Displaying publications 81 - 93 of 93 in total

  1. Perumal, V., Khoo, W.C., Abdul-Hamid, A., Ismail, A., Saari, K., Murugesu, S., et al.
    Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon or ‘peria katak’ in Malaysia, is a member of the family Cucurbitaceae. Bitter melon is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals that made it extensively nutritious. Moreover, the seed, fruit and leave of the plant contain bioactive compounds with a wide range of biological activities that have been used in traditional medicines in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, infections, obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in urinary metabolite profile of the normal, streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and M. charantia treated diabetic rats using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) -based metabolomics profiling. Study had been carried out by inducing diabetes in the rats through injection of streptozotocin, which exhibited type 1 diabetes. M. charantia extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for one week. Blood glucose level after administration was measured to examine hypoglycemic effect of the extract. The results obtained indicated that M. charantia was effective in lowering blood glucose level of the diabetic rats. The loading plot of Partial Least Square (PLS) component 1 showed that diabetic rats had increased levels of lactate and glucose in urine whereas normal and the extract treated diabetic rats had higher levels of succinate, creatine, creatinine, urea and phenylacetylglycine in urine. While the loading plot of PLS component 2 showed a higher levels of succinate, citrate, creatine, creatinine, sugars, and hippurate in urine of normal rat compared to the extract treated diabetic rat. Administration of M. charantia extract was found to be able to regulate the altered metabolic processes. Thus, it could be potentially used to treat the diabetic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  2. Ezzat SM, Ezzat MI, Okba MM, Hassan SM, Alkorashy AI, Karar MM, et al.
    PMID: 31275418 DOI: 10.1155/2019/7543460
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Fam.: Simaroubaceae), known as Tongkat Ali (TA), has been known as a symbol of virility and sexual power for men. Metabolic profiling of the aqueous extract of E. longifolia (AEEL) using UPLC-MS/MS in both positive and negative modes allowed the identification of seventeen metabolites. The identified compounds were classified into four groups: quassinoids, alkaloids, triterpenes, and biphenylneolignans. AEEL is considered safe with oral LD50 cut-off >5000 mg/kg. Oral administration of 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of AEEL for 10 consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley male rats caused significant reductions in mounting, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and increased penile erection index. AEEL increased total body weight and relative weights of seminal vesicles and prostate. Total and free serum testosterone and brain cortical and hippocampal dopamine content was significantly elevated in treated groups with no significant effects on serotonin or noradrenaline content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  3. Contreras-Jodar A, Nayan NH, Hamzaoui S, Caja G, Salama AAK
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(2):e0202457.
    PMID: 30735497 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202457
    The aim of the study is to identify the candidate biomarkers of heat stress (HS) in the urine of lactating dairy goats through the application of proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis. Dairy does (n = 16) in mid-lactation were submitted to thermal neutral (TN; indoors; 15 to 20°C; 40 to 45% humidity) or HS (climatic chamber; 37°C day, 30°C night; 40% humidity) conditions according to a crossover design (2 periods of 21 days). Thermophysiological traits and lactational performances were recorded and milk composition analyzed during each period. Urine samples were collected at day 15 of each period for 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) assessment with cross validation were used to identify the goat urinary metabolome from the Human Metabolome Data Base. HS increased rectal temperature (1.2°C), respiratory rate (3.5-fold) and water intake (74%), but decreased feed intake (35%) and body weight (5%) of the lactating does. No differences were detected in milk yield, but HS decreased the milk contents of fat (9%), protein (16%) and lactose (5%). Metabolomics allowed separating TN and HS urinary clusters by PLS-DA. Most discriminating metabolites were hippurate and other phenylalanine (Phe) derivative compounds, which increased in HS vs. TN does. The greater excretion of these gut-derived toxic compounds indicated that HS induced a harmful gastrointestinal microbiota overgrowth, which should have sequestered aromatic amino acids for their metabolism and decreased the synthesis of neurotransmitters and thyroid hormones, with a negative impact on milk yield and composition. In conclusion, HS markedly changed the thermophysiological traits and lactational performances of dairy goats, which were translated into their urinary metabolomic profile through the presence of gut-derived toxic compounds. Hippurate and other Phe-derivative compounds are suggested as urinary biomarkers to detect heat-stressed dairy animals in practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  4. Abdul-Hamid NA, Abas F, Ismail IS, Tham CL, Maulidiani M, Mediani A, et al.
    Food Res. Int., 2019 Nov;125:108565.
    PMID: 31554083 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108565
    Inflammation has been revealed to play a central role in the onset and progression of many illnesses. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics method was adopted to evaluate the effects of Phoenix dactylifera seeds, in particular the Algerian date variety of Deglet on the metabolome of the LPS-IFN-γ-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Variations in the extracellular and intracellular profiles emphasized the differences in the presence of tyrosine, phenylalanine, alanine, proline, asparagine, isocitrate, inosine and lysine. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed noticeable clustering patterns between the treated and induced RAW cells based on the metabolic profile of the extracellular metabolites. However, the effects of treatment on the intracellular metabolites appears to be less distinct as suggested by the PCA and heatmap analyses. A clear group segregation was observed for the intracellular metabolites from the treated and induced cells based on the orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plot. Likewise, 11 of the metabolites in the treated cells were significantly different from those in the induced groups, including amino acids and succinate. The enrichment analysis demonstrated that treatment with Deglet seed extracts interfered with the energy and of amino acids metabolism. Overall, the obtained data reinforced the possible application of Deglet seeds as a functional food with anti-inflammatory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  5. Schmidt JA, Fensom GK, Rinaldi S, Scalbert A, Appleby PN, Achaintre D, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2020 02 01;146(3):720-730.
    PMID: 30951192 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32314
    Metabolomics may reveal novel insights into the etiology of prostate cancer, for which few risk factors are established. We investigated the association between patterns in baseline plasma metabolite profile and subsequent prostate cancer risk, using data from 3,057 matched case-control sets from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We measured 119 metabolite concentrations in plasma samples, collected on average 9.4 years before diagnosis, by mass spectrometry (AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit, Biocrates Life Sciences AG). Metabolite patterns were identified using treelet transform, a statistical method for identification of groups of correlated metabolites. Associations of metabolite patterns with prostate cancer risk (OR1SD ) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Supplementary analyses were conducted for metabolite patterns derived using principal component analysis and for individual metabolites. Men with metabolite profiles characterized by higher concentrations of either phosphatidylcholines or hydroxysphingomyelins (OR1SD  = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.89), acylcarnitines C18:1 and C18:2, glutamate, ornithine and taurine (OR1SD  = 0.72, 0.57-0.90), or lysophosphatidylcholines (OR1SD  = 0.81, 0.69-0.95) had lower risk of advanced stage prostate cancer at diagnosis, with no evidence of heterogeneity by follow-up time. Similar associations were observed for the two former patterns with aggressive disease risk (the more aggressive subset of advanced stage), while the latter pattern was inversely related to risk of prostate cancer death (OR1SD  = 0.77, 0.61-0.96). No associations were observed for prostate cancer overall or less aggressive tumor subtypes. In conclusion, metabolite patterns may be related to lower risk of more aggressive prostate tumors and prostate cancer death, and might be relevant to etiology of advanced stage prostate cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  6. Lin X, Liu X, Xu J, Cheng KK, Cao J, Liu T, et al.
    Chin Med, 2019;14:18.
    PMID: 31080495 DOI: 10.1186/s13020-019-0240-2
    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which is commonly treated with antidiarrhoeal, antispasmodics, serotonergic agents or laxative agents. These treatments provide relief for IBS symptoms but may also lead to undesired side effects. Previously, herb-partitioned moxibustion (HPM) treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of IBS. However, the underlying mechanism of this beneficial treatment is yet to be established. The aim of the current study was to systematically assess the metabolic alterations in response to diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and therapeutic effect of HPM.

    Methods: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate fecal and serum metabolome of rat model of IBS-D with and without HPM treatment.

    Results: The current results showed that IBS-induced metabolic alterations in fecal and serum sample include higher level of threonine and UDP-glucose together with lower levels of aspartate, ornithine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, 2-hydroxy butyrate, valine, lactate, ethanol, arginine, 2-oxoisovalerate and bile acids. These altered metabolites potentially involve in impaired gut secretory immune system and intestinal inflammation, malabsorption of nutrients, and disordered metabolism of bile acids. Notably, the HPM treatment was found able to normalize the Bristol stool forms scale scores, fecal water content, plasma endotoxin level, and a number of IBS-induced metabolic changes.

    Conclusions: These findings may provide useful insight into the molecular basis of IBS and mechanism of the HPM intervention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  7. Murugesu S, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Nik Yusoff NI, Uzir BF, Perumal V, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 19;23(9).
    PMID: 30235889 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092402
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity.

    METHODS: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    RESULTS: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.

    CONCLUSION: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  8. Mediani A, Abas F, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Tan CP, Ismail IS, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2016 Sep 05;128:302-312.
    PMID: 27318080 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.06.003
    Herbal medicine has been proven to be an effective therapy offering a variety of benefits, such as moderate reduction in hypoglycemia, in the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. Phyllanthus niruri has been used as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. Herein, the induction of type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats was achieved by a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (25mg/kgbw). Here, we evaluated the in vivo antidiabetic properties of two concentrations (250 and 500mg/kg bw) of P. niruri via metabolomics approach. The administration of 500mg/kgbw of P. niruri extract caused the metabolic disorders of obese diabetic rats to be improved towards the normal state. The extract also clearly decreased the serum glucose level and improved the lipid profile in obese diabetic rats. The results of this study may contribute towards better understanding the molecular mechanism of this medicinal plant in managing diabetes mellitus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  9. Azam AA, Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Ismail A, Khatib A, Abas F, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 May 25;17(1):278.
    PMID: 28545435 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1777-1
    BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) is a herb known in ethnomedicine for treating diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, a (1)H NMR based urine metabolomics tool has been used for the first time to identify the metabolic protective mechanism of OS in DM using Streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental model in rats.

    METHODS: Four different solvent extracts of OS, namely aqueous, ethanolic, 50% aqueous ethanolic and methanolic, at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) were orally administered for 14 days to diabetic rats induced via intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg bw STZ. NMR metabolomics approach using pattern recognition combined with multivariate statistical analysis was applied in the rat urine to study the resulted metabolic perturbations.

    RESULTS: OS aqueous extract (OSAE) caused a reversal of DM comparable to that of 10 mg/kg bw glibenclamide. A total of 15 urinary metabolites, which levels changed significantly upon treatment were identified as the biomarkers of OSAE in diabetes. A systematic metabolic pathways analysis identified that OSAE contributed to the antidiabetic activity mainly through regulating the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study validated the ethnopharmacological use of OS in diabetes and unveiled the biochemical and metabolic mechanisms involved.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  10. Abdul-Hamid NA, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Abas F, Ismail IS, Shaari K, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Oct 28;21(11).
    PMID: 27801841
    This study was aimed at examining the variations in the metabolite constituents of the different Ajwa grades and farm origins. It is also targeted at establishing the correlations between the metabolite contents and the grades and further to the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. Identification of the metabolites was generated using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy metabolomics analyses utilizing multivariate methods. The NO inhibitory activity was determined using a Griess assay. Multivariate data analysis, for both supervised and unsupervised approaches, showed clusters among different grades of Ajwa dates obtained from different farms. The compounds that contribute towards the observed separation between Ajwa samples were suggested to be phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and phenylalanine. Ajwa dates were shown to have different metabolite compositions and exhibited a wide range of NO inhibitory activity. It is also revealed that Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm exhibited more than 90% NO inhibitory activity compared to the other grades and origins. Phenolic compounds were among the compounds that played a role towards the greater capacity of NO inhibitory activity shown by Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  11. Tan YH, Lim PE, Beardall J, Poong SW, Phang SM
    Aquat. Toxicol., 2019 Dec;217:105349.
    PMID: 31734626 DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105349
    Ocean acidification, due to increased levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, is known to affect the physiology and growth of marine phytoplankton, especially in polar regions. However, the effect of acidification or carbonation on cellular metabolism in polar marine phytoplankton still remains an open question. There is some evidence that small chlorophytes may benefit more than other taxa of phytoplankton. To understand further how green polar picoplankton could acclimate to high oceanic CO2, studies were conducted on an Antarctic Chlorella sp. Chlorella sp. maintained its growth rate (∼0.180 d-1), photosynthetic quantum yield (Fv/Fm = ∼0.69) and chlorophyll a (0.145 fg cell-1) and carotenoid (0.06 fg cell-1) contents under high CO2, while maximum rates of electron transport decreased and non-photochemical quenching increased under elevated CO2. GCMS-based metabolomic analysis reveal that this polar Chlorella strain modulated the levels of metabolites associated with energy, amino acid, fatty acid and carbohydrate production, which could favour its survival in an increasingly acidified ocean.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  12. Al-Zuaidy MH, Mumtaz MW, Hamid AA, Ismail A, Mohamed S, Razis AFA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jul 10;17(1):359.
    PMID: 28693595 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1849-2
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by continuous hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance and /or reduced insulin secretion. There is an emerging trend regarding the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) is one of the Melicope species belonging to the family Rutaceae. In traditional medicines, its leaves and flowers are known to exhibit prodigious health benefits. The present study aimed at investigating anti-diabetic effect of Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) leaves extract.

    METHODS: In this study, anti-diabetic effect of ML extract is investigated in vivo to evaluate the biochemical changes, potential serum biomarkers and alterations in metabolic pathways pertaining to the treatment of HFD/STZ induced diabetic rats with ML extract using (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Type 2 diabetic rats were treated with different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg BW) of Melicope lunu-ankenda leaf extract for 8 weeks, and serum samples were examined for clinical biochemistry. The metabolomics study of serum was also carried out using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis to explore differentiating serum metabolites and altered metabolic pathways.

    RESULTS: The ML leaf extract (400 mg/kg BW) treatment significantly increased insulin level and insulin sensitivity of obese diabetic rats, with concomitant decrease in glucose level and insulin resistance. Significant reduction in total triglyceride, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein was also observed after treatment. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in high density lipoprotein of the treated rats. A decrease in renal injury markers and activities of liver enzymes was also observed. Moreover, metabolomics studies clearly demonstrated that, ML extract significantly ameliorated the disturbance in glucose metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism.

    CONCLUSION: ML leaf extract exhibits potent antidiabetic properties, hence could be a useful and affordable alternative option for the management of T2DM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  13. Lawan A, Jesse FFA, Idris UH, Odhah MN, Arsalan M, Muhammad NA, et al.
    Microb. Pathog., 2018 Apr;117:175-183.
    PMID: 29471137 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.02.039
    Innumerable Escherichia coli of animal origin are identified, which are of economic significance, likewise, cattle, sheep and goats are the carrier of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, which are less pathogenic, and can spread to people by way of direct contact and through the contamination of foodstuff or portable drinking water, causing serious illness. The immunization of ruminants has been carried out for ages and is largely acknowledged as the most economical and maintainable process of monitoring E. coli infection in ruminants. Yet, only a limited number of E. coli vaccines are obtainable. Mucosal surfaces are the most important ingress for E. coli and thus mucosal immune responses function as the primary means of fortification. Largely contemporary vaccination processes are done by parenteral administration and merely limited number of E. coli vaccines are inoculated via mucosal itinerary, due to its decreased efficacy. Nevertheless, aiming at maximal mucosal partitions to stimulate defensive immunity at both mucosal compartments and systemic site epitomises a prodigious task. Enormous determinations are involved in order to improve on novel mucosal E. coli vaccines candidate by choosing apposite antigens with potent immunogenicity, manipulating novel mucosal itineraries of inoculation and choosing immune-inducing adjuvants. The target of E. coli mucosal vaccines is to stimulate a comprehensive, effective and defensive immunity by specifically counteracting the antibodies at mucosal linings and by the stimulation of cellular immunity. Furthermore, effective E. coli mucosal vaccine would make vaccination measures stress-free and appropriate for large number of inoculation. On account of contemporary advancement in proteomics, metagenomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics research, a comprehensive appraisal of the immeasurable genes and proteins that were divulged by a bacterium is now in easy reach. Moreover, there exist marvellous prospects in this bourgeoning technologies in comprehending the host bacteria affiliation. Accordingly, the flourishing knowledge could massively guarantee to the progression of immunogenic vaccines against E. coli infections in both humans and animals. This review highlight and expounds on the current prominence of mucosal and systemic immunogenic vaccines for the prevention of E. coli infections in ruminants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
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