Methods: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate fecal and serum metabolome of rat model of IBS-D with and without HPM treatment.
Results: The current results showed that IBS-induced metabolic alterations in fecal and serum sample include higher level of threonine and UDP-glucose together with lower levels of aspartate, ornithine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, 2-hydroxy butyrate, valine, lactate, ethanol, arginine, 2-oxoisovalerate and bile acids. These altered metabolites potentially involve in impaired gut secretory immune system and intestinal inflammation, malabsorption of nutrients, and disordered metabolism of bile acids. Notably, the HPM treatment was found able to normalize the Bristol stool forms scale scores, fecal water content, plasma endotoxin level, and a number of IBS-induced metabolic changes.
Conclusions: These findings may provide useful insight into the molecular basis of IBS and mechanism of the HPM intervention.
METHODS: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
RESULTS: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.
CONCLUSION: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.
METHODS: Four different solvent extracts of OS, namely aqueous, ethanolic, 50% aqueous ethanolic and methanolic, at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) were orally administered for 14 days to diabetic rats induced via intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg bw STZ. NMR metabolomics approach using pattern recognition combined with multivariate statistical analysis was applied in the rat urine to study the resulted metabolic perturbations.
RESULTS: OS aqueous extract (OSAE) caused a reversal of DM comparable to that of 10 mg/kg bw glibenclamide. A total of 15 urinary metabolites, which levels changed significantly upon treatment were identified as the biomarkers of OSAE in diabetes. A systematic metabolic pathways analysis identified that OSAE contributed to the antidiabetic activity mainly through regulating the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study validated the ethnopharmacological use of OS in diabetes and unveiled the biochemical and metabolic mechanisms involved.
METHODS: In this study, anti-diabetic effect of ML extract is investigated in vivo to evaluate the biochemical changes, potential serum biomarkers and alterations in metabolic pathways pertaining to the treatment of HFD/STZ induced diabetic rats with ML extract using (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Type 2 diabetic rats were treated with different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg BW) of Melicope lunu-ankenda leaf extract for 8 weeks, and serum samples were examined for clinical biochemistry. The metabolomics study of serum was also carried out using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis to explore differentiating serum metabolites and altered metabolic pathways.
RESULTS: The ML leaf extract (400 mg/kg BW) treatment significantly increased insulin level and insulin sensitivity of obese diabetic rats, with concomitant decrease in glucose level and insulin resistance. Significant reduction in total triglyceride, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein was also observed after treatment. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in high density lipoprotein of the treated rats. A decrease in renal injury markers and activities of liver enzymes was also observed. Moreover, metabolomics studies clearly demonstrated that, ML extract significantly ameliorated the disturbance in glucose metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism.
CONCLUSION: ML leaf extract exhibits potent antidiabetic properties, hence could be a useful and affordable alternative option for the management of T2DM.