Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 309 in total

  1. Arellano G, Medina NG, Tan S, Mohamad M, Davies SJ
    New Phytol., 2019 01;221(1):169-179.
    PMID: 30067290 DOI: 10.1111/nph.15381
    What causes individual tree death in tropical forests remains a major gap in our understanding of the biology of tropical trees and leads to significant uncertainty in predicting global carbon cycle dynamics. We measured individual characteristics (diameter at breast height, wood density, growth rate, crown illumination and crown form) and environmental conditions (soil fertility and habitat suitability) for 26 425 trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height belonging to 416 species in a 52-ha plot in Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia. We used structural equation models to investigate the relationships among the different factors and tree mortality. Crown form (a proxy for mechanical damage and other stresses) and prior growth were the two most important factors related to mortality. The effect of all variables on mortality (except habitat suitability) was substantially greater than expected by chance. Tree death is the result of interactions between factors, including direct and indirect effects. Crown form/damage and prior growth mediated most of the effect of tree size, wood density, fertility and habitat suitability on mortality. Large-scale assessment of crown form or status may result in improved prediction of individual tree death at the landscape scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  2. Bongalov B, Burslem DFRP, Jucker T, Thompson SED, Rosindell J, Swinfield T, et al.
    Ecol. Lett., 2019 Oct;22(10):1608-1619.
    PMID: 31347263 DOI: 10.1111/ele.13357
    Both niche and stochastic dispersal processes structure the extraordinary diversity of tropical plants, but determining their relative contributions has proven challenging. We address this question using airborne imaging spectroscopy to estimate canopy β-diversity for an extensive region of a Bornean rainforest and challenge these data with models incorporating niches and dispersal. We show that remotely sensed and field-derived estimates of pairwise dissimilarity in community composition are closely matched, proving the applicability of imaging spectroscopy to provide β-diversity data for entire landscapes of over 1000 ha containing contrasting forest types. Our model reproduces the empirical data well and shows that the ecological processes maintaining tropical forest diversity are scale dependent. Patterns of β-diversity are shaped by stochastic dispersal processes acting locally whilst environmental processes act over a wider range of scales.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  3. Usman MG, Rafii MY, Martini MY, Oladosu Y, Kashiani P
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2017 Mar;97(4):1164-1171.
    PMID: 27290898 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7843
    BACKGROUND: Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.

    RESULTS: Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield.

    CONCLUSION: Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  4. Chong TM, Koh CL, Sam CK, Choo YM, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(4):4846-59.
    PMID: 22666062 DOI: 10.3390/s120404846
    We report the production and degradation of quorum sensing N-acyl-homoserine lactones by bacteria isolated from Malaysian montane forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these isolates clustered closely to the genera of Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Quorum quenching activity was detected in six isolates of these three genera by using a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. Biosensor screening and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the production of N-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) by Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis (isolate BT9). In addition to degradation of a wide range of N-acyl-homoserine lactones, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas spp. also degraded p-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas spp. capable of degrading p-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone and the production of C12-HSL by P. frederiksbergensis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  5. Tamrin SB, Jamalohdin MN, Ng YG, Maeda S, Ali NA
    Ind Health, 2012;50(2):156-63.
    PMID: 22293728
    The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and the characteristics of the vibrotactile perception threshold (VPT) among users of hand-held vibrating tools working in a tropical environment. A cross sectional study was done among 47 shipyard workers using instruments and a questionnaire to determine HAVS related symptoms. The vibration acceleration magnitude was determined using a Human Vibration Meter (Maestro). A P8 Pallesthesiometer (EMSON-MAT, Poland) was used to determine the VPT of index and little finger at frequencies of 31.5 Hz and 125 Hz. The mean reference threshold shift was determined from the reference threshold shift derived from the VPT value. The results show a moderate prevalence of HAVS (49%) among the shipyard workers. They were exposed to the same high intensity level of HAVS (mean = 4.19 ± 1.94 m/s(2)) from the use of vibrating hand-held tools. The VPT values were found to be higher for both fingers and both frequencies (index, 31.5 Hz = 110.91 ± 7.36 dB, 125 Hz = 117.0 ± 10.25 dB; little, 31.5 Hz = 110.70 ± 6.75 dB, 125 Hz = 117.71 ± 10.25 dB) compared to the normal healthy population with a mean threshold shift of between 9.20 to 10.61 decibels. The frequency of 31.5 Hz had a higher percentage of positive mean reference threshold shift (index finger=93.6%, little finger=100%) compared to 125 Hz (index finger=85.1%, little finger=78.7%). In conclusion, the prevalence of HAVS was lower than those working in a cold environment; however, all workers had a higher mean VPT value compared to the normal population with all those reported as having HAVS showing a positive mean reference threshold shift of VPT value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  6. Ng KH, McLean ID
    Semin Musculoskelet Radiol, 2011 Nov;15(5):441-5.
    PMID: 22081279 DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1293490
    An estimated two thirds of the world's population is currently without access to diagnostic radiology services, and most of them live in resource-limited tropical regions with harsh environments. Most patients are diagnosed and treated in poorly equipped government-funded hospitals and clinics that have insufficiently trained staff and are barely operational. Any available imaging equipment is likely to be functioning suboptimally and be poorly maintained. The root of the problem is usually a lack of know-how and a quality culture, combined with insufficient basic equipment and infrastructure. Radiological imaging is an essential aspect of primary care and used in the critical diagnosis and management of trauma, tuberculosis, pneumonia, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cancer, and other respiratory and abdominal diseases. Considerations such as quality management and infrastructure, personnel, equipment, and radiation protection and safety are important to ensure the proper functioning and rational use of a diagnostic radiology facility in the tropics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  7. Dabinett JA, Reid K, James N
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2001 Sep;11(3):334-48.
    PMID: 11591883
    The purpose of the present study was to develop a hydration strategy for use by female English field hockey players at the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Malaysia. An additional aim was to initiate the process of acclimation. Fifteen elite players, mean age (+/-SEM) 24.1 +/- 1.19 years, height 1.67 +/- 0.01 m, and body mass 62.8 +/- 1.76 kg, took part in a 5-day training camp immediately prior to departure for the Games. In order to develop the hydration strategy, training took place under similar environmental conditions to those to be experienced in Malaysia (i.e., 32 degrees C, 80% humidity). Acclimation training consisted of 30-50 min of either continuous, low intensity cycling or high intensity intermittent cycling, which more closely replicated the pattern of activity in field hockey. Body mass measures taken each morning, and pre and post training, together with urine color measures, were used to assess hydration status. Pre-loading with up to 1 L of a 3% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water immediately prior to acclimation training, as well as regular drinks throughout, ensured that players avoided significant dehydration, with percent body mass changes ranging from -0.34% to +4.24% post training. Furthermore, the protocol used was sufficient to initiate the process of acclimation as demonstrated by a significant reduction in exercising heart rate and core temperature at all time points by days 4 and 5. In conclusion, although labor intensive and time consuming, the camp was successful in developing a hydration strategy that players were able to utilize once at the Games.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  8. Paynter S, Ware RS, Weinstein P, Williams G, Sly PD
    Lancet, 2010 Nov 27;376(9755):1804-5.
    PMID: 21111894 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62141-1
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  9. Tsukahara Y, Oishi K, Hirooka H
    J. Anim. Sci., 2011 Dec;89(12):3890-907.
    PMID: 21705639 DOI: 10.2527/jas.2011-3997
    A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate biological production efficiency and to evaluate goat crossbreeding systems under tropical conditions. The model involves 5 production systems: pure indigenous, first filial generations (F1), backcross (BC), composite breeds of F1 (CMP(F1)), and BC (CMP(BC)). The model first simulates growth, reproduction, lactation, and energy intakes of a doe and a kid on a 1-d time step at the individual level and thereafter the outputs are integrated into the herd dynamics program. The ability of the model to simulate individual performances was tested under a base situation. The simulation results represented daily BW changes, ME requirements, and milk yield and the estimates were within the range of published data. Two conventional goat production scenarios (an intensive milk production scenario and an integrated goat and oil palm production scenario) in Malaysia were examined. The simulation results of the intensive milk production scenario showed the greater production efficiency of the CMP(BC) and CMP(F1) systems and decreased production efficiency of the F1 and BC systems. The results of the integrated goat and oil palm production scenario showed that the production efficiency and stocking rate were greater for the indigenous goats than for the crossbreeding systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  10. How YF, Lee CY
    Med. Vet. Entomol., 2010 Jun;24(2):108-16.
    PMID: 20202109 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2010.00852.x
    This study examined the fecundity, oviposition, nymphal development and longevity of field-collected samples of the tropical bedbug, Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Under environmental conditions of 26+/-2 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% relative humidity and a 12-h photoperiod, with bloodmeals provided by a human host, six strains of tropical bedbug had a fecundity of up to 50 eggs per lifetime, over 11-14 oviposition cycles. Increased feeding frequency improved fecundity. After feeding and mating, adult females normally took 2-3 days to produce a first batch of eggs. The oviposition period lasted 2-7 days before cessation of the oviposition cycle. The egg incubation period usually lasted 5-7 days before the emergence of first instars. The nymphs underwent five stadia (the first four of which each took 3-4 days, whereas the last took 4-5 days) before becoming adults at a sex ratio of 1 : 1. More than five bloodmeals were required by the nymphs to ensure a successful moult. Unmated adults lived significantly longer than mated adults (P < 0.05). Unmated females lived up to almost 7 months, but the longevity of mated males and females did not differ significantly (P > 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  11. Singh R, Sirisinghe RG
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Feb;40(2):84-7.
    PMID: 10414164
    To investigate the acute effects of an 18 km run on the haematological and plasma electrolyte parameters, in recreational runners under conditions of high temperatures and humidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  12. Duncan MT, Horvath SM
    PMID: 3396569
    Young sedentary adult males of Malay, Indian, and Chinese origin who had established continuous residence in tropical Malaysia and presumed to be naturally acclimatized to heat, were studied to evaluate their physiological responses to a standard heat stress test. The Malay and Indian races have evolved in hot and humid geographical zones, whereas the Chinese originated from a temperate area. Subjects exercised at 50% VO2max alternating 18 minutes walking and 2 min rest during a 2-h exposure to an ambient of 34.9 degrees C dry bulb and 32.1 degrees C wet bulb. Heart rates, core and skin temperatures, sweat rates, and oxygen uptakes were measured during the heat exposure. The subjects of Malay origin exhibited the least circulatory stress of the three ethnic groups. The data obtained on these long-term residents of a hot-wet climate and who were considered acclimatized to this environment were compared to experimental data obtained by other investigators and other ethnic groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  13. Ghani NA, Sulaiman J, Ismail Z, Chan XY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(4):6463-73.
    PMID: 24721765 DOI: 10.3390/s140406463
    Two microbial isolates from a Malaysian shoreline were found to be capable of degrading N-acylhomoserine lactones. Both Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry and 18S rDNA phylogenetic analyses confirmed that these isolates are Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Quorum quenching activities were detected by a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. The isolates were able to degrade various quorum sensing molecules namely N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-hydroxyhexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL). Using a relactonisation assay to verify the quorum quenching mechanism, it is confirmed that Rh. mucilaginosa degrades the quorum sensing molecules via lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of the fact that Rh. mucilaginosa has activity against a broad range of AHLs namely C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL and 3-hydroxy-C6-HSL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  14. Qaid A, Ossen DR
    Int J Biometeorol, 2015 Jun;59(6):657-77.
    PMID: 25108376 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-014-0878-5
    Asymmetrical street aspect ratios, i.e. different height-to-width (H1/W-H2/W) ratios, have not received much attention in the study of urban climates. Putrajaya Boulevard (northeast to southwest orientation) in Malaysia was selected to study the influence of six asymmetrical aspect ratio scenarios on the street microclimate using the Envi-met three-dimensional microclimate model (V3.1 Beta). Putrajaya Boulevard suffers from high surface and air temperature during the day due to the orientation, the low aspect ratio and the wide sky view factor. These issues are a common dilemma in many boulevards. Further, low and high symmetrical streets are incompatible with tropical regions as they offer conflicting properties during the day and at night. These scenarios are examined, therefore, to find asymmetrical streets which are able to reduce the impact of the day microclimate on boulevards, and as an alternative strategy fulfilling tropical day and night climatic conditions. Asymmetrical streets are better than low symmetrical streets in enhancing wind flow and blocking solar radiation, when tall buildings confront winds direction or solar altitudes. Therefore, mitigating heat islands or improving microclimates in asymmetrical streets based on tall buildings position which captures wind or caste shades. In northeast to southwest direction, aspect ratios of 0.8-2 reduce the morning microclimate and night heat islands yet the negative effects during the day are greater than the positive effects in the night. An aspect ratio of 2-0.8 reduces the temperature of surfaces by 10 to 14 °C and the air by 4.7 °C, recommended for enhancing boulevard microclimates and mitigating tropical heat islands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  15. Md Din MF, Lee YY, Ponraj M, Ossen DR, Iwao K, Chelliapan S
    J. Therm. Biol., 2014 Apr;41:6-15.
    PMID: 24679966 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2014.01.004
    Recent years have seen issues related to thermal comfort gaining more momentum in tropical countries. The thermal adaptation and thermal comfort index play a significant role in evaluating the outdoor thermal comfort. In this study, the aim is to capture the thermal sensation of respondents at outdoor environment through questionnaire survey and to determine the discomfort index (DI) to measure the thermal discomfort level. The results indicated that most respondents had thermally accepted the existing environment conditions although they felt slightly warm and hot. A strong correlation between thermal sensation and measured DI was also identified. As a result, a new discomfort index range had been proposed in association with local climate and thermal sensation of occupants to evaluate thermal comfort. The results had proved that the respondents can adapt to a wider range of thermal conditions.Validation of the questionnaire data at Putrajaya was done to prove that the thermal sensation in both Putrajaya and UTM was almost similar since they are located in the same tropical climate region. Hence, a quantitative field study on building layouts was done to facilitate the outdoor human discomfort level based on newly proposed discomfort index range. The results showed that slightly shaded building layouts of type- A and B exhibited higher temperature and discomfort index. The resultant adaptive thermal comfort theory was incorporated into the field studies as well. Finally, the study also showed that the DI values were highly dependent on ambient temperature and relative humidity but had fewer effects for solar radiation intensity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  16. Nwunuji TP, Mayowa OO, Yusoff SM, Bejo SK, Salisi S, Mohd EA
    Anim. Sci. J., 2014 May;85(5):611-6.
    PMID: 24612236 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12174
    The ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on live weight following transportation is vital in animal husbandry. This study investigated the influence of AA on live weight, rectal temperature (rt), and oxidative status of transport stressed goats in a hot humid tropical environment. Twenty-four goats were divided into four groups, A, B, C and D of six animals each. Group A were administered AA 100 mg/kg intramuscularly 30 min prior to 3.5 h transportation. Group B was administered AA following transportation. Group C were transported but not administered AA as positive controls while group D were not transported but were administered normal saline as negative controls. Live weight, rt and blood samples were collected before, immediately post-transport (pt), 24 h, 3 days, 7 days and 10 days pt. Plasma was used for malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis while hemolysates were used for superoxide dismutase (SOD) analysis. There was minimal live weight loss in group A compared to groups B and C. Group A recorded reduced MDA activities and increased SOD activities compared to groups B and C which recorded significantly high MDA activities. This study revealed that AA administration ameliorated the stress responses induced by transportation in animals in hot humid tropical environments. The administration of AA to goats prior to transportation could ameliorate stress and enhance productivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  17. Ooi JL, Van Niel KP, Kendrick GA, Holmes KW
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(1):e86782.
    PMID: 24497978 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086782
    Seagrass species in the tropics occur in multispecies meadows. How these meadows are maintained through species co-existence and what their ecological drivers may be has been an overarching question in seagrass biogeography. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of four co-existing species and infer potential ecological processes from these structures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  18. Tripathi BM, Kim M, Lai-Hoe A, Shukor NA, Rahim RA, Go R, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 2013 Nov;86(2):303-11.
    PMID: 23773164 DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12163
    Little is known of the factors influencing soil archaeal community diversity and composition in the tropics. We sampled soils across a range of forest and nonforest environments in the equatorial tropics of Malaysia, covering a wide range of pH values. DNA was PCR-amplified for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454-pyrosequenced. Soil pH was the best predictor of diversity and community composition of Archaea, being a stronger predictor than land use. Archaeal OTU richness was highest in the most acidic soils. Overall archaeal abundance in tropical soils (determined by qPCR) also decreased at higher pH. This contrasts with the opposite trend previously found in temperate soils. Thaumarcheota group 1.1b was more abundant in alkaline soils, whereas group 1.1c was only detected in acidic soils. These results parallel those found in previous studies in cooler climates, emphasizing niche conservatism among broad archaeal groups. Among the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), there was clear evidence of niche partitioning by pH. No individual OTU occurred across the entire range of pH values. Overall, the results of this study show that pH plays a major role in structuring tropical soil archaeal communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  19. Pai HH, Lai JL
    Travel Med Infect Dis, 2008 Jul;6(4):201-4.
    PMID: 18571109 DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2008.03.001
    International travel may be associated with the risk of a wide range of infectious diseases. This study was designed to obtain information on the health problems among international travellers from a subtropical region to the neighbouring tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Health problems among international travellers from Taiwan to the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand (tropical group), Hong Kong, Macao, China and Japan (non-tropical group) were surveyed through the telephone. Of 649 travellers surveyed, 8.2% had one or more health problems and insect bite (3.4%) and coughing or sore throats (3.2%) were the most important symptoms. The rate of coughing or sore throats was significantly higher among those returned from the non-tropical regions. However, no associations were found between health problems and the demographic factors, travel style or travelling duration of travel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
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