Displaying publications 81 - 94 of 94 in total

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  1. Meldal BH, Bon AH, Prati D, Ayob Y, Allain JP
    J. Viral Hepat., 2011 Feb;18(2):91-101.
    PMID: 20196797 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01282.x
    Malaysia is a medium endemic country for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but little is known about HBV strains circulating in Malaysian blood donors. Viral load, HBsAg concentrations and nested PCR products from 84 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive samples were analysed in detail. Median viral load was 3050 IU/mL and median HBsAg 1150 IU/mL. Fifty-six full genome, 20 pre-S/S, 1 S gene and six basic core promoter/precore-only sequences were obtained. Genotypes B and C were present at a ratio of 2:1, and two genotype D samples were obtained, both from donors of Indian background. Phylogenetically, genotype B was more diverse with subgenotypes B2-5, B7 and B8 present, while most genotype C strains were from subgenotype C1. Genotypes B and C were equally frequent in ethnic Malays, but 80% of strains from Chinese were genotype B. HBsAg concentrations were higher in genotype C than in genotype B, in Chinese than Malays and in donors under the age of 30. HBV vaccine escape substitutions (P120S/T, I126N and G145G) were present in six strains. In the large surface protein, immuno-inactive regions were more mutated than CD8 epitopes and the major hydrophilic region. Strains of genotype B or from ethnic Malays had higher genetic diversity than strains of genotype C or from Chinese donors. Hence HBV strains circulating in Malaysia are phylogenetically diverse reflecting the ethnic mix of its population. Ethnic Malays carry lower HBsAg levels and higher genetic diversity of the surface antigen, possibly resulting in more effective immune control of the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  2. Lim A, Tan D, Price P, Kamarulzaman A, Tan HY, James I, et al.
    AIDS, 2007 Jul 31;21(12):1525-34.
    PMID: 17630546
    To examine the relationships between blood CD4 natural regulatory T (Treg) cells, plasma HIV RNA level, CD4 T-cell count and immune activation in untreated HIV-infected patients and immunodeficient patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART), using a novel phenotype to define Treg cells (CD25CD127CD4). Data were compared with established Treg cell markers (FoxP3, CTLA-4 and GITR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  3. Tan EL, Selvaratnam G, Kananathan R, Sam CK
    BMC Cancer, 2006;6:227.
    PMID: 16995954
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common epithelial neoplasm among the Chinese populations in Southern China and South East Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be an important etiologic agent of NPC and the viral gene products are frequently detected in NPC tissues along with elevated antibody titres to the viral proteins (VCA and EA) in a majority of patients. Elevated plasma EBV DNA load is regarded as an important marker for the presence of the disease and for the monitoring of disease progression. However, other serum/plasma parameters such as the levels of certain interleukins and growth factors have also been implicated in NPC. The objectives of the present study are, 1) to investigate the correlations between plasma EBV DNA load and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, TGF-beta1 and SCF (steel factor) and 2) to relate these parameters to the stages of NPC and the effect of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  4. Tan DB, Yong YK, Tan HY, Kamarulzaman A, Tan LH, Lim A, et al.
    HIV Med., 2008 May;9(5):307-16.
    PMID: 18400078 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00565.x
    A proportion of HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) develop immune restoration disease (IRD). Immunological characteristics of IRD were investigated in a cohort of HIV patients beginning therapy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  5. Barathan M, Mohamed R, Vadivelu J, Chang LY, Vignesh R, Krishnan J, et al.
    Cell. Immunol., 2017 03;313:1-9.
    PMID: 28104239 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2016.12.002
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV (CHC) patients showed significant increase of CTLA-4. Furthermore, HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ T cells of CHC patients also displayed relatively higher levels of PD-1 and TRAIL, whereas TIM-3 was up-regulated on HCV peptide-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Whereas the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 were markedly decreased in the T cell cultures of CHC patients. Chronic HCV infection results in functional exhaustion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells likely contributing to viral persistence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  6. Abba Y, Hassim H, Hamzah H, Ibrahim OE, Mohd Lila MA, Noordin MM
    Microb. Pathog., 2017 Mar;104:17-27.
    PMID: 28062291 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.01.003
    Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boid snakes believed to be caused by reptarenavirus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. Unlike most mammalian arenaviruses, the reservoir host for reptarenavirus is still unknown. In this study, the pathological responses were evaluated in a mouse model for a period of 28 days. Blood and tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain) were collected for evaluation of hematology, biochemistry, histopathology and oxidative enzyme levels at six time points (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), after viral infection (2.0 × 10(6) pfu/mL) in the infected and normal saline in the control groups. An initial increase (p Viral counts were low on days 7 and 14 but surged in both the liver and spleen on day 21 and 28. This study has shown that reptarenavirus replicates in mammalian host and induces oxidative stress. Furthermore, the resultant hematobiochemical and histopathological changes observed in infected mice were similar to what has been reported in mammarenavirus infections. This suggests that rodents may serve as potential reservoir hosts for reptarenavirus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  7. Durier N, Yunihastuti E, Ruxrungtham K, Kinh NV, Kamarulzaman A, Boettiger D, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 03;24(3):187-196.
    PMID: 27917597 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12630
    Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan® ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76.0%) reported HCV exposure through injecting drug use, and 453 (94.4%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy. The median (IQR) CD4 count was 446 (325-614) cells/mm3 and 208 (94.1%) of 221 patients tested had HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL. A total of 412 (85.8%) had detectable HCV RNA, at a median (IQR) of 6.2 (5.4-6.6) log10 IU/mL. Among 380 patients with HCV GT, 223 (58.7%) had GT1, 97 (25.5%) had GT3, 43 (11.3%) had GT6, eight (2.1%) had GT4, two (0.5%) had GT2, and seven (1.8%) had indeterminate GT. Of 222 patients with IL28B testing, 189 (85.1%) had rs12979860 CC genotype, and 199 (89.6%) had rs8099917 TT genotype. Of 380 patients with FibroScan® , 143 (37.6%) had no/mild liver fibrosis (F0-F1), 83 (21.8%) had moderate fibrosis (F2), 74 (19.5%) had severe fibrosis (F3), and 79 (20.8%) had cirrhosis (F4). One patient (0.3%) had FibroScan® failure. In conclusion, a high proportion of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients had chronic HCV infection. HCV GT1 was predominant, and 62% of patients had liver disease warranting prompt treatment (≥F2).
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  8. Yong YK, Tan HY, Saeidi A, Rosmawati M, Atiya N, Ansari AW, et al.
    Innate Immun, 2017 07;23(5):459-467.
    PMID: 28606013 DOI: 10.1177/1753425917714854
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Host immune responses represent the key determinants of HBV clearance or persistence. Here, we investigated the role of the early activation marker, CD69 and effector cytokines, granzyme B (GrB) and IFN-γ in the exhaustion of innate-like TCR Vα7.2+CD4+T cells, in 15 individuals with chronic HBV (CHB) infection where six were HBV DNA+ and nine were HBV DNA-. The percentage of cytokine-producing T cells and MAIT cells were significantly perturbed in HBV patients relative to healthy controls (HCs). The intracellular expression of GrB and IFN-γ was significantly reduced in MAIT cells derived from HBV-infected patients as compared to HCs, and the levels correlated with the percentage and levels [mean fluorescence intensity (MFI)] of CD69 expression. The total expression of CD69 (iMFI) was lower in CHB patients as compared to HCs. The frequency of CD69+ cells correlated with the levels of cytokine expression (MFI), particularly in CHB patients as compared to HCs. In summary, the polyfunctionality of peripheral T cells was significantly reduced among CHB patients, especially in the TCR Vα7.2+CD4+T cells, and the levels of cytokine expression correlated with functional cytokine levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  9. Farhanah MI, Yasmin AR, Mat Isa N, Hair-Bejo M, Ideris A, Powers C, et al.
    J. Gen. Virol., 2018 Jan;99(1):21-35.
    PMID: 29058656 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000956
    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease in the poultry industry and causes immunosuppression in chickens. Genome-wide regulations of immune response genes of inbred chickens with different genetic backgrounds, following very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection are poorly characterized. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the bursal tissue transcriptome of six inbred chicken lines 6, 7, 15, N, O and P following infection with vvIBDV strain UK661 using strand-specific next-generation sequencing, by highlighting important genes and pathways involved in the infected chicken during peak infection at 3 days post-infection. All infected chickens succumbed to the infection without major variations among the different lines. However, based on the viral loads and bursal lesion scoring, lines P and 6 can be considered as the most susceptible lines, while lines 15 and N were regarded as the least affected lines. Transcriptome profiling of the bursa identified 4588 genes to be differentially expressed, with 2985 upregulated and 1642 downregulated genes, in which these genes were commonly or uniquely detected in all or several infected lines. Genes that were upregulated are primarily pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and IFN-related. Various genes that are associated with B-cell functions and genes related to apoptosis were downregulated, together with the genes involved in p53 signalling. In conclusion, bursal transcriptome profiles of different inbred lines showed differential expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Th1 cytokines, JAK-STAT signalling genes, MAPK signalling genes, and their related pathways following vvIBDV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  10. Oong XY, Chook JB, Ng KT, Chow WZ, Chan KG, Hanafi NS, et al.
    Virol. J., 2018 05 23;15(1):91.
    PMID: 29792212 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-018-1005-8
    BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on disease pathogenesis in adults. This study aims to determine the role of HMPV genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in outpatient adults with acute respiratory tract infections.
    METHODS: Severity of common cold symptoms of patients from a teaching hospital was assessed by a four-category scale and summed to obtain the total symptom severity score (TSSS). Association between the fusion and glycoprotein genes diversity, viral load (quantified using an improved RT-qPCR assay), and symptom severity were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression analyses.
    RESULTS: Among 81/3706 HMPV-positive patients, there were no significant differences in terms of demographics, number of days elapsed between symptom onset and clinic visit, respiratory symptoms manifestation and severity between different HMPV genotypes/sub-lineages. Surprisingly, elderly patients (≥65 years old) had lower severity of symptoms (indicated by TSSS) than young and middle age adults (p = 0.008). Nasopharyngeal viral load did not correlate with nor predict symptom severity of HMPV infection. Interestingly, at 3-5 days after symptom onset, genotype A-infected patients had higher viral load compared to genotype B (4.4 vs. 3.3 log10 RNA copies/μl) (p = 0.003).
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, HMPV genetic diversity and viral load did not impact symptom severity in adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Differences in viral load dynamics over time between genotypes may have important implications on viral transmission.
    Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  11. Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Pham T, Tanwandee T, Nazareth S, Galhenage S, Mollison L, et al.
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2015 Jul 28;21(28):8660-9.
    PMID: 26229408 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i28.8660
    To examined the efficacy and safety of treatment with boceprevir, PEGylated-interferon and ribavirin (PR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCVGT1) PR treatment-failures in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  12. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Ebrahimi M, Loh TC, Bejo MH, Zerihun H, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2012;11:15.
    PMID: 22273277 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-15
    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  13. Rothan HA, Bahrani H, Shankar EM, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    Antiviral Res., 2014 Aug;108:173-80.
    PMID: 24929084 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.05.019
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to a serious economic burden, as the available treatment strategies can only alleviate disease symptoms, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are currently available for human use. Here, we report the use of a new cost-effective approach involving production of a recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein that is scalable for the treatment of CHIKV infection. A peptide-fusion recombinant protein LATA-PAP1-THAN that was generated by joining Latarcin (LATA) peptide with the N-terminus of the PAP1 antiviral protein, and the Thanatin (THAN) peptide to the C-terminus, was produced in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The antiviral LATA-PAP1-THAN protein showed 89.0% reduction of viral plaque formation compared with PAP1 (46.0%), LATA (67.0%) or THAN (79.3%) peptides alone. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein reduced the viral RNA load that was 0.89-fold compared with the untreated control cells. We also showed that PAP1 resulted in 0.44-fold reduction, and THAN and LATA resulting in 0.78-fold and 0.73-fold reductions, respectively. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein inhibited CHIKV replication in the Vero cells at an EC50 of 11.2μg/ml, which is approximately half of the EC50 of PAP1 (23.7μg/ml) and protected the CHIKV-infected mice at the dose of 0.75mg/ml. We concluded that production of antiviral peptide-fusion protein in E. coli as inclusion bodies could accentuate antiviral activities, enhance cellular internalisation, and could reduce product toxicity to host cells and is scalable to epidemic response quantities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  14. Boyd MA, Amin J, Mallon PW, Kumarasamy N, Lombaard J, Wood R, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2017 01;4(1):e13-e20.
    PMID: 27815068 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30189-8
    BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophy is one of the most feared complications associated with the use of nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). We aimed to assess soft-tissue changes in participants with HIV who had virological failure of a first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus two N(t)RTIs and were randomly assigned to receive a second-line regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor given with either N(t)RTIs or raltegravir.

    METHODS: Of the 37 sites that participated in the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study, eight sites from five countries (Argentina, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and Thailand) participated in the body composition substudy. All sites had a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner and all participants enrolled in SECOND-LINE were eligible for inclusion in the substudy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated allocation schedule, to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three N(t)RTIs (N[t]RTI group). Randomisation was stratified by site and screening HIV-1 RNA. Participants and investigators were not masked to group assignment, but allocation was concealed until after interventions were assigned. DXA scans were done at weeks 0, 48, and 96. The primary endpoint was mean percentage and absolute change in peripheral limb fat from baseline to week 96. We did intention-to-treat analyses of available data. This substudy is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01513122.

    FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2010, and July 10, 2011, we recruited 211 participants into the substudy. The intention-to-treat population comprised 102 participants in the N(t)RTI group and 108 participants in the raltegravir group, of whom 91 and 105 participants, respectively, reached 96 weeks. Mean percentage change in limb fat from baseline to week 96 was 16·8% (SD 32·6) in the N(t)RTI group and 28·0% (37·6) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 10·2%, 95% CI 0·1-20·4; p=0·048). Mean absolute change was 1·04 kg (SD 2·29) in the N(t)RTI group and 1·81 kg (2·50) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 0·6, 95% CI -0·1 to 1·3; p=0·10).

    INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that for people with virological failure of a first-line regimen containing efavirenz plus tenofovir and lamivudine or emtricitabine, the WHO-recommended switch to a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus zidovudine (a thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and lamivudine might come at the cost of peripheral lipoatrophy. Further study could help to define specific groups of people who might benefit from a switch to an N(t)RTI-sparing second-line ART regimen.

    FUNDING: The Kirby Institute and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
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