold thickness measurements for 313 men and 382 women was also analysed. The results suggest that use of areca nut is associated with significantly lower age-related increments in BMI and percentage body fat in women after allowing for age, smoking, reported morbidity, and confounding socio-economic factors. Therefore, the impact of recent economic and social development seen in rising prevalences of 'over-nutrition' may be modulated by use of the areca nut.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  18. Fauziah, M.N., Anita, S., Shaari, N., Ahamad, J., Senan, Pratap, Muhammad Amir, K.
    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of HI V iryfection, risk factors and to measure the knowledge on AIDS among fishermen in Terengganu. In this survey fishermen registered with the Malaysian Fishery Development Board in Terengganu were studied. There were 600 eligible fishermen based on a list provided by the Malaysian Fishery Development Board (MFDB). Study sites were at 6 loading centres where health personnel awaited returning fishermen between 4. 00pm —7. 00 pm during a period of one month, A total of 542 registeredfshermen were studied and this corresponded to a response rate of 90.3 %. The majority of the fishermen were Malays (98.6%}, Nine fishermen were tested positive to HIV antibody and this corresponds to a
    g prevalence of I. 7%. Prevalence of HIV is higher among those with a positive history of drug use, single marital status and also among the unskilled workers who represented the socio-economically poorer group of fishermen. Almost 89% of respondents have heard about HIV/AIDS and among these, 93% received information through TV and radio. The mean knowledge score was significantly higher among fishermen admitting to drug taking, sex with prostitutes, and those who have had at least a secondary school education. The Prevalence of HIV infection among fishermen is higher than in the general population. Risk characterisation of HI V injection was statistically signyicant onlv among fishermen who gave positive history of drug used. Findings also suggest that poorer fishermen based on multiple indicators to socioeconomic status had a higher risk of being HIV positive as well as being less knowledgeable about AIDS, Health promotion strategies should focus on the use of TV and radio as an interactive medium to reach out to risk groups among fishermen as its popularity has been determined by this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  19. Hartini Yusof, Mohamed Kamel Abd. Ghani
    A cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2006 to determine the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura infection among Orang Asli (Aborigine) children at Pos Lenjang, Pahang. A total of 71 faecal samples were collected from the children (40 girls and 31 boys) aged between 1-12 years. The samples were examined for the presence of Trichuris trichiura ova using direct smear and formalin-ether concentration techniques. The result revealed that the overall prevalence of Trichuris trichiura infection was 43.7%. The infection was higher in males (51.6%) compared to females (37.5%), though not statistically significant (p > 0.05). According to age group, the school-aged children had higher prevalence of infection (56.8%) than preschool children (29.4%) (p < 0.05). Low socioeconomic status, large family size, poor environmental sanitation and poor personal hygiene are possible contributing factors that increase the prevalence of infection among the Orang Asli children at Pos Lenjang. In 31 samples positive for Trichuris trichiura, a detection rate of 100% was obtained using formalin-ether concentration, compared to 25.8% with direct smear technique. Thus, it is recommended that both techniques be performed in routine faecal examination for a more accurate diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
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