Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 206 in total

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  1. Yeoh LC, Loh CK, Gooi BH, Singh M, Gam LH
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2010 Jun 14;16(22):2754-63.
    PMID: 20533595
    AIM: To identify differentially expressed hydrophobic proteins in colorectal cancer.

    METHODS: Eighteen pairs of colorectal cancerous tissues in addition to tissues from normal mucosa were analysed. Hydrophobic proteins were extracted from the tissues, separated using 2-D gel electrophoresis and analysed using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Statistical analysis of the proteins was carried out in order to determine the significance of each protein to colorectal cancer (CRC) and also their relation to CRC stages, grades and patients' gender.

    RESULTS: Thirteen differentially expressed proteins which were expressed abundantly in either cancerous or normal tissues were identified. A number of these proteins were found to relate strongly with a particular stage or grade of CRC. In addition, the association of these proteins with patient gender also appeared to be significant.

    CONCLUSION: Stomatin-like protein 2 was found to be a promising biomarker for CRC, especially in female patients. The differentially expressed proteins identified were associated with CRC and may act as drug target candidates.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  2. Kong CH, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Azrif M, Tamil AM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(1):149-52.
    PMID: 20593947
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathological features of bladder tumours encountered over a five year period in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    METHODS: Medical records of bladder tumour cases from 2005 till 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and tabulated.

    RESULTS: A total of 83 cases were recorded. The incidence was highest among the Chinese (56.6%), followed by Malays (34.9%), Indians (6%) and other races (2.4%). The male-to-female ratio was 9.4:1. The median age was 65 years (range 30-91 years) and median duration of follow up was 17.2 months (range 2-60 months). The main histopathology was transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (90.4%), followed by adenocarcinoma (6%), squamous cell carcinoma (1.2%), leiomyoma (1.2%) and myeloid sarcoma (1.2%). For the TCCs, 58.6% were superficial while 41.4% were muscle invasive, and 13.3% had nodal metastasis with distant metastasis in 8%. Of the total, 5.3% were papillary urothelial tumours of low malignant potential, 33.3% pTa, 20% pT1, 10.7% pT2, 12.0% pT3 and 18.7% pT4. Of the superficial tumours, 32.5% were high grade tumours. There were ten radical cystectomies performed for transitional cell carcinomas; two had neobladder reconstruction whereas the other eight had ileal conduits. All the adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were treated by radiotherapy due to the advanced stage of the disease while the myeloid sarcoma received chemotherapy. Mean survival of patients with muscle invasive cancer was 33+/-5 months. By the end of the study, 18.1% of patients had died of their cancer.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of bladder tumours is highest among the Chinese. When compared to other studies, the incidence of muscle invasive and high-grade superficial tumours was greater.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  3. Leong BD, Chuah JA, Kumar VM, Rohamini S, Siti ZS, Yip CH
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Aug;50(8):772-6.
    PMID: 19710974
    Sabah, formerly known as North Borneo, is part of East Malaysia. 52.2 percent of patients with breast cancer in Sabah presented at advanced stages and up to 20.4 percent of patients defaulted proper treatment, opting for traditional therapy. We performed a two-year prospective study looking at the treatment trends of breast cancer in Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  4. Sivanesaratnam V
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2009 Jun;35(3):393-404.
    PMID: 19527374 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2009.01049.x
    Ovarian cancer is today the most lethal female cancer with an overall survival of only 49.9%. The currently available screening modalities are disappointing in detecting highly curable early stage ovarian cancer. Natural history of ovarian cancer is unknown; it appears it can develop quickly from normal looking ovaries. Timely referral of women with non-specific symptoms (such as abdominal bloating, pelvic pain) for an ultrasound scan or blood CA125 assessments may help in the early diagnosis. Patients with Stage IA or IB disease with grade 1 tumors have a cure rate of >90%; this is likely to be compromised by laparoscopic surgery. In selected patients fertility preservation with good obstetric outcome is possible. However, the relapse rate in 'high risk' early stage ovarian cancers is 40-45%; adjuvant chemotherapy is needed. Only 20-25% of those with stage III and IV disease are cured. Despite a high primary response (70%) majority (70-75%) will relapse and all are likely to succumb. Optimal debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy are needed for stages III and IV disease; the outcome is superior if managed by gynecologic oncologists. Where cost of drugs is an important consideration, an alternative is carboplatin (an affordable and equally effective drug). The role of vaccines needs further study. When relapses occur palliation will be the aim in most instances. Oral contraceptives, breast feeding, tubal sterilization and hysterectomy also have a protective effect. Risk-reducing salpingo-oopherectomy has been suggested in women with BRCA mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  5. Mohd Taib NA, Yip CH, Mohamed I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008 Apr-Jun;9(2):197-202.
    PMID: 18712958
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer amongst Malaysian women but local survival data are scarce. The present study was therefore conducted to assess overall survival and prognostic factors in Malaysian breast cancer patients.

    METHODS: The research sample was a prospective cohort of 413 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1993 to 1997. Survival data were obtained from the National Registry of Birth and Deaths in December 2000. The clinico-pathological variables studied were age, ethnic group, stage, tumour size, lymph node status, oestrogen receptor status and grade. The data were analysed utilizing Splus statistical software. The important prognostic factors were identified by fitting the Cox's proportional hazard model to the data set. Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were compared by the log-rank test.

    RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival was 59.1%. The Cox's proportional hazard model identified stage, lymph node status, size and grade as factors that correlated with prognosis. Age was not a significant prognostic factor. The Cox regression model by stepwise selection showed stage, nodal status and grade of tumour to be independent prognostic factors, whereas ethnicity, age and ER status were not.

    INTERPRETATION: The overall survival in our centre was low. Recognizing factors that affect prognosis of breast cancer patients in Malaysia may improve delivery of health care to at-risk groups by strategizing interventions as survival depends on early detection and effective treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  6. Lim JS, Tang SP, Siar CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009;10(6):1071-4.
    PMID: 20192586
    BACKGROUND: Conventional methods for writing case notes detailing the progress of oral lichen planus (OLP), a precancerous condition that requires long-term surveillance, is both time-consuming and tedious for the busy clinician.

    OBJECTIVES: To design and perform a simple surveillance on OLP patients based on colour-coded topography mouth maps (TMM).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three colour-coded TMM were employed: red for OLP in high risk oral mucosal sites, yellow for cases showing improvement and green for asymptomatic lesions at each recall visit. In this preliminary study, these were applied on 30 histologically confirmed OLP individuals attending the Oral Medicine Clinic at the Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The sites and extent of OLP lesions were charted on either red, yellow or green TMM based on defined criteria. This surveillance evaluated OLP in relation to patientandapos;s age, race, gender, underlying systemic conditions, oral habits, initial onset of OLP, oral manifestations and presence/absence of clinically suspicious areas.

    RESULTS: Study sample comprised 4 (13.3%) Malays, 9 (30.0%) Chinese and 17 (56.7%) Indians. Most OLP patients belong to the green TMM (n= 14, 46.6%) group followed by red (n= 11, 36.7%) and yellow (n= 5, 16.7%) groups. Of the 11 cases with red TMM, rebiopsy was performed on 4 cases but no dysplasia was detected. Any local confounding factors namely periodontal disease or faulty dental restorations were managed accordingly.

    CONCLUSIONS: TMM is simple to use and aided the clinicians in terms of time saving and patient management. Hence, follow-up of OLP patients can be carried out more efficiently and appropriately. TMM can be used for surveillance of other oral precancerous lesions and conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  7. Razack AH
    Asian J Surg, 2007 Oct;30(4):302-9.
    PMID: 17962138 DOI: 10.1016/S1015-9584(08)60045-7
    Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract, and overall it is among the top 10 cancers in men. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type, with the majority being superficial disease, i.e. the tumour has not gone beyond the lamina propria. The main problem with superficial TCC is the high recurrence rate. Various forms of treatment methods have been attempted to reduce the recurrence rate, with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) being the most successful to date. In fact, intravesical BCG is one of the most successful forms of immunotherapy in the treatment of any form of cancer. This article is a general review of BCG in bladder cancer with an emphasis on the indication and mechanism of action in reducing recurrence and progression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  8. Leong CF, Zainina S, Cheong SK
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Jun;27(1):39-43.
    PMID: 16676692
    Anaemia is a frequent complication in patients with haematological malignancies and is caused by a variety of mechanisms including neoplastic cell infiltration into the bone marrow, haemolysis, nutritional deficiencies and defect in erythropoiesis or dysplastic anaemia as a result of the disease itself. However, acquired dysplastic anaemia which mimic congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) type II morphology in the bone marrow is very rare. A 41-year-old Chinese man presented with refractory symptomatic anaemia in September 2001. He was clinically pale with no other significant physical finding. His initial peripheral blood picture showed normochromic normocytic anaemia with haemoglobin level of 26g/L, with no evidence of haemolysis and a poor reticulocyte response of 0.6%. Bone marrow aspiration was done and showed congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) type II-like morphology. He was treated symptomatically with regular blood transfusions approximately every 3 weeks, until August 2002 when he developed multiple cervical lymphadenopathy with loss of appetite, loss of weight and low grade fever. Biopsy of the lymph node confirmed the diagnosis of small lymphocytic lymphoma. Staging with computed tomography and bone marrow aspirate revealed the infiltration of lymphoma cells into the marrow cavity consistent with the staging of IVB. This case report illustrates that CDA type II-like dysplastic anaemia can preceed the development of lymphoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  9. Faisham WI, Zulmi W, Halim AS, Biswal BM, Mutum SS, Ezane AM
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Aug;47(8):679-83.
    PMID: 16865207
    The surgical treatment of Stage III or aggressive giant cell tumour of the bone, whether to perform intralesional or en-bloc resection, remains controversial. The aim of this study is to identify the effectiveness of en-bloc resection for local control and final oncological outcome of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  10. Abdullah JM, Farizan A, Asmarina K, Zainuddin N, Ghazali MM, Jaafar H, et al.
    Asian J Surg, 2006 Oct;29(4):274-82.
    PMID: 17098662
    The pattern of allelic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and PTEN mutations appear to be associated with the progression of gliomas leading to a decrement in the survival rate of patients. This present study was carried out to determine the LOH and PTEN mutational status in glioma patients and its association with patients' survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  11. Ong TA, Yip CH
    Asian J Surg, 2003 Jul;26(3):169-75.
    PMID: 12925293
    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of various clinicopathological factors on short-term survival in a cohort of breast cancer patients treated at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).
    METHODS: All cases of breast cancer treated at UMMC from January 1999 to June 2001, except for stage IV disease, were included in the study. Survival analysis was carried out using Kaplan-Meier for univariate analysis and Cox regression for multivariate analysis. The log-rank test was used to test the significance of differences between the different survival curves.
    RESULTS: A total of 385 patients were included. The mean patient age at presentation was 50.3 years (SD, 11.4); 198 (51.4%) patients had lymph node-positive disease, and 187 (48.6%) had node-negative disease. The mean follow-up period was 18.7 months (SD, 8.8). The Malay ethnic group, tumours of larger size, node-positive disease, more than five positive lymph nodes, oestrogen receptor (ER) negativity and the presence of lymphovascular invasion were significant prognostic factors for shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, ER negativity was the only independent adverse prognostic factor for RFS. For overall survival (OS), tumours of larger size, node-positive disease, more than five positive lymph nodes, ER negativity and high grade tumours were associated with significantly shorter OS. However, more than five positive lymph nodes was the only independent prognostic factor for shorter OS in the multivariate analysis. Further multivariate analysis of the patients with node-positive disease showed that the Malay ethnic group, ER negativity and more than five positive lymph nodes were independent prognostic factors for shorter RFS. On the other hand, ER negativity and more than five positive lymph nodes were independent negative prognostic factors for OS in this subgroup of patients.
    CONCLUSION: The evaluation of various prognostic factors would provide useful information on disease progression in local patients, especially for the planning of adjuvant therapies and follow-up protocols. Differences in the pattern of breast cancer among the different ethnic groups in Malaysia warrant further studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  12. Almulaifi AM, Lee WJ, Hong PE
    Surg Obes Relat Dis, 2014 Nov-Dec;10(6):e73-5.
    PMID: 25002323 DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2014.04.013
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  13. Knight A, Hwa YS, Hashim H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(8):3125-30.
    PMID: 25921108
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a common cancer affecting women in Malaysia and the use of complementary/ alternative medicine (CAM) has been associated with delays in getting treatment. The aim of the study was to explore the use of CAM and the influencing factors in the Northern region of Peninsular Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study on a convenience sample of 100 Malaysian breast cancer survivors.

    FINDINGS: The reported use of CAM among the breast cancer survivors was lower than in other studies but the types of CAM used had a similar pattern with nutrition supplements/vitamins being the most common. The factors that positively influenced the use of complimentary/traditional therapy were income and getting information from television or radio. Survivors with access to internet/blogs appear to have lower odds of using complimentary/traditional therapy compared to the respondents who reported no such access.

    CONCLUSIONS: Information transmitted via television and radio appears to have a positive influence on CAM use by breast cancer patients compared to other information sources and it is important to ensure that such information is accurate and impartial.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  14. Siti-Azrin AH, Norsa'adah B, Naing NN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(15):6455-9.
    PMID: 25124642
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the fourth most common cancer in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the five-year survival rate and median survival time of NPC patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM).

    METHODS: One hundred and thirty four NPC cases confirmed by histopathology in Hospital USM between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2007 that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were retrospectively reviewed. Survival time of NPC patients were estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare survival of cases among presenting symptoms, WHO type, TNM classification and treatment modalities.

    RESULTS: The overall five-year survival rate of NPC patients was 38.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.1, 46.9). The overall median survival time of NPC patients was 31.30 months (95%CI: 23.76, 38.84). The significant factors that altered the survival rate and time were age (p=0.041), cranial nerve involvement (p=0.012), stage (p=0.002), metastases (p=0.008) and treatment (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The median survival of NPC patients is significantly longer for age≤50 years, no cranial nerve involvement, and early stage and is dependent on treatment modalities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  15. Jeremic B, Fidarova E, Sharma V, Faheem M, Ameira AA, Nasr Ben Ammar C, et al.
    Radiother Oncol, 2015 Jul;116(1):21-6.
    PMID: 26163093 DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2015.06.017
    To optimize palliation in incurable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the International Atomic Energy Agency conducted a prospective randomized study (NCT00864331) comparing protracted palliative radiotherapy (RT) course with chemotherapy (CHT) followed by short-course palliative RT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  16. Minning C, Mokhtar NM, Abdullah N, Muhammad R, Emran NA, Ali SA, et al.
    Int. J. Oncol., 2014 Nov;45(5):1959-68.
    PMID: 25175708 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2625
    There have been many DNA methylation studies on breast cancer which showed various methylation patterns involving tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes but only a few of those studies link the methylation data with gene expression. More data are required especially from the Asian region and to analyse how the epigenome data correlate with the transcriptome. DNA methylation profiling was carried out on 76 fresh frozen primary breast tumour tissues and 25 adjacent non-cancerous breast tissues using the Illumina Infinium(®) HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Validation of methylation results was performed on 7 genes using either MS-MLPA or MS-qPCR. Gene expression profiling was done on 15 breast tumours and 5 adjacent non-cancerous breast tissues using the Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Gene 1.0 ST array. The overlapping genes between DNA methylation and gene expression datasets were further mapped to the KEGG database to identify the molecular pathways that linked these genes together. Supervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed 1,389 hypermethylated CpG sites and 22 hypomethylated CpG sites in cancer compared to the normal samples. Gene expression microarray analysis using a fold-change of at least 1.5 and a false discovery rate (FDR) at p>0.05 identified 404 upregulated and 463 downregulated genes in cancer samples. Integration of both datasets identified 51 genes with hypermethylation with low expression (negative association) and 13 genes with hypermethylation with high expression (positive association). Most of the overlapping genes belong to the focal adhesion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction that play important roles in breast carcinogenesis. The present study displayed the value of using multiple datasets in the same set of tissues and how the integrative analysis can create a list of well-focused genes as well as to show the correlation between epigenetic changes and gene expression. These gene signatures can help us understand the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and could be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  17. Misron NA, Looi LM, Nik Mustapha NR
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(4):1553-8.
    PMID: 25743830
    BACKGROUND: COX-2 has been shown to play an important role in the development of breast cancer and increased expression has been mooted as a poor prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between COX-2 immunohistochemical expression and known predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer in a routine diagnostic histopathology setting.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded tumour tissue of 144 no special type (NST) invasive breast carcinomas histologically diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2012 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah were immunostained with COX-2 antibody. COX-2 overexpression was analysed against demographic data, hormone receptor status, HER2- neu overexpression, histological grade, tumour size and lymph node status.

    RESULTS: COX-2 was overexpressed in 108/144 (75%) tumours and was significantly more prevalent (87%) in hormone receptor-positive tumours. There was no correlation between COX-2 overexpression and HER2/neu status. Triple negative cancers had the lowest prevalence (46%) (p<0.05). A rising trend of COX-2 overexpression with increasing age was observed. There was a significant inverse relationship with tumour grade (p<0.05), prevalences being 94%, 83% and 66% in grades 1, 2 and 3 tumours, respectively. A higher prevalence of COX-2 overexpression in smaller size tumours was observed but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node status.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the generally held notion that COX-2 overexpression is linked to poor prognosis, rather supporting a role in tumorigenesis. Larger scale studies with outcome data and basic studies on cancer pathogenetic pathways will be required to cast further light on whether COX-2 inhibitors would have clinical utility in cancer prevention or blockage of cancer progression. In either setting, the pathological assessment for COX-2 overexpression in breast cancers would have an important role in the selection of cancer patients for personalized therapy with COX-2 inhibitors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  18. Akhtari-Zavare M, Ghanbari-Baghestan A, Latiff LA, Khaniki H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(4):1337-41.
    PMID: 25743795
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. This study focused on media choice and attempted to determine the communication channels mostly used and preferred by women in seeking information and knowledge about breast cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior among 450 students at one private university in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 25±4.3 years. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, friends, and nurses and common channel information sources were television, brochure, and internet. Overall, 89.9% used cell phones, 46.1% had an interest in receiving cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 73.9% used text messaging, and 36.7% had an interest in receiving text breast cancer prevention messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among age, eduation, nationality and use of cell phones.

    CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of health information seeking behavior is important for community health educators to target populations for program development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  19. Nurul-Syakima AM, Learn-Han L, Yoke-Kqueen C
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(21):9071-5.
    PMID: 25422181
    BACKGROUND: microRNAs are small non-coding RNA that control gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. These molecules are known to play essential roles in many biological and physiological processes. miR-205 may be differentially expressed in head and neck cancers; however, there are conflicting data and localization of expression has yet to be determined.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-205 expression was investigated in 48 cases of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissue array of the neck, oronasopharynx, larynx and salivary glands by Locked Nucleic Acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) technology.

    RESULTS: miR-205 expression was significantly differentially expressed across all of the inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissues of the neck. A significant increase in miR-205 staining intensity (p<0.05) was observed from inflammation to benign and malignant tumors in head and neck tissue array, suggesting that miR-205 could be a biomarker to differentiate between cancer and non-cancer tissues.

    CONCLUSIONS: LNA-ISH revealed that miR-205 exhibited significant differential cytoplasmic and nuclear staining among inflammation, benign and malignant tumors of head and neck. miR-205 was not only exclusively expressed in squamous epithelial malignancy. This study offers information and a basis for a comprehensive study of the role of miR-205 that may be useful as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in head and neck tumors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  20. Dean SJ, Perks CM, Holly JM, Bhoo-Pathy N, Looi LM, Mohammed NA, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 2014 Mar;141(3):323-33.
    PMID: 24515759 DOI: 10.1309/AJCPR11DEAYPTUSL
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between PTEN loss and IGFBP2 expression in a series of triple-negative breast cancers and to relate this expression to basal cytokeratin expression and clinicopathologic features.

    METHODS: One hundred and one formalin-fixed and paraffin-processed triple-negative breast cancer cases from the University of Malaya Medical Centre were tested immunohistochemically for cytokeratins 5/6 and 14, PTEN, and IGFBP2. The resulting slides were scored for proportion and intensity of staining.

    RESULTS: Loss of tumor nuclear and cytoplasmic staining for PTEN occurred in 48.3% of cases and was significantly associated with younger age at diagnosis (47 years compared with 57 years in those without PTEN loss; P = .005). Independent predictors of PTEN loss were late stage at presentation (P = .026), cytokeratin 5/6 positivity (P = .028), and IGFBP2 expression (P = .042). High levels of IGFBP2 expression were seen in 32% of cases; an independent predictor of high levels was cytokeratin 14 negativity (P = .005). PTEN loss and high levels of IGFBP2 expression were associated with poorer survival, but neither of these trends was significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: PTEN loss is a frequent event in triple-negative breast cancers and is significantly associated with younger age at onset of breast cancer, late stage, and IGFBP2 expression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
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