Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 219 in total

  1. Nurul-Syakima AM, Learn-Han L, Yoke-Kqueen C
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(21):9071-5.
    PMID: 25422181
    BACKGROUND: microRNAs are small non-coding RNA that control gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. These molecules are known to play essential roles in many biological and physiological processes. miR-205 may be differentially expressed in head and neck cancers; however, there are conflicting data and localization of expression has yet to be determined.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-205 expression was investigated in 48 cases of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissue array of the neck, oronasopharynx, larynx and salivary glands by Locked Nucleic Acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) technology.

    RESULTS: miR-205 expression was significantly differentially expressed across all of the inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissues of the neck. A significant increase in miR-205 staining intensity (p<0.05) was observed from inflammation to benign and malignant tumors in head and neck tissue array, suggesting that miR-205 could be a biomarker to differentiate between cancer and non-cancer tissues.

    CONCLUSIONS: LNA-ISH revealed that miR-205 exhibited significant differential cytoplasmic and nuclear staining among inflammation, benign and malignant tumors of head and neck. miR-205 was not only exclusively expressed in squamous epithelial malignancy. This study offers information and a basis for a comprehensive study of the role of miR-205 that may be useful as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in head and neck tumors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  2. Minning C, Mokhtar NM, Abdullah N, Muhammad R, Emran NA, Ali SA, et al.
    Int. J. Oncol., 2014 Nov;45(5):1959-68.
    PMID: 25175708 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2625
    There have been many DNA methylation studies on breast cancer which showed various methylation patterns involving tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes but only a few of those studies link the methylation data with gene expression. More data are required especially from the Asian region and to analyse how the epigenome data correlate with the transcriptome. DNA methylation profiling was carried out on 76 fresh frozen primary breast tumour tissues and 25 adjacent non-cancerous breast tissues using the Illumina Infinium(®) HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Validation of methylation results was performed on 7 genes using either MS-MLPA or MS-qPCR. Gene expression profiling was done on 15 breast tumours and 5 adjacent non-cancerous breast tissues using the Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Gene 1.0 ST array. The overlapping genes between DNA methylation and gene expression datasets were further mapped to the KEGG database to identify the molecular pathways that linked these genes together. Supervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed 1,389 hypermethylated CpG sites and 22 hypomethylated CpG sites in cancer compared to the normal samples. Gene expression microarray analysis using a fold-change of at least 1.5 and a false discovery rate (FDR) at p>0.05 identified 404 upregulated and 463 downregulated genes in cancer samples. Integration of both datasets identified 51 genes with hypermethylation with low expression (negative association) and 13 genes with hypermethylation with high expression (positive association). Most of the overlapping genes belong to the focal adhesion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction that play important roles in breast carcinogenesis. The present study displayed the value of using multiple datasets in the same set of tissues and how the integrative analysis can create a list of well-focused genes as well as to show the correlation between epigenetic changes and gene expression. These gene signatures can help us understand the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and could be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  3. Siti-Azrin AH, Norsa'adah B, Naing NN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(15):6455-9.
    PMID: 25124642
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the fourth most common cancer in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the five-year survival rate and median survival time of NPC patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM).

    METHODS: One hundred and thirty four NPC cases confirmed by histopathology in Hospital USM between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2007 that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were retrospectively reviewed. Survival time of NPC patients were estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare survival of cases among presenting symptoms, WHO type, TNM classification and treatment modalities.

    RESULTS: The overall five-year survival rate of NPC patients was 38.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.1, 46.9). The overall median survival time of NPC patients was 31.30 months (95%CI: 23.76, 38.84). The significant factors that altered the survival rate and time were age (p=0.041), cranial nerve involvement (p=0.012), stage (p=0.002), metastases (p=0.008) and treatment (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The median survival of NPC patients is significantly longer for age≤50 years, no cranial nerve involvement, and early stage and is dependent on treatment modalities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  4. Almulaifi AM, Lee WJ, Hong PE
    Surg Obes Relat Dis, 2014 Nov-Dec;10(6):e73-5.
    PMID: 25002323 DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2014.04.013
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  5. Abu Hassan MR, Leong TW, Othman Andu DF, Hat H, Nik Mustapha NR
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(2):569-73.
    PMID: 26925645
    BACKGROUND: A colorectal cancer screening program was piloted in two districts of Kedah in 2013. There is scarcity of information on colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: Thus, this research was conducted to evaluate the colorectal cancer screening program in the districts to provide insights intop its efficacy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted using data on the colorectal cancer screening program in 2013 involving Kota Setar and Kuala Muda districts in Malaysia. We determined the response rate of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT), colonoscopy compliance, and detection rates of neoplasia and carcinoma. We also compared the response of FOBT by demographic background.

    RESULTS: The response rate of FOBT for first iFOBT screening was 94.7% while the second iFOBT screening was 90.7%. Participants from Kuala Muda district were 27 times more likely to default while Indians had a 3 times higher risk of default compared to Malays. The colonoscopy compliance was suboptimal among those with positive iFOBT. The most common finding from colonoscopy was hemorrhoids, followed by tubular adenoma. Detection rate of carcinoma and neoplasia for our program was 1.2%.

    CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the response rate of iFOBT was encouraging but the colonoscopy compliance was suboptimal which led to a considerably low detection rate.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  6. Kyrø C, Zamora-Ros R, Scalbert A, Tjønneland A, Dossus L, Johansen C, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 2015 Nov;154(2):389-401.
    PMID: 26531755 DOI: 10.1007/s10549-015-3595-9
    The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  7. Tang L, Leung YY
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2016 Nov;45(11):1358-1365.
    PMID: 27289248 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2016.05.021
    The purpose of this systematic review was to answer the clinical question "When should elective neck dissection be performed in maxillary gingival and alveolar squamous cell carcinoma with a cN0 neck?" A systematic review, designed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, was conducted by two independent reviewers with three rounds of search and evaluation. Ten studies with 506 patients were included in the final review. The overall risk of cervical metastasis was 23.2% for those who did not receive an elective neck dissection (END), which was 3.4 times higher than that in the END group (6.8%). The 5-year survival rate was higher in those who had an END (80.3%) when compared to those who did not receive an END (67.4%). Overall, 14.1% of the cases with cN0 maxillary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) presented with positive node(s) in pathological specimens after END. The risk of occult cervical metastasis in a cN0 maxillary SCC case with pathological stage pT1, pT2, pT3, and pT4 was 11.1%, 12.1%, 20%, and 36.1%, respectively. It is therefore concluded that END is recommended in patients with cN0 maxillary SCC, especially in stage T3 or T4 cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  8. Ng CH, Pathy NB, Taib NA, Teh YC, Mun KS, Amiruddin A, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(11):2943-6.
    PMID: 22393968
    INTRODUCTION: The age standardised incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer in Malaysia which is a high middle- income country is similar to Indonesia, a low middle-income country. (Globocan 2008) It is however unknown whether the presentation of breast cancer differs between these two countries.

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the stage, age at presentation, and pathological characteristics of breast cancer between two tertiary hospitals in Indonesia and Malaysia; Dharmais Cancer Centre (DCC), which is the national cancer referral centre in Indonesia, and University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), which is an academic hospital with established breast oncology services in Kuala Lumpur. One thousand, one hundred and fourteen consecutive women (477 in UMMC: 637 in DCC) who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer between January and December, 2010 were included. Patient's age, TNM stage at presentation, and pathological characteristics were compared. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were considered positive if 10% or greater of invasive cell nuclei were stained while HER2 was considered positive with an immunohistochemistry staining intensity of 3+ . Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify differences.
    RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 52 years in UMMC and 47 years in DCC, whereby patients in DCC were more likely to be very young at diagnosis (aged < 35 years) compared to their counterparts in UMMC (Odds ratio (OR): 2.09; 95%CI: 1.32-3.31). Approximately one third of patients in UMMC presented with TNM stage III or IV, compared to 63% in DCC. Patients in DCC were three times more likely to present with metastatic breast cancer compared to patients in UMMC (OR: 3.01; 95% CI: 2.02-4.48). The percentage of low grade tumours in DCC was higher than in UMMC (28% vs 11% respectively), and the difference persisted even after multivariate adjustment. Although the frequency of ER and PR positivity appeared to be higher in UMMC (65% and 55% respectively) compared to DCC (48% and 40% respectively), these differences were not statistically significant following adjustment for age, stage, HER2 status and grade. The frequency of HER2 positivity was 45% in DCC compared to 26% in UMMC, and remained significantly higher even after multivariate adjustment (multivariate OR:1.76; 95%CI:1.25-2.47, in DCC compared to UMMC). The proportion of triple negative breast cancer was however similar in the two centres (19% in UMMC vs 21% in DCC).
    CONCLUSION: Indonesian women with breast cancer seem to present at a younger age and at later stages compared to Malaysian women. Their tumors were more likely to be of low grade and HER2 positive, even after adjustment for other factors, while hormone receptor positivity proved similar in the two groups. The higher HER2 positivity rate in Indonesian patients warrants further study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  9. Balachandran R, Philip R, Avatar S, Simon R, Mann GS, Benedict CT, et al.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2012 Feb;269(2):649-58.
    PMID: 21691719 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-011-1665-0
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is among the commonest cancers in Malaysia. The prognosis for NPC like most other head and neck cancer is dependent on its staging. Majority of patients in Malaysia at the time of diagnosis are either at stage III or IV (27 and 47%, respectively). The lack of knowledge among primary care medical doctors regarding NPC may contribute to this delay in diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of the primary care doctors in the state of Perak on the various aspects of NPC. The doctors at the primary care level in the state of Perak were recruited to take part in this study on a voluntary basis. A total number of 154 out of 198 doctors participated in this survey. They were given a questionnaire to fill in to test their knowledge on different aspects of NPC and its treatment. The overall respondents' score was poor with a score of 67.5% on all sections. The doctors appear to be able to identify common presenting features of NPC with a mean score of 85.3% but for the uncommon presentations of NPC, the scores were poorer with 61.8%. In addition, 54.1% of the participants answered that they would refer a patient with symptoms suspicious of NPC after a period of 1 month from the onset of symptom. However, only 34% would refer within 2 weeks. Based on the results of this study, the authors feel that it is clear that the doctors posted in the primary care hospitals and clinics appear to have inadequate knowledge to diagnose and refer patients with suspected NPC. As early diagnosis can often lead to a better prognostic outcome, steps must be taken to raise the awareness among these doctors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  10. Hong GE, Kong CH, Singam P, Cheok LB, Zainuddin ZM, Azrif M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1351-3.
    PMID: 21198291
    INTRODUCTION: Analysis of epidemiological as well as survival differences among the multiethnic population of Malaysia with prostate cancer is important.

    METHODS: Patients confirmed by transrectal-ultrasonographic-guided-biopsy performed from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled and analysed according to ethnicity, age, PSA level, Gleason score, stage of disease and survival.

    RESULTS: Among 83 patients, there were 38 Malay, 40 Chinese, 3 Indians and 2 others. Median age at diagnosis was 69.9 (range: 59-93), 43 patients (51.8%) being diagnosed before the age of 70. The median PSA level upon diagnosis was 574 ng/ml (range: 1-8632) and the median Gleason score was 7 (range: 2-10). Over half were already in Stage 4 when diagnosed. The most common site of metastasis was the bone. As a result the commonest prescribed treatment was hormonal manipulation. Five patients underwent radical prostatectomy and a further thirteen patients had radical radiotherapy (stage I: 1 patient, stage II: 7 patients and stage III: 5 patients). Ten patients defaulted follow-up. The median disease-specific survival was 21.9 months (range: 1-53).

    CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic carcinoma is a disease of the elderly and it is frequently diagnosed late in Malaysia. Greater efforts should be made to educate Malaysians regarding prostate cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  11. Phua CE, Tan BS, Yong TK, Govindasamy M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(12):3197-200.
    PMID: 22471453
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the commonest cancers encountered in Malaysia. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes for patients with NPC treated in Penang General Hospital with specific analysis of prognostic clinicopathological features and treatment modalities.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study examined NPC patients between 1st January 2001 and 31st December 2005 in Penang General Hospital. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons between groups were made using the log-rank test. Important prognostic factors including patient demographics, tumour and treatment factors were analysed using the Cox proportional hazard model.

    RESULTS: A total of 285 patients were identified with a median age of 51 years, 72.6% being males. The majority were Chinese (66%) followed by Malays (31.9%). Primary tumour stages (T stages) 3 and 4 were present in 18.6% and 34% of patients respectively, and nodal disease was present in 80.4%. On overall AJCC staging, 29.1% had stage III and 50.2% had stage IV disease. Some 39.6% of patients had WHO type 3 histology and 7.4% had WHO type 1-2 histology with the remainder having NPC with no subtype reported. Concurrent chemo-irradiation was the commonest treatment received by patients (51.9%) followed by radiotherapy alone (41.8%). The 5 year overall survival and cause specific survival were 33.3% and 42.7% respectively. Age group, T stage, N stage and WHO histological subtype were independent prognostic factors for overall survival on multivariate analysis. For cause specific survival they were T stage and N stage.

    CONCLUSION: The 5 years overall survival rate was 33.3%. This low figure is primarily due to late presentation. Efforts to detect NPC at earlier stages in Malaysia are urgently needed. These should include public education to increase awareness of the prevalence of this highly treatable disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  12. Woo YL, Badley C, Jackson E, Crawford R
    Cytopathology, 2011 Oct;22(5):334-9.
    PMID: 21073579 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2303.2010.00824.x
    This study examines the impact of excision margin status after large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) under local anaesthetic for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) on the cytological and histological outcomes up to 5 years after treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  13. Adam N, Lim SS, Ananda V, Chan SP
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Jul;51(7):e129-32.
    PMID: 20730389
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumour (VIPoma) or Verner-Morrison syndrome is a very rare neuroendocrine tumour. It occurs in less than ten percent of all pancreatic islet cell tumours, and about 70 percent to 80 percent of these tumours originate from the pancreas. Diagnosis is characteristically delayed. The first-line treatment is surgical. It may be curative in forty percent of patients with benign and non-metastatic disease. Palliative surgery is indicated in extensive disease, followed by conventional somatostatin analogue (octreotide) therapy. Somatostatin analogues improve hormone-mediated symptoms, reduce tumour bulk and prevent local and systemic effects. We present a female patient with VIPoma syndrome, which had metastasised to the liver at diagnosis. The patient underwent palliative Whipple procedure and subsequent cytoreductive radiofrequency ablations to her liver metastases. Unfortunately, after symptomatic improvement for three years, her disease progressed. Currently, she is on daily octreotide, achieving partial control of her symptoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  14. Kong CH, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Azrif M, Tamil AM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(1):149-52.
    PMID: 20593947
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathological features of bladder tumours encountered over a five year period in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    METHODS: Medical records of bladder tumour cases from 2005 till 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and tabulated.

    RESULTS: A total of 83 cases were recorded. The incidence was highest among the Chinese (56.6%), followed by Malays (34.9%), Indians (6%) and other races (2.4%). The male-to-female ratio was 9.4:1. The median age was 65 years (range 30-91 years) and median duration of follow up was 17.2 months (range 2-60 months). The main histopathology was transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (90.4%), followed by adenocarcinoma (6%), squamous cell carcinoma (1.2%), leiomyoma (1.2%) and myeloid sarcoma (1.2%). For the TCCs, 58.6% were superficial while 41.4% were muscle invasive, and 13.3% had nodal metastasis with distant metastasis in 8%. Of the total, 5.3% were papillary urothelial tumours of low malignant potential, 33.3% pTa, 20% pT1, 10.7% pT2, 12.0% pT3 and 18.7% pT4. Of the superficial tumours, 32.5% were high grade tumours. There were ten radical cystectomies performed for transitional cell carcinomas; two had neobladder reconstruction whereas the other eight had ileal conduits. All the adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were treated by radiotherapy due to the advanced stage of the disease while the myeloid sarcoma received chemotherapy. Mean survival of patients with muscle invasive cancer was 33+/-5 months. By the end of the study, 18.1% of patients had died of their cancer.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of bladder tumours is highest among the Chinese. When compared to other studies, the incidence of muscle invasive and high-grade superficial tumours was greater.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  15. Leong BD, Chuah JA, Kumar VM, Rohamini S, Siti ZS, Yip CH
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Aug;50(8):772-6.
    PMID: 19710974
    Sabah, formerly known as North Borneo, is part of East Malaysia. 52.2 percent of patients with breast cancer in Sabah presented at advanced stages and up to 20.4 percent of patients defaulted proper treatment, opting for traditional therapy. We performed a two-year prospective study looking at the treatment trends of breast cancer in Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  16. Yeoh LC, Loh CK, Gooi BH, Singh M, Gam LH
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2010 Jun 14;16(22):2754-63.
    PMID: 20533595
    AIM: To identify differentially expressed hydrophobic proteins in colorectal cancer.

    METHODS: Eighteen pairs of colorectal cancerous tissues in addition to tissues from normal mucosa were analysed. Hydrophobic proteins were extracted from the tissues, separated using 2-D gel electrophoresis and analysed using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Statistical analysis of the proteins was carried out in order to determine the significance of each protein to colorectal cancer (CRC) and also their relation to CRC stages, grades and patients' gender.

    RESULTS: Thirteen differentially expressed proteins which were expressed abundantly in either cancerous or normal tissues were identified. A number of these proteins were found to relate strongly with a particular stage or grade of CRC. In addition, the association of these proteins with patient gender also appeared to be significant.

    CONCLUSION: Stomatin-like protein 2 was found to be a promising biomarker for CRC, especially in female patients. The differentially expressed proteins identified were associated with CRC and may act as drug target candidates.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  17. Sivanesaratnam V
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2009 Jun;35(3):393-404.
    PMID: 19527374 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2009.01049.x
    Ovarian cancer is today the most lethal female cancer with an overall survival of only 49.9%. The currently available screening modalities are disappointing in detecting highly curable early stage ovarian cancer. Natural history of ovarian cancer is unknown; it appears it can develop quickly from normal looking ovaries. Timely referral of women with non-specific symptoms (such as abdominal bloating, pelvic pain) for an ultrasound scan or blood CA125 assessments may help in the early diagnosis. Patients with Stage IA or IB disease with grade 1 tumors have a cure rate of >90%; this is likely to be compromised by laparoscopic surgery. In selected patients fertility preservation with good obstetric outcome is possible. However, the relapse rate in 'high risk' early stage ovarian cancers is 40-45%; adjuvant chemotherapy is needed. Only 20-25% of those with stage III and IV disease are cured. Despite a high primary response (70%) majority (70-75%) will relapse and all are likely to succumb. Optimal debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy are needed for stages III and IV disease; the outcome is superior if managed by gynecologic oncologists. Where cost of drugs is an important consideration, an alternative is carboplatin (an affordable and equally effective drug). The role of vaccines needs further study. When relapses occur palliation will be the aim in most instances. Oral contraceptives, breast feeding, tubal sterilization and hysterectomy also have a protective effect. Risk-reducing salpingo-oopherectomy has been suggested in women with BRCA mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  18. Lim JS, Tang SP, Siar CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009;10(6):1071-4.
    PMID: 20192586
    BACKGROUND: Conventional methods for writing case notes detailing the progress of oral lichen planus (OLP), a precancerous condition that requires long-term surveillance, is both time-consuming and tedious for the busy clinician.

    OBJECTIVES: To design and perform a simple surveillance on OLP patients based on colour-coded topography mouth maps (TMM).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three colour-coded TMM were employed: red for OLP in high risk oral mucosal sites, yellow for cases showing improvement and green for asymptomatic lesions at each recall visit. In this preliminary study, these were applied on 30 histologically confirmed OLP individuals attending the Oral Medicine Clinic at the Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The sites and extent of OLP lesions were charted on either red, yellow or green TMM based on defined criteria. This surveillance evaluated OLP in relation to patientandapos;s age, race, gender, underlying systemic conditions, oral habits, initial onset of OLP, oral manifestations and presence/absence of clinically suspicious areas.

    RESULTS: Study sample comprised 4 (13.3%) Malays, 9 (30.0%) Chinese and 17 (56.7%) Indians. Most OLP patients belong to the green TMM (n= 14, 46.6%) group followed by red (n= 11, 36.7%) and yellow (n= 5, 16.7%) groups. Of the 11 cases with red TMM, rebiopsy was performed on 4 cases but no dysplasia was detected. Any local confounding factors namely periodontal disease or faulty dental restorations were managed accordingly.

    CONCLUSIONS: TMM is simple to use and aided the clinicians in terms of time saving and patient management. Hence, follow-up of OLP patients can be carried out more efficiently and appropriately. TMM can be used for surveillance of other oral precancerous lesions and conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  19. Mohd Taib NA, Yip CH, Mohamed I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008 Apr-Jun;9(2):197-202.
    PMID: 18712958
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer amongst Malaysian women but local survival data are scarce. The present study was therefore conducted to assess overall survival and prognostic factors in Malaysian breast cancer patients.

    METHODS: The research sample was a prospective cohort of 413 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1993 to 1997. Survival data were obtained from the National Registry of Birth and Deaths in December 2000. The clinico-pathological variables studied were age, ethnic group, stage, tumour size, lymph node status, oestrogen receptor status and grade. The data were analysed utilizing Splus statistical software. The important prognostic factors were identified by fitting the Cox's proportional hazard model to the data set. Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were compared by the log-rank test.

    RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival was 59.1%. The Cox's proportional hazard model identified stage, lymph node status, size and grade as factors that correlated with prognosis. Age was not a significant prognostic factor. The Cox regression model by stepwise selection showed stage, nodal status and grade of tumour to be independent prognostic factors, whereas ethnicity, age and ER status were not.

    INTERPRETATION: The overall survival in our centre was low. Recognizing factors that affect prognosis of breast cancer patients in Malaysia may improve delivery of health care to at-risk groups by strategizing interventions as survival depends on early detection and effective treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  20. Abdullah JM, Farizan A, Asmarina K, Zainuddin N, Ghazali MM, Jaafar H, et al.
    Asian J Surg, 2006 Oct;29(4):274-82.
    PMID: 17098662
    The pattern of allelic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and PTEN mutations appear to be associated with the progression of gliomas leading to a decrement in the survival rate of patients. This present study was carried out to determine the LOH and PTEN mutational status in glioma patients and its association with patients' survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
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