Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 102 in total

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  1. Lei W, Guo X, Fu S, Feng Y, Tao X, Gao X, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 2017 Mar;201:32-41.
    PMID: 28284620 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.003
    BACKGROUND: Since the turn of the 21st century, there have been several epidemic outbreaks of poultry diseases caused by Tembusu virus (TMUV). Although multiple mosquito and poultry-derived strains of TMUV have been isolated, no data exist about their comparative study, origin, evolution, and dissemination.

    METHODOLOGY: Parallel virology was used to investigate the phenotypes of duck and mosquito-derived isolates of TMUV. Molecular biology and bioinformatics methods were employed to investigate the genetic characteristics and evolution of TMUV.

    PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The plaque diameter of duck-derived isolates of TMUV was larger than that of mosquito-derived isolates. The cytopathic effect (CPE) in mammalian cells occurred more rapidly induced by duck-derived isolates than by mosquito-derived isolates. Furthermore, duck-derived isolates required less time to reach maximum titer, and exhibited higher viral titer. These findings suggested that poultry-derived TMUV isolates were more invasive and had greater expansion capability than the mosquito-derived isolates in mammalian cells. Variations in amino acid loci in TMUV E gene sequence revealed two mutated amino acid loci in strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, and Chinese mainland compared with the prototypical strain of the virus (MM1775). Furthermore, TMUV isolates from the Chinese mainland had six common variations in the E gene loci that differed from the Southeast Asian strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that TMUV did not exhibit a species barrier in avian species and consisted of two lineages: the Southeast Asian and the Chinese mainland lineages. Molecular traceability studies revealed that the recent common evolutionary ancestor of TMUV might have appeared before 1934 and that Malaysia, Thailand and Shandong Province of China represent the three main sources related to TMUV spread.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current broad distribution of TMUV strains in Southeast Asia and Chinese mainland exhibited longer-range diffusion and larger-scale propagation. Therefore, in addition to China, other Asian and European countries linked to Asia have used improved measures to detect and monitor TMUV related diseases to prevent epidemics in poultry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  2. Petoumenos K, Choi JY, Hoy J, Kiertiburanakul S, Ng OT, Boyd M, et al.
    Antivir. Ther. (Lond.), 2017;22(8):659-668.
    PMID: 28291735 DOI: 10.3851/IMP3155
    BACKGROUND: In the era of effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) CD4:CD8 ratio is proposed as a potential marker for HIV-positive (HIV+) patients at increased risk for non-AIDS comorbidities. The current study aims to compare CD4:CD8 ratio between Asian and Caucasian HIV+ patients.

    METHODS: HIV+ patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) meeting specific criteria were included. In these analyses Asian and Caucasian status were defined by cohort. Factors associated with a low CD4:CD8 ratio (cutoff <0.2) prior to ART commencement, and with achieving a normal CD4:CD8 ratio (>1) at 12 and 24 months post ART commencement were assessed using logistic regression.

    RESULTS: There were 591 patients from AHOD and 2,620 patients from TAHOD who met the inclusion criteria. TAHOD patients had a significantly (P<0.001) lower odds of having a baseline (prior to ART initiation) CD4:CD8 ratio greater than 0.2. After 12 months of ART, AHOD patients were more than twice as likely to achieve a normal CD4:CD8 ratio compared to TAHOD patients (15% versus 6%). However, after adjustment for confounding factors there was no significant difference between cohorts in the odds of achieving a CD4:CD8 ratio >1 (P=0.475).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found a significantly lower CD4:CD8 ratio prior to commencing ART in TAHOD compared to AHOD even after adjusting for confounders. However, after adjustment, there was no significant difference between the cohorts in odds of achieving normal ratio. Baseline CD4+ and CD8+ counts seem to be the main driver for this difference between these two populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  3. Abdul Ahmad SA, Palanisamy UD, Khoo JJ, Dhanoa A, Syed Hassan S
    Virol. J., 2019 02 27;16(1):26.
    PMID: 30813954 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-019-1127-7
    BACKGROUND: Dengue continues to be a major international public health concern. Despite that, there is no clinically approved antiviral for treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infections. In this study, geraniin extracted from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum was shown to inhibit the replication of DENV-2 in both in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    METHODS: The effect of geraniin on DENV-2 RNA synthesis in infected Vero cells was tested using quantitative RT-PCR. The in vivo efficacy of geraniin in inhibiting DENV-2 infection was then tested using BALB/c mice with geraniin administered at three different times. The differences in spleen to body weight ratio, DENV-2 RNA load and liver damage between the three treatment groups as compared to DENV-2 infected mice without geraniin administration were determined on day eight post-infection.

    RESULTS: Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the decrease in viral RNA synthesis of infected Vero cells when treated with geraniin. Geraniin seemed to provide a protective effect on infected BALB/c mice liver when given at 24 h pre- and 24 h post-infection as liver damage was observed to be very mild even though a significant reduction of DENV-2 RNA load in serum was not observed in these two treatment groups. However, when administered at 72 h post-infection, severe liver damage in the form of necrosis and haemorrhage had prevailed despite a substantial reduction of DENV-2 RNA load in serum.

    CONCLUSIONS: Geraniin was found to be effective in reducing DENV-2 RNA load when administered at 72 h post-infection while earlier administration could prevent severe liver damage caused by DENV-2 infection. These results provide evidence that geraniin is a potential candidate for the development of anti-dengue drug.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  4. Ku SW, Jiamsakul A, Joshi K, Pasayan MKU, Widhani A, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    J Int AIDS Soc, 2019 03;22(3):e25264.
    PMID: 30924281 DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25264
    INTRODUCTION: Cotrimoxazole (CTX) is recommended as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, malaria and other serious bacterial infections in HIV-infected patients. Despite its in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the effects of CTX preventive therapy on tuberculosis (TB) remain unclear.

    METHODS: Adults living with HIV enrolled in a regional observational cohort in Asia who had initiated combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were included in the analysis. Factors associated with new TB diagnoses after cohort entry and survival after cART initiation were analysed using Cox regression, stratified by site.

    RESULTS: A total of 7355 patients from 12 countries enrolled into the cohort between 2003 and 2016 were included in the study. There were 368 reported cases of TB after cohort entry with an incidence rate of 0.99 per 100 person-years (/100 pys). Multivariate analyses adjusted for viral load (VL), CD4 count, body mass index (BMI) and cART duration showed that CTX reduced the hazard for new TB infection by 28% (HR 0.72, 95% CI l 0.56, 0.93). Mortality after cART initiation was 0.85/100 pys, with a median follow-up time of 4.63 years. Predictors of survival included age, female sex, hepatitis C co-infection, TB diagnosis, HIV VL, CD4 count and BMI.

    CONCLUSIONS: CTX was associated with a reduction in the hazard for new TB infection but did not impact survival in our Asian cohort. The potential preventive effect of CTX against TB during periods of severe immunosuppression should be further explored.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  5. Mehrbod P, Hair-Bejo M, Tengku Ibrahim TA, Omar AR, El Zowalaty M, Ajdari Z, et al.
    Int. J. Mol. Med., 2014 Jul;34(1):61-73.
    PMID: 24788303 DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2014.1761
    Influenza A virus is one of the most important health risks that lead to significant respiratory infections. Continuous antigenic changes and lack of promising vaccines are the reasons for the unsuccessful treatment of influenza. Statins are pleiotropic drugs that have recently served as anti-influenza agents due to their anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on influenza A-infected cells was investigated. Based on the MTT cytotoxicity test, hemagglutination (HA) assay and qPCR it was found that simvastatin maintained cell viability and decreased the viral load significantly as compared to virus-inoculated cells. The expression of important pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interferon-γ), which was quantified using ELISA showed that simvastatin decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines to an average of 2-fold. Furthermore, the modulation of actin filament polymerization was determined using rhodamine staining. Endocytosis and autophagy processes were examined by detecting Rab and RhoA GTPase protein prenylation and LC3 lipidation using western blotting. The results showed that inhibiting GTPase and LC3 membrane localization using simvastatin inhibits influenza replication. Findings of this study provide evidence that modulation of RhoA, Rabs and LC3 may be the underlying mechanisms for the inhibitory effects of simvastatin as an anti-influenza compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/drug effects
  6. Soe HJ, Khan AM, Manikam R, Samudi Raju C, Vanhoutte P, Sekaran SD
    J. Gen. Virol., 2017 Dec;98(12):2993-3007.
    PMID: 29182510 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000981
    Plasma leakage is the main pathophysiological feature in severe dengue, resulting from altered vascular barrier function associated with an inappropriate immune response triggered upon infection. The present study investigated functional changes using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system in four (brain, dermal, pulmonary and retinal) human microvascular endothelial cell (MEC) lines infected with purified dengue virus, followed by assessment of cytokine profiles and the expression of inter-endothelial junctional proteins. Modelling of changes in electrical impedance suggests that vascular leakage in dengue-infected MECs is mostly due to the modulation of cell-to-cell interactions, while this loss of vascular barrier function observed in the infected MECs varied between cell lines and DENV serotypes. High levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CCL2 and CCL20) and adhesion molecules (VCAM-1) were differentially produced in the four infected MECs. Further, the tight junctional protein, ZO-1, was down-regulated in both the DENV-1-infected brain and pulmonary MECs, while claudin-1, PECAM-1 and VE-cadherin were differentially expressed in these two MECs after infection. Non-purified virus stock was also studied to investigate the impact of virus stock purity on dengue-specific immune responses, and the results suggest that virus stock propagated through cell culture may include factors that mask or alter the DENV-specific immune responses of the MECs. The findings of the present study show that high DENV load differentially modulates human microvascular endothelial barrier function and disrupts the function of inter-endothelial junctional proteins during early infection with organ-specific cytokine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/immunology*
  7. Rasmussen LD, Pedersen C, Madsen HD, Laursen CB
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 Nov 29;2017.
    PMID: 29191821 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-221025
    A 36-year-old Danish man, living in Asia, was diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and HIV in 2013 (CD4+ count: 6 cells/µL; viral load: 518 000 copies/mL). He initiated combination antiretroviral therapy. Later that year, he was also diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and was treated with prednisolone. Despite complete viral suppression and increasing CD4+ count (162 cells/µL), he was readmitted with PCP in April 2015. Subsequently, he returned to Denmark (CD4+ count: 80 cells/µL, viral suppression). Over the following months, he developed progressive dyspnoea. Lung function tests demonstrated severely reduced lung capacity with an obstructive pattern and a moderately reduced diffusion capacity. High resolution computer tomography revealed minor areas with tree-in-bud pattern and no signs of air trapping on expiratory views. Lung biopsy showed lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the bronchioles with sparing of the alveolar septa. He was diagnosed with follicular bronchiolitis. The patient spontaneously recovered along with an improvement of the immune system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/drug effects
  8. Abba Y, Hassim H, Hamzah H, Ibrahim OE, Mohd Lila MA, Noordin MM
    Microb. Pathog., 2017 Mar;104:17-27.
    PMID: 28062291 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.01.003
    Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boid snakes believed to be caused by reptarenavirus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. Unlike most mammalian arenaviruses, the reservoir host for reptarenavirus is still unknown. In this study, the pathological responses were evaluated in a mouse model for a period of 28 days. Blood and tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain) were collected for evaluation of hematology, biochemistry, histopathology and oxidative enzyme levels at six time points (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), after viral infection (2.0 × 10(6) pfu/mL) in the infected and normal saline in the control groups. An initial increase (p Viral counts were low on days 7 and 14 but surged in both the liver and spleen on day 21 and 28. This study has shown that reptarenavirus replicates in mammalian host and induces oxidative stress. Furthermore, the resultant hematobiochemical and histopathological changes observed in infected mice were similar to what has been reported in mammarenavirus infections. This suggests that rodents may serve as potential reservoir hosts for reptarenavirus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  9. Barathan M, Mohamed R, Vadivelu J, Chang LY, Vignesh R, Krishnan J, et al.
    Cell. Immunol., 2017 03;313:1-9.
    PMID: 28104239 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2016.12.002
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV (CHC) patients showed significant increase of CTLA-4. Furthermore, HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ T cells of CHC patients also displayed relatively higher levels of PD-1 and TRAIL, whereas TIM-3 was up-regulated on HCV peptide-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Whereas the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 were markedly decreased in the T cell cultures of CHC patients. Chronic HCV infection results in functional exhaustion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells likely contributing to viral persistence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  10. Durier N, Yunihastuti E, Ruxrungtham K, Kinh NV, Kamarulzaman A, Boettiger D, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 03;24(3):187-196.
    PMID: 27917597 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12630
    Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan® ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76.0%) reported HCV exposure through injecting drug use, and 453 (94.4%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy. The median (IQR) CD4 count was 446 (325-614) cells/mm3 and 208 (94.1%) of 221 patients tested had HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL. A total of 412 (85.8%) had detectable HCV RNA, at a median (IQR) of 6.2 (5.4-6.6) log10 IU/mL. Among 380 patients with HCV GT, 223 (58.7%) had GT1, 97 (25.5%) had GT3, 43 (11.3%) had GT6, eight (2.1%) had GT4, two (0.5%) had GT2, and seven (1.8%) had indeterminate GT. Of 222 patients with IL28B testing, 189 (85.1%) had rs12979860 CC genotype, and 199 (89.6%) had rs8099917 TT genotype. Of 380 patients with FibroScan® , 143 (37.6%) had no/mild liver fibrosis (F0-F1), 83 (21.8%) had moderate fibrosis (F2), 74 (19.5%) had severe fibrosis (F3), and 79 (20.8%) had cirrhosis (F4). One patient (0.3%) had FibroScan® failure. In conclusion, a high proportion of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients had chronic HCV infection. HCV GT1 was predominant, and 62% of patients had liver disease warranting prompt treatment (≥F2).
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  11. Candotti D, Lin CK, Belkhiri D, Sakuldamrongpanich T, Biswas S, Lin S, et al.
    Gut, 2012 Dec;61(12):1744-53.
    PMID: 22267593 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301281
    To investigate the molecular basis of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) in Asian blood donors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  12. Meldal BH, Bon AH, Prati D, Ayob Y, Allain JP
    J. Viral Hepat., 2011 Feb;18(2):91-101.
    PMID: 20196797 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01282.x
    Malaysia is a medium endemic country for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but little is known about HBV strains circulating in Malaysian blood donors. Viral load, HBsAg concentrations and nested PCR products from 84 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive samples were analysed in detail. Median viral load was 3050 IU/mL and median HBsAg 1150 IU/mL. Fifty-six full genome, 20 pre-S/S, 1 S gene and six basic core promoter/precore-only sequences were obtained. Genotypes B and C were present at a ratio of 2:1, and two genotype D samples were obtained, both from donors of Indian background. Phylogenetically, genotype B was more diverse with subgenotypes B2-5, B7 and B8 present, while most genotype C strains were from subgenotype C1. Genotypes B and C were equally frequent in ethnic Malays, but 80% of strains from Chinese were genotype B. HBsAg concentrations were higher in genotype C than in genotype B, in Chinese than Malays and in donors under the age of 30. HBV vaccine escape substitutions (P120S/T, I126N and G145G) were present in six strains. In the large surface protein, immuno-inactive regions were more mutated than CD8 epitopes and the major hydrophilic region. Strains of genotype B or from ethnic Malays had higher genetic diversity than strains of genotype C or from Chinese donors. Hence HBV strains circulating in Malaysia are phylogenetically diverse reflecting the ethnic mix of its population. Ethnic Malays carry lower HBsAg levels and higher genetic diversity of the surface antigen, possibly resulting in more effective immune control of the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  13. Tan DB, Yong YK, Tan HY, Kamarulzaman A, Tan LH, Lim A, et al.
    HIV Med., 2008 May;9(5):307-16.
    PMID: 18400078 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00565.x
    A proportion of HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) develop immune restoration disease (IRD). Immunological characteristics of IRD were investigated in a cohort of HIV patients beginning therapy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  14. Lim A, Tan D, Price P, Kamarulzaman A, Tan HY, James I, et al.
    AIDS, 2007 Jul 31;21(12):1525-34.
    PMID: 17630546
    To examine the relationships between blood CD4 natural regulatory T (Treg) cells, plasma HIV RNA level, CD4 T-cell count and immune activation in untreated HIV-infected patients and immunodeficient patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART), using a novel phenotype to define Treg cells (CD25CD127CD4). Data were compared with established Treg cell markers (FoxP3, CTLA-4 and GITR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  15. Tan EL, Selvaratnam G, Kananathan R, Sam CK
    BMC Cancer, 2006;6:227.
    PMID: 16995954
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common epithelial neoplasm among the Chinese populations in Southern China and South East Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be an important etiologic agent of NPC and the viral gene products are frequently detected in NPC tissues along with elevated antibody titres to the viral proteins (VCA and EA) in a majority of patients. Elevated plasma EBV DNA load is regarded as an important marker for the presence of the disease and for the monitoring of disease progression. However, other serum/plasma parameters such as the levels of certain interleukins and growth factors have also been implicated in NPC. The objectives of the present study are, 1) to investigate the correlations between plasma EBV DNA load and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, TGF-beta1 and SCF (steel factor) and 2) to relate these parameters to the stages of NPC and the effect of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  16. Oong XY, Chook JB, Ng KT, Chow WZ, Chan KG, Hanafi NS, et al.
    Virol. J., 2018 05 23;15(1):91.
    PMID: 29792212 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-018-1005-8
    BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on disease pathogenesis in adults. This study aims to determine the role of HMPV genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in outpatient adults with acute respiratory tract infections.
    METHODS: Severity of common cold symptoms of patients from a teaching hospital was assessed by a four-category scale and summed to obtain the total symptom severity score (TSSS). Association between the fusion and glycoprotein genes diversity, viral load (quantified using an improved RT-qPCR assay), and symptom severity were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression analyses.
    RESULTS: Among 81/3706 HMPV-positive patients, there were no significant differences in terms of demographics, number of days elapsed between symptom onset and clinic visit, respiratory symptoms manifestation and severity between different HMPV genotypes/sub-lineages. Surprisingly, elderly patients (≥65 years old) had lower severity of symptoms (indicated by TSSS) than young and middle age adults (p = 0.008). Nasopharyngeal viral load did not correlate with nor predict symptom severity of HMPV infection. Interestingly, at 3-5 days after symptom onset, genotype A-infected patients had higher viral load compared to genotype B (4.4 vs. 3.3 log10 RNA copies/μl) (p = 0.003).
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, HMPV genetic diversity and viral load did not impact symptom severity in adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Differences in viral load dynamics over time between genotypes may have important implications on viral transmission.
    Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  17. Farhanah MI, Yasmin AR, Mat Isa N, Hair-Bejo M, Ideris A, Powers C, et al.
    J. Gen. Virol., 2018 Jan;99(1):21-35.
    PMID: 29058656 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000956
    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease in the poultry industry and causes immunosuppression in chickens. Genome-wide regulations of immune response genes of inbred chickens with different genetic backgrounds, following very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection are poorly characterized. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the bursal tissue transcriptome of six inbred chicken lines 6, 7, 15, N, O and P following infection with vvIBDV strain UK661 using strand-specific next-generation sequencing, by highlighting important genes and pathways involved in the infected chicken during peak infection at 3 days post-infection. All infected chickens succumbed to the infection without major variations among the different lines. However, based on the viral loads and bursal lesion scoring, lines P and 6 can be considered as the most susceptible lines, while lines 15 and N were regarded as the least affected lines. Transcriptome profiling of the bursa identified 4588 genes to be differentially expressed, with 2985 upregulated and 1642 downregulated genes, in which these genes were commonly or uniquely detected in all or several infected lines. Genes that were upregulated are primarily pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and IFN-related. Various genes that are associated with B-cell functions and genes related to apoptosis were downregulated, together with the genes involved in p53 signalling. In conclusion, bursal transcriptome profiles of different inbred lines showed differential expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Th1 cytokines, JAK-STAT signalling genes, MAPK signalling genes, and their related pathways following vvIBDV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  18. Yong YK, Tan HY, Saeidi A, Rosmawati M, Atiya N, Ansari AW, et al.
    Innate Immun, 2017 07;23(5):459-467.
    PMID: 28606013 DOI: 10.1177/1753425917714854
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Host immune responses represent the key determinants of HBV clearance or persistence. Here, we investigated the role of the early activation marker, CD69 and effector cytokines, granzyme B (GrB) and IFN-γ in the exhaustion of innate-like TCR Vα7.2+CD4+T cells, in 15 individuals with chronic HBV (CHB) infection where six were HBV DNA+ and nine were HBV DNA-. The percentage of cytokine-producing T cells and MAIT cells were significantly perturbed in HBV patients relative to healthy controls (HCs). The intracellular expression of GrB and IFN-γ was significantly reduced in MAIT cells derived from HBV-infected patients as compared to HCs, and the levels correlated with the percentage and levels [mean fluorescence intensity (MFI)] of CD69 expression. The total expression of CD69 (iMFI) was lower in CHB patients as compared to HCs. The frequency of CD69+ cells correlated with the levels of cytokine expression (MFI), particularly in CHB patients as compared to HCs. In summary, the polyfunctionality of peripheral T cells was significantly reduced among CHB patients, especially in the TCR Vα7.2+CD4+T cells, and the levels of cytokine expression correlated with functional cytokine levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  19. Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Pham T, Tanwandee T, Nazareth S, Galhenage S, Mollison L, et al.
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2015 Jul 28;21(28):8660-9.
    PMID: 26229408 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i28.8660
    To examined the efficacy and safety of treatment with boceprevir, PEGylated-interferon and ribavirin (PR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCVGT1) PR treatment-failures in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  20. Rothan HA, Bahrani H, Shankar EM, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    Antiviral Res., 2014 Aug;108:173-80.
    PMID: 24929084 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.05.019
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to a serious economic burden, as the available treatment strategies can only alleviate disease symptoms, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are currently available for human use. Here, we report the use of a new cost-effective approach involving production of a recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein that is scalable for the treatment of CHIKV infection. A peptide-fusion recombinant protein LATA-PAP1-THAN that was generated by joining Latarcin (LATA) peptide with the N-terminus of the PAP1 antiviral protein, and the Thanatin (THAN) peptide to the C-terminus, was produced in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The antiviral LATA-PAP1-THAN protein showed 89.0% reduction of viral plaque formation compared with PAP1 (46.0%), LATA (67.0%) or THAN (79.3%) peptides alone. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein reduced the viral RNA load that was 0.89-fold compared with the untreated control cells. We also showed that PAP1 resulted in 0.44-fold reduction, and THAN and LATA resulting in 0.78-fold and 0.73-fold reductions, respectively. The LATA-PAP1-THAN protein inhibited CHIKV replication in the Vero cells at an EC50 of 11.2μg/ml, which is approximately half of the EC50 of PAP1 (23.7μg/ml) and protected the CHIKV-infected mice at the dose of 0.75mg/ml. We concluded that production of antiviral peptide-fusion protein in E. coli as inclusion bodies could accentuate antiviral activities, enhance cellular internalisation, and could reduce product toxicity to host cells and is scalable to epidemic response quantities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
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