Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 950 in total

  1. Ibrahim R, Rahmat K, Fadzli F, Rozalli FI, Westerhout CJ, Alli K, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2016 Jan 6.
    PMID: 26767894 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2016001
    This study aimed to evaluate the vascular pattern of solid breast lesions using power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) and to assess whether the presence of intratumoural penetrating vessels can be used to predict breast cancer malignancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  2. Ahmadian M, Samah AA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(7):4005-13.
    PMID: 23991945
    BACKGROUND: Although breast cancer is a major public health worry among Asian women, adherence to screening for the disease remains an obstacle to its prevention. A variety of psycho-social and cultural factors predispose women to delay or avoidance of screening for breast cancer symptoms at the early stages when cure is most likely to be successful. Yet few interventions implemented to date to address this condition in this region have drawn on health behavior theory.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the existing literature on several cognitive theories and models associated with breast cancer screening, with an emphasis on the work that has been done in relation to Asian women. To conduct this review, a number of electronic databases were searched with context-appropriate inclusion criteria.

    RESULTS: Little empirical work was found that specifically addressed the applicability of health theories in promoting adherence to the current breast cancer prevention programs Among Asian women. However, a few studies were found that addressed individual cognitive factors that are likely to encourage women's motivation to protect themselves against breast cancer in this region of the world. The findings suggest that multi-level, socio-cultural interventions that focus on cognitive factors have much promise with this issue.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed that effectively and efficiently target the personal motivation of at-risk Asian women to seek out and engage in breast cancer prevention. Concerning implications, personal motivation to seek out and engage in individual preventive actions for breast cancer prevention among Asian women is a timely, high priority target with practical implications for community development and health promotion. Further studies using qualitative, anthropologic approaches shaped for implementation in multi-ethnic Asian settings are needed to inform and guide these interventions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control; Breast Neoplasms/psychology
  3. Pei Lin L, Zakaria NS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Jan;20(1):60-8.
    PMID: 23785256 MyJurnal
    Accurate medical information is essential among health care professionals to aid dissemination of information to the public. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge about breast cancer and to identify related factors among undergraduate health sciences students in a public university in Terengganu, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  4. Yip CH, bt Mohd Taib NA, Lau PC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008 Jan-Mar;9(1):63-5.
    PMID: 18439076
    INTRODUCTION: An important risk factor for developing breast cancer is a positive family history of breast cancer. In Malaysia, there is no population-based breast screening programme, but the clinical practice guidelines suggest increased surveillance for those with a positive family history ie mammography for those 40 years old and above, breast self-examination and clinical breast examination yearly.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine if women with a family history of breast cancer present with earlier stages of disease.
    METHODOLOGY: From Jan 2001 to Dec 2006, 1553 women with breast cancer presenting to the University Malaya, where family history was recorded, were eligible for this study. Women with a first or second degree relative with breast cancer were compared with those who have no family history with regard to their race, age, stage, size and duration of symptoms. The Chi Square test of significance was used for analysis.
    RESULTS: Out of 1553 patients, 252 (16.2%) were found to have a relative with breast cancer out of which 174 (11.2%) had at least one affected first degree relative. There were no significant difference in the incidence of positive family history between the Malays, Chinese and Indians. 20% below the age of 40 years old had a positive family history compared with 12.6% in women with no family history. (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in stage at diagnosis between those with and without family history, ie 24.2% late stages (Stage 3 and 4) in the group with no family history compared with 21.8% in the group with family history. (p>0.05). The mean size in the group with no family history was 4.4 cm compared to 4.1 cm in the group with family history. There was a significant difference in screen-detected cancers in the women with family history, 10.7% compared with 5.1% of screen-detected cancers in the group without a family history. However there was no difference in the duration of symptoms between the 2 groups--25.8% in the women without a family history presented after 1 year of symptoms compared with 22.4% in the group with a family history (p>0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Having a family history of breast cancer does not appear to have much impact on the health-seeking behavior of women. Even though there were more screen detected cancers, these comprised only 10% of the group with family history. Public education should target women at risk ie with family history to encourage these women to present earlier and to undergo screening for breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology
  5. Naidu R, Yip CH, Taib NA
    Neoplasma, 2008;55(2):87-95.
    PMID: 18237245
    The HER2 codon Ile655Val and Cyclin D1 (CCND1) G870A polymorphisms were analyzed in a hospital-based Malaysian population using PCR-RFLP method. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 230 breast cancer patients, and 200 normal and healthy women who had no history of breast disease or breast cancer. We evaluated the association between HER2 or CCND1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, and clinico-pathological parameters in the population. The genotype and allele frequencies of HER2 (P=0.163 vs P=0.0622) and CCND1 (P=0.377 vs P=0.284) polymorphisms were not significantly different between the breast cancer cases and normal subjects, respectively. Women who were Ile/Val heterozygotes (OR=1.48; 95% CI, 0.91-2.43), Val/Val homozygotes (OR=1.93; 95% CI, 0.51-7.77) and carriers of Val allele genotype (OR=1.53; 95% CI, 0.95-2.45) were not significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk. Similarly, women who were homozygous (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 0.77-2.34) or heterozygous (OR=0.98; 95% CI, 0.60-1.60) for A allele, or carriers of A allele genotype (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.70-1.73) were not associated with breast cancer risk. Analysis on clinico-pathological parameters showed that Val allele genotype was significantly correlated with nodal metastases but A allele genotype was not associated with any of the variables. Our findings suggest that the polymorphic alleles of HER2 and CCND1 may not play an important role as genetic markers for breast cancer risk, but presence of Val allele may be useful for tumor prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/etiology; Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  6. Pant I, Joshi SC
    J Cancer Res Ther, 2009 Jul-Sep;5(3):216-8.
    PMID: 19841568 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.57132
    Breast masses occur in men far less commonly than women. Papillary lesions of the male breast are rare and comprise a spectrum of lesions ranging from benign intraductal papilloma to intraductal papillary carcinoma and invasive papillary carcinoma. In this case report, a 78-year-old man presented with a subareolar painless mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. Cytologic examination revealed a cellular aspirate. A diagnosis of papillary lesion favoring papillary carcinoma was rendered. The patient underwent modified radical mastectomy, which showed invasive papillary carcinoma. As far as we know, only a few cases of invasive papillary carcinoma of the male breast have been published in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of invasive papillary carcinoma of male breast in Malaysia. In this purview, we discuss papillary carcinoma of male breast with review of the relevant literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms, Male/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms, Male/pathology*; Breast Neoplasms, Male/surgery
  7. Yip CH, Taib NA, Choo WY, Rampal S, Thong MK, Teo SH
    World J Surg, 2009 Oct;33(10):2077-81.
    PMID: 19649760 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-009-0146-8
    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer an increased risk to breast and other cancers, but to date there have only been limited numbers of studies of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated cancers among Asians. Malaysia is a multiracial country with three main races: Malays, Chinese, Indians. We determined whether tumor pathologic features and clinical features differ in patients with and without BRCA mutations in this Asian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  8. Kadir AA, Iyengar KR, Peh SC, Yip CH
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Jun;30(1):57-61.
    PMID: 19108413
    Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are uncommon tumors known to occur in the elderly. While focal neuroendocrine differentiation may be noted in many ductal and lobular carcinomas, the term neuroendocrine carcinoma is to be applied when more than 50% of the tumor shows such differentiation. This case report details the cytological features of a neuroendocrine carcinoma that was encountered in our hospital. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed discohesive polygonal cells with abundant cytoplasm, many of which contained eosinophilic granules located at one pole. Histology of the mastectomy and axillary lymph nodes specimen from this patient showed features of neuroendocrine carcinoma--solid type, with metastasis, confirmed with immunohistochemistry. The patient is disease free seven months after surgery. This case highlights the need to closely observe cytological details to identify this rare tumor that may otherwise appear to be invasive duct carcinoma--not otherwise specified on FNA. The implications of diagnosing neuroendocrine differentiation for prognosis and management are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism; Breast Neoplasms/pathology*; Breast Neoplasms/surgery*
  9. Peyman A, Kabiri M, Peyman M
    Breast J, 2015 Sep-Oct;21(5):543-4.
    PMID: 26174775 DOI: 10.1111/tbj.12451
    Here, we present a case of tonic pupil associated with occult breast cancer as a paraneoplastic neuro-ophthalmology syndrome. A 45-year-old woman developed progressive photophobia and blurred vision due to unilateral Adie's tonic pupil. Magnetic resonance image of her brain and neurological examination (including deep tendon reflexes) were normal at first visit. Follow-up examinations performed by ophthalmologist every 6 month without any change in her condition. After 2 years, patient discovered a mass in her breast which identified to be malignant after diagnostic procedures. Despite surgical and medical treatment for cancer, no change in the ocular condition was happened.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/complications*; Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/surgery
  10. Guure CB, Ibrahim NA, Adam MB
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2013;2013:849520.
    PMID: 23476718 DOI: 10.1155/2013/849520
    Interval-censored data consist of adjacent inspection times that surround an unknown failure time. We have in this paper reviewed the classical approach which is maximum likelihood in estimating the Weibull parameters with interval-censored data. We have also considered the Bayesian approach in estimating the Weibull parameters with interval-censored data under three loss functions. This study became necessary because of the limited discussion in the literature, if at all, with regard to estimating the Weibull parameters with interval-censored data using Bayesian. A simulation study is carried out to compare the performances of the methods. A real data application is also illustrated. It has been observed from the study that the Bayesian estimator is preferred to the classical maximum likelihood estimator for both the scale and shape parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms/mortality*; Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy
  11. Jayaram G, Jayalakshmi P, Yip CH
    Acta Cytol., 2005 Nov-Dec;49(6):656-60.
    PMID: 16450908
    BACKGROUND: Leiomyosarcoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm. We present a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast in a middle-aged female in whom fine needle aspiration cytologic features suggested sarcoma.

    CASE: A 55-year-old female presented with a rapidly growing breast lump of 1 month's duration. On examination, an ulcerating, 12 x 10 cm tumor was seen involving the lower medial and lateral quadrants of the right breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed variably sized, dissociated and loosely clustered polygonal, plump and spindle cells with pale blue cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei that were round, oval or irregular. Occasional giant forms and nucleolated and mitotic cells were present. A single cluster of benign ductal cells was seen. The tumor cells did not express immunocytologic reactivity to estrogen receptor protein. A cytologic diagnosis of sarcoma was given with differential diagnoses of metaplastic carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor. Histologic study established the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. Leiomyosarcoma of the breast shows fine needle aspiration cytologic features of sarcoma, but specific tumor typing may not be possible, especially when the cytologic material is inadequate for ancillary staining required to distinguish leiomyosarcoma from metaplastic carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology; Breast Neoplasms/surgery
  12. Taib N, Yip Ch, Ranganathan S, Moosa F, Mun K
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2006 Jul;2(3):e30.
    PMID: 21614243 MyJurnal DOI: 10.2349/biij.2.3.e30
    Angiosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare condition. This case illustrates the use of embolisation as a modality of treatment for primary breast angiosarcoma. No other case has been reported on the use of embolisation for this disorder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  13. Khan TM, Leong JP, Ming LC, Khan AH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(13):5349-57.
    PMID: 26225677
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia. Delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms is preventable and by identifying possible factors for delayed diagnosis, patient prognosis and survival rates could be improved.

    OBJECTIVES: This narrative review aimed to understand and evaluate the level of in-depth breast cancer knowledge in terms of clinical breast examination and breast self-examination, and other important aspects such as side-effects and risk factors in Malaysian females. Since Malaysia is multicultural, this review assessed social perceptions, cultural beliefs and help-seeking behaviour in respect to breast cancer among different ethnic groups, since these may impinge on efforts to 'avoid' the disease.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of seven databases was performed from December 2015 to January 2015. Screening of relevant published journals was also undertaken to identify available information related to the knowledge, perception and help-seeking behaviour of Malaysian women in relation to breast cancer.

    RESULTS: A total of 42 articles were appraised and included in this review. Generally, women in Malaysia had good awareness of breast cancer and its screening tools, particularly breast self-examination, but only superficial in-depth knowledge about the disease. Women in rural areas had lower levels of knowledge than those in urban areas. It was also shown that books, magazines, brochures and television were among the most common sources of breast cancer information. Delay in presentation was attributed mainly to a negative social perception of the disease, poverty, cultural and religion practices, and a strong influence of complementary and alternative medicine, rather than a lack of knowledge.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review highlighted the need for an intensive and in-depth breast cancer education campaigns using media and community health programmes, even with the existing good awareness of breast cancer. This is essential in order to avoid misconceptions and to frame the correct mind-set about breast cancer among women in Malaysia. Socio-cultural differences and religious practices should be taken into account by health care professionals when advising on breast cancer. Women need to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer so that early diagnosis can take place and the chances of survival improved.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/psychology; Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  14. Azeem E, Gillani SW, Siddiqui A, Shammary H A A, Poh V, Syed Sulaiman SA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(13):5233-5.
    PMID: 26225658
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Therefore, it is highly important for the public to be educated on breast cancer and to know the steps to detect it early on. Healthcare providers are in the prime position to provide such education to the public due to their high knowledge regarding health and their roles in healthcare. The present systematic review involved studies conducted in recent years to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Malaysian healthcare providers regarding breast cancer, in attempts to obtain an overall picture of how well equipped our healthcare providers are to provide optimal breast cancer education, and to see their perceptions and actual involvement in said education. The systematic review was conducted via a primary search of various databases and journal websites, and a secondary search of references used by eligible studies. Criteria for eligibility included being published from the year 2008 till present, being conducted in Malaysia, and being written in the English language. A total of two studies were eligible for this review. Findings show that Malaysian future and current healthcare providers have moderate knowledge on breast cancer, have a positive towards involvement of breast cancer education, but have poor actual involvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control*; Breast Neoplasms/psychology
  15. Norly Salleh, Aishah Ibrahim, Ros’aini Paijan
    Leiomyosarcoma is a rare cancer and the presence of this type of cancer in the breast is even rarer. Due to its rarity, the management options for leiomyosarcoma of the breast are not well documented. Literature review was done to establish the best treatment options for this type of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  16. Shahrun Niza AS, Nani Harlina ML, Razrim R, Ussof Eskaandar MH, Rohaizak M
    A surgeon’s experience plays an important role in breast conserving surgery (BCS). The common conception is that, the more junior is the operating surgeon, the surgical margin will be wider or closer to the tumour edge. Thus the aim of this study is to look into the adequacy of surgical margin performed by different level of surgeons’ experience in patients whom underwent wide local excision (WLE) and hook-wire localization (HWL) in our surgical unit. The surgical experience of the operating surgeon and their surgical margins will be analyzed. This is a retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2012. Eighty-eight patients with early breast cancer underwent WLE and HWL by 3 different groups of surgeons (breast surgeons, junior surgeons and surgical registrars) were included. The surgical margins were analyzed for involved-margin, closed-margin or excessed-margin.The incidence of involved-margin, closed-margin and excessed-margin is the lowest among breast surgeons compared to other groups. However, the results were not statistically significant. The incidence of involved surgical margin is significantly higher within junior surgeons for HWL compared to the breast surgeons. The incidence of involved, closed or excessed surgical margin were lowest when performed by breast surgeon but not significantly different between the three groups. However, for HWL the breast surgeons significantly better compared to the other groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  17. Sharifah, M.I.A.
    Solid papillary breast carcinoma is a rare type of breast carcinoma. We present four cases which highlight the radiological and histological findings of solid papillary carcinoma. Mammogram supplemented with ultrasound played an important role in detecting solid papillary carcinomas which usually presents as intraductal lesions or intracystic mass with Doppler signal. Excision biopsy is a better option than core biopsy as the latter modality may not be representative and the diagnosis of solid papillary breast carcinoma may be missed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  18. Langarizadeh, Mostafa, Rozi Mahmud, Abd. Rahman Ramli, Suhaimi Napis, Mohammad Reza Beikzadeh, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul Rahman
    Breast cancer is one of the most important diseases among females. According to the Malaysian Oncological Society (Wahid, 2007), about 4% of women who are 40 years old and above are suffering from breast cancer. Masses and microcalcifications are two important signs for breast cancer diagnosis on mammography. In this research, the effects of different image processing techniques which include enhancement, restoration, segmentation, and hybrid methods on phantom images were studied. Three different phantom images, which were obtained at 25kv (63.2 MAS), 28kv (29.8 MAS) and 35kv (9.5 MAS), were manipulated using image processing methods. The images were scored by two expert radiologists and the results were compared to explore any significant improvements. Meanwhile, the Wilcoxen Rank test was used to compare the quality of the manipulated images with the original one (alpha=0.05). Each image processing method was found to be effective on some particular criteria for image quality. Some methods were effective on just one criterion while some others were effective on a few criteria. The statistical test showed that there was an average improvement of 41 percent when the images were manipulated using the histogram modification methods. It could be concluded that different image processing methods have different effects on phantom images which generally improve radiologists’ visualization. The results confirm that the histogram stretching and histogram equation methods lead to higher improvement in image quality as compared to the original image (p < 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  19. Baraya YS, Wong KK, Yaacob NS
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2017;17(6):770-783.
    PMID: 27539316 DOI: 10.2174/1871520616666160817111242
    Breast cancer has continued to cause high cancer death rates among women worldwide. The use of plants' natural products in breast cancer treatment has received more attention in recent years due to their potentially wider safety margin and the potential to complement conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Plantbased products have demonstrated anticancer potential through different biological pathways including modulation of the immune system. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal plants have been shown to mitigate breast cancer cell growth. Different immune cell types participate in this process especially cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, and cytokines including chemokines and tumor necrosis factor-α. Medicinal plants such as Glycyrrhiza glabra, Uncaria tomentosa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng, Prunus armenaica (apricot), Allium sativum, Arctium lappa and Curcuma longa were reported to hold strong potential in breast cancer treatment in various parts of the world. Interestingly, research findings have shown that these plants possess bioactive immunomodulators as their main constituents producing the anticancer effects. These immunomodulatory compounds include ajoene, arctigenin, β-carotene, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, ginsan, glabridin and quinic acid. In this review, we discussed the ability of these eight immunomodulators in regulating the immune system potentially applicable in breast cancer treatment via anti-inflammatory (curcumin, arctigenin, glabridin and ajoene) and lymphocytes activation (β-carotene, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, quinic acid and ginsan) properties, as well as future research direction in their use for breast cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/immunology; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  20. Brand JS, Hedayati E, Bhoo-Pathy N, Bergh J, Hall P, Humphreys K, et al.
    Cancer, 2017 02 01;123(3):468-475.
    PMID: 27727456 DOI: 10.1002/cncr.30364
    BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication of cancer and its treatment. The current study assessed the risk and clinical predictors of VTE in breast cancer patients by time since diagnosis.

    METHODS: This Swedish population-based study included 8338 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 in the Stockholm-Gotland region with complete follow-up until 2012. Their incidence of VTE was compared with the incidence among 39,013 age-matched reference individuals from the general population. Cox and flexible parametric models were used to examine associations with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, accounting for time-dependent effects.

    RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.2 years, 426 breast cancer patients experienced a VTE event (cumulative incidence, 5.1%). The VTE incidence was 3-fold increased (hazard ratio [HR], 3.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87-3.74) in comparison with the incidence in the general population and was highest 6 months after diagnosis (HR, 8.62; 95% CI, 6.56-11.33) with a sustained increase in risk thereafter (HR at 5 years, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.80-2.67). Independent predictors of VTE included the following: older age, being overweight, preexisting VTE, comorbid disease, tumor size > 40 mm, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative status, more than 4 affected lymph nodes, and receipt of chemo- and endocrine therapy. The impact of chemotherapy was limited to early-onset VTE, whereas comorbid disease and PR-negative status were more strongly associated with late-onset events.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the long-term risk of VTE in breast cancer patients and identifies a comprehensive set of clinical risk predictors. Temporal associations with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics provide insight into the time-dependent etiology of VTE. Cancer 2017;123:468-475. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/complications*; Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
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