METHODOLOGY: Parallel virology was used to investigate the phenotypes of duck and mosquito-derived isolates of TMUV. Molecular biology and bioinformatics methods were employed to investigate the genetic characteristics and evolution of TMUV.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The plaque diameter of duck-derived isolates of TMUV was larger than that of mosquito-derived isolates. The cytopathic effect (CPE) in mammalian cells occurred more rapidly induced by duck-derived isolates than by mosquito-derived isolates. Furthermore, duck-derived isolates required less time to reach maximum titer, and exhibited higher viral titer. These findings suggested that poultry-derived TMUV isolates were more invasive and had greater expansion capability than the mosquito-derived isolates in mammalian cells. Variations in amino acid loci in TMUV E gene sequence revealed two mutated amino acid loci in strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, and Chinese mainland compared with the prototypical strain of the virus (MM1775). Furthermore, TMUV isolates from the Chinese mainland had six common variations in the E gene loci that differed from the Southeast Asian strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that TMUV did not exhibit a species barrier in avian species and consisted of two lineages: the Southeast Asian and the Chinese mainland lineages. Molecular traceability studies revealed that the recent common evolutionary ancestor of TMUV might have appeared before 1934 and that Malaysia, Thailand and Shandong Province of China represent the three main sources related to TMUV spread.
CONCLUSIONS: The current broad distribution of TMUV strains in Southeast Asia and Chinese mainland exhibited longer-range diffusion and larger-scale propagation. Therefore, in addition to China, other Asian and European countries linked to Asia have used improved measures to detect and monitor TMUV related diseases to prevent epidemics in poultry.
METHODS: HIV+ patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) meeting specific criteria were included. In these analyses Asian and Caucasian status were defined by cohort. Factors associated with a low CD4:CD8 ratio (cutoff <0.2) prior to ART commencement, and with achieving a normal CD4:CD8 ratio (>1) at 12 and 24 months post ART commencement were assessed using logistic regression.
RESULTS: There were 591 patients from AHOD and 2,620 patients from TAHOD who met the inclusion criteria. TAHOD patients had a significantly (P<0.001) lower odds of having a baseline (prior to ART initiation) CD4:CD8 ratio greater than 0.2. After 12 months of ART, AHOD patients were more than twice as likely to achieve a normal CD4:CD8 ratio compared to TAHOD patients (15% versus 6%). However, after adjustment for confounding factors there was no significant difference between cohorts in the odds of achieving a CD4:CD8 ratio >1 (P=0.475).
CONCLUSIONS: We found a significantly lower CD4:CD8 ratio prior to commencing ART in TAHOD compared to AHOD even after adjusting for confounders. However, after adjustment, there was no significant difference between the cohorts in odds of achieving normal ratio. Baseline CD4+ and CD8+ counts seem to be the main driver for this difference between these two populations.
METHODS: The effect of geraniin on DENV-2 RNA synthesis in infected Vero cells was tested using quantitative RT-PCR. The in vivo efficacy of geraniin in inhibiting DENV-2 infection was then tested using BALB/c mice with geraniin administered at three different times. The differences in spleen to body weight ratio, DENV-2 RNA load and liver damage between the three treatment groups as compared to DENV-2 infected mice without geraniin administration were determined on day eight post-infection.
RESULTS: Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the decrease in viral RNA synthesis of infected Vero cells when treated with geraniin. Geraniin seemed to provide a protective effect on infected BALB/c mice liver when given at 24 h pre- and 24 h post-infection as liver damage was observed to be very mild even though a significant reduction of DENV-2 RNA load in serum was not observed in these two treatment groups. However, when administered at 72 h post-infection, severe liver damage in the form of necrosis and haemorrhage had prevailed despite a substantial reduction of DENV-2 RNA load in serum.
CONCLUSIONS: Geraniin was found to be effective in reducing DENV-2 RNA load when administered at 72 h post-infection while earlier administration could prevent severe liver damage caused by DENV-2 infection. These results provide evidence that geraniin is a potential candidate for the development of anti-dengue drug.
METHODS: Adults living with HIV enrolled in a regional observational cohort in Asia who had initiated combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were included in the analysis. Factors associated with new TB diagnoses after cohort entry and survival after cART initiation were analysed using Cox regression, stratified by site.
RESULTS: A total of 7355 patients from 12 countries enrolled into the cohort between 2003 and 2016 were included in the study. There were 368 reported cases of TB after cohort entry with an incidence rate of 0.99 per 100 person-years (/100 pys). Multivariate analyses adjusted for viral load (VL), CD4 count, body mass index (BMI) and cART duration showed that CTX reduced the hazard for new TB infection by 28% (HR 0.72, 95% CI l 0.56, 0.93). Mortality after cART initiation was 0.85/100 pys, with a median follow-up time of 4.63 years. Predictors of survival included age, female sex, hepatitis C co-infection, TB diagnosis, HIV VL, CD4 count and BMI.
CONCLUSIONS: CTX was associated with a reduction in the hazard for new TB infection but did not impact survival in our Asian cohort. The potential preventive effect of CTX against TB during periods of severe immunosuppression should be further explored.